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    Command:

    zoo

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           zoo {acfDeghHlLPTuUvVx}[aAcCdEfghImMnNoOpPqSu1:/.@n+-=] archive [file]
           ...
           zoo -command archive [file] ...
           zoo h
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           Zoo is used to create and maintain collections of files in compressed
           form.  It uses a Lempel-Ziv compression algorithm that gives space sav-
           ings in the range of 20% to 80% depending on the type of file data.
           Zoo can store and selectively extract multiple generations of the same
           file.  Data can be recovered from damaged archives by skipping the dam-
           aged portion and locating undamaged data with the help of fiz(1).
    
           This documentation is for version 2.1.  Changes from previous versions
           are described in the section labelled CHANGES.
    
           The command zoo h gives a summary of commands.  Extended multiscreen
           help can be obtained with zoo H.
    
           Zoo will not add an archive to itself, nor add the archive's backup
           (with .bak extension to the filename) to the archive.
    
           Zoo has two types of commands:  Expert commands, which consist of one
           command letter followed by zero or more modifier characters, and Novice
           commands, which consist of a hyphen ('-') followed by a command word
           that may be abbreviated.  Expert commands are case-sensitive but Novice
           commands are not.
    
           When zoo adds a file to an existing archive, the default action is to
           maintain one generation of each file in an archive and to mark any
           older generation as deleted.  A limit on the number of generations to
           save can be specified by the user for an entire archive, or for each
           file individually, or both.  Zoo deletes a stored copy of an added file
           if necessary to prevent the number of stored generations from exceeding
           the user-specified limit.
    
           Deleted files may be later undeleted.  Archives may be packed to
           recover space occupied by deleted files.
    
           All commands assume that the archive name ends with the characters .zoo
           unless a different extension is supplied.
    
           Novice commands
    
           Novice commands may be abbreviated to a hyphen followed by at least one
           command character.  Each Novice command works in two stages.  First,
           the command does its intended work.  Then, if the result was that one
           or more files were deleted in the specified archive, the archive is
           packed.  If packing occurs, the original unpacked archive is always
           left behind with an extension of .bak.
    
                  Deletes the specified files from the archive.
    
           -update
                  Adds a specified file to the archive either:  if an older file
                  by the same name already exists in the archive or:  if a file by
                  the same name does not already exist in the archive.
    
           -extract
                  Extracts the specified files from the archive.  If no file is
                  specified all files are extracted.
    
           -move  Equivalent to -add except that source files are deleted after
                  addition.
    
           -print Equivalent to -extract except that extracted data are sent to
                  standard output.
    
           -list  Gives information about the specified archived files including
                  any attached comments.  If no files are specified all files are
                  listed.  Deleted files are not listed.
    
           -test  Equivalent to -extract except that the extracted data are not
                  saved but any errors encountered are reported.
    
           -comment
                  Allows the user to add or update comments attached to archived
                  files.  When prompted, the user may:  type a carriage return to
                  skip the file, leaving any current comment unchanged;  or type a
                  (possibly null) comment of up to 32,767 characters terminated by
                  /end (case-insensitive) on a separate line;  or type the end-of-
                  file character (normally control D) to skip all remaining files.
    
           -delete
                  Deletes the specified files.
    
           The correspondence between Novice and Expert commands is as follows.
    
           Novice                                        Equivalent
           Command    Description                        Expert Command
           -------------------------------------------------------------
           -add       add files to archive               aP:
           -extract   extract files from archive         x
    
           zoo {acfDeghHlLPTuUvVx}[aAcCdEfghImMnNoOpPqSu1:/.@n+-=] archive [file]
           ...
    
           The characters enclosed within {} are commands.  Choose any one of
           these.  The characters enclosed within [] just to the right of the {}
           are modifiers and zero or more of these may immediately follow the com-
           mand character.  All combinations of command and modifier characters
           may not be valid.
    
           Files are added to an archive with the command:
    
           zoo {au}[cfhIMnPqu:+-] archive [file] ...
    
           Command characters are:
    
           a      Add each specified file to archive.  Any already-archived copy
                  of the file is deleted if this is necessary to avoid exceeding
                  the user-specified limit on the number of generations of the
                  file to maintain in the archive.
    
           u      Do an update of the archive.  A specified file is added to the
                  archive only if a copy of it is already in the archive and the
                  copy being added is newer than the copy already in the archive.
    
           The following modifiers are specific to these commands.
    
           M      Move files to archive.  This makes zoo delete (unlink) the orig-
                  inal files after they have been added to the archive.  Files are
                  deleted after addition of all files to the archive is complete
                  and after any requested packing of the archive has been done,
                  and only if zoo detected no errors.
    
           n      Add new files only.  A specified file is added only if it isn't
                  already in the archive.
    
           h      Use the high performance compression algorithm. This option may
                  be used with either the add (a) or filter (f) commands to gain
                  extra compression at the expense of using somewhat more proces-
                  sor time. Extracting files compressed with the method is usually
                  slightly faster than those saved with the default method.
    
           P      Pack archive after files have been added.
    
           u      Applied to the a command, this modifier makes it behave identi-
                  read its standard input and assume that each line of text con-
                  tains a filename.  Under AmigaDOS and the **IX family, the
                  entire line is used.  Under MS-DOS and VAX/VMS, zoo assumes that
                  the filename is terminated by a blank, tab, or newline; thus it
                  is permissible for the line of text to contain more than one
                  field separated by white space, and only the first field will be
                  used.
    
                  Under the **IX family of operating systems, zoo can be used as
                  follows in a pipeline:
    
                     find . -print | zoo aI sources
    
                If the I modifier is specified, no filenames may be supplied on
                the command line itself.
    
           +,-    These modifiers take effect only if the a command results in the
                  creation of a new archive.  + causes any newly-created archive
                  to have generations enabled.  - is provided for symmetry and
                  causes any newly-created archive to have generations disabled;
                  this is also the default if neither + nor - is specified.
    
           Files are extracted from an archive with the command:
    
           zoo {ex}[dNoOpqS./@] archive [file] ...
    
           The e and x commands are synonymous.  If no file was specified, all
           files are extracted from the archive.
    
           The following modifiers are specific to the e and x commands:
    
           N      Do not save extracted data but report any errors encountered.
    
           O      Overwrite files.  Normally, if a file being extracted would
                  overwrite an already-existing file of the same name, zoo asks
                  you if you really want to overwrite it.  You may answer the
                  question with 'y', which means yes, overwrite; or 'n', which
                  means no, don't overwrite; or 'a', which means assume the answer
                  is 'y' for this and all subsequent files.  The O modifier makes
                  zoo assume that files may always be overwritten.  Neither
                  answering the question affirmatively nor using O alone will
                  cause read-only files to be overwritten.
    
                  On **IX systems, however, doubling this modifier as OO will
                  force zoo to unconditionally overwrite any read-protected files
                  with extracted files if it can do so.
    
                  detected, an error message is sent both to standard error and to
                  standard output.
    
           /      Extract to original pathname.  Any needed directories must
                  already exist.  In the absence of this modifier all files are
                  extracted into the current directory.  If this modifier is dou-
                  bled as //, required directories need not exist and are created
                  if necessary.
    
           The management of multiple generations of archived files is done with
           the commands:
    
           zoo gl[Aq]{+-=}number archive files ..
           zoo gc[q]{+-=}number archive files ..
           zoo gA[q]- archive
           zoo gA[q]+ archive
    
           The first form, gl, adjusts the generation limit of selected files by
           the specified value.  If the form =n is used, where n is a decimal num-
           ber, this sets the generation limit to the specified value.  If + or -
           are used in placed of = the effect is to increment or decrement the
           generation limit by the specified value.  For example, the command
    
                zoo gl=5 xyz :
    
           sets the generation limit of each file in the archive xyz.zoo to a
           value of 5.  The command
    
                zoo gl-3 xyz :
    
           decrements the generation limit of each file in the archive to 3 less
           than it currently is.
    
           If the A modifier is used, the archive-wide generation limit is
           adjusted instead.
    
           The number of generations of a file maintained in an archive is limited
           by the file generation limit, or the archive generation limit,
           whichever is lower.  As a special case, a generation limit of 0 stands
           for no limit.  Thus the default file generation limit of 0 and archive
           generation limit of 3 limits the number of generations of each file in
           a newly-created archive to three.
    
           The generation limit specified should be in the range 0 through 15;
           any higher numbers are interpreted modulo 16.
    
           The second form of the command, using gc, adjusts the generation count
           of selected files.  Each file has a generation count of 1 when it is
           first added to an archive.  Each time a file by the same name is added
           time, though manipulation of an archive with repeated interspersed gA-
           and gA+ commands may result in an archive whose behavior is not easily
           understandable.
    
           Archived files are listed with the command:
    
           zoo {lLvV}[aAcCdfgmqvV@/1+-] archive[.zoo] [file] ...
    
           l      Information presented includes the date and time of each file,
                  its original and current (compressed) sizes, and the percentage
                  size decrease due to compression (labelled CF or compression
                  factor).  If a file was added to the archive in a different
                  timezone, the difference between timezones is shown in hours as
                  a signed number.  As an example, if the difference is listed as
                  +3, this means that the file was added to the archive in a time-
                  zone that is 3 hours west of the current timezone.  The file
                  time listed is, however, always the original timestamp of the
                  archived file, as observed by the user who archived the file,
                  expressed as that user's local time.  (Timezone information is
                  stored and displayed only if the underlying operating system
                  knows about timezones.)
    
                  If no filename is supplied all files are listed except deleted
                  files.
    
                  Zoo selects which generation(s) of a file to list according to
                  the following algorithm.
    
                  If no filename is supplied, only the latest generation of each
                  file is listed.  If any filenames are specified, and a genera-
                  tion is specified for an argument, only the requested generation
                  is listed.  If a filename is specified ending with the genera-
                  tion character (':' or ';'), all generations of that file are
                  listed.  Thus a filename argument of the form zoo.c will cause
                  only the latest generation of zoo.c to be listed;  an argument
                  of the form zoo.c:4 will cause generation 4 of zoo.c to be
                  listed;  and an argument of the form zoo.c: or zoo.c:* will
                  cause all generations of zoo.c to be listed.
    
           L      This is similar to the l command except that all supplied argu-
                  ments must be archives and all non-deleted generations of all
                  files in each archive appear in the listing.
    
                  On **IX systems, on which the shell expands arguments, if multi-
                  ple archives are to be listed, the L command must be used.  On
                  other systems (VAX/VMS, AmigaDOS, MSDOS) on which wildcard
                  expansion is done internally by zoo, wildcards may be used in
                  the archive name, and a multiple archive listing obtained, using
                  the l command.
    
    
           a      This gives a single-line format containing both each filename
                  and the name of the archive, sorted by archive name.  It is
                  especially useful with the L command, since the result can be
                  further sorted on any field to give a master listing of the
                  entire contents of a set of archives.
    
           A      This causes any comment attached to the archive to be listed.
    
           g      This modifier causes file generation information to be listed
                  about the archive.  For each file listed, the user-specified
                  generation limit, if any, is listed.  For example, '3g' for a
                  file means that the user wants no more than three generations of
                  the file to be kept.  In archives created by older versions of
                  zoo, the listing will show '-g', meaning that no generation
                  information is kept and multiple generations of the file are not
                  being maintained.
    
                  In addition to the generation information for each file, the
                  archive-wide generation limit, if any, is shown at the end of
                  the listing.  If generations have been disabled by the user,
                  this is so indicated, for example:
    
                     Archive generation limit is 3 (generations off).
    
                For more information about generations see the description of the
                g command.
    
           m      This modifier is currently applicable to **IX systems only.  It
                  causes the mode bits (file protection code) of each file to be
                  listed as a three-digit octal number.  Currently zoo preserves
                  only the lowest nine mode bits.  Their meanings are as described
                  in the **IX documentation for the chmod(1) command.
    
           C      This modifier causes the stored cyclic redundancy code (CRC) for
                  each archived file to be shown as a four-digit hexadecimal num-
                  ber.
    
           1      This forces one filename to be listed per line.  It is most use-
                  ful in combination with the f modifier.
    
           /      This forces any directory name to be always listed, even in fast
                  columnized listings that do not normally include any directory
                  names.
    
           +,-    The - modifier causes trailing generation numbers to be omitted
    
           Comments may be added to an archive with the command:
    
           zoo c[A] archive
    
           Without the modifier A, this behaves identically to the -comment com-
           mand.  With the modifier A, the command serves to add or update the
           comment attached to the archive as a whole.  This comment may be listed
           with the lA, LA, v, and V commands.  Applying the cA command to an
           archive that was created with an older version of zoo will result in an
           error message requesting that the user first pack the archive with the
           P command.  This reorganizes the archive and creates space for the
           archive comment.
    
           The timestamp of an archive may be adjusted with the command:
    
           zoo T[q] archive
    
           Zoo normally attempts to maintain the timestamp of an archive to
           reflect the age of the newest file stored in it.  Should the timestamp
           ever be incorrect it can be fixed with the T command.
    
           An archive may be packed with the command:
    
           zoo P[EPq] archive
    
           If the backup copy of the archive already exists, zoo will refuse to
           pack the archive unless the P modifier is also given.  The E modifier
           causes zoo not to save a backup copy of the original archive after
           packing.  A unique temporary file in the current directory is used to
           initially hold the packed archive.  This file will be left behind if
           packing is interrupted or if for some reason this file cannot be
           renamed to the name of the original archive when packing is complete.
    
           Packing removes any garbage data appended to an archive because of Xmo-
           dem file transfer and also recovers any wasted space remaining in an
           archive that has been frequently updated or in which comments were
           replaced.  Packing also updates the format of any archive that was cre-
           ated by an older version of zoo so that newer features (e.g. archive-
           wide generation limit, archive comment) become fully available.
    
           Zoo can act as a pure compression or uncompression filter, reading from
           standard input and writing to standard output.  This is achieved with
           the command:
    
           zoo f{cu}[h]
    
           where c specifies compression, u specifies uncompression, and h used in
           addition requests the high-performance compression be used.  A CRC
           value is used to check the integrity of the data.  The compressed data
           stream has no internal archive structure and contains multiple files
           only if the input data stream was already structured, as might be
    
           c      Applied to the a and u commands, this causes the user to be
                  prompted for a comment for each file added to the archive.  If
                  the file being added has replaced, or is a newer generation of,
                  a file already in the archive, any comment attached to that file
                  is shown to the user and becomes attached to the newly-added
                  file unless the user changes it.  Possible user responses are as
                  described for the -comment command.  Applied to the archive list
                  command l, the c modifier causes the listing of any comments
                  attached to archived files.
    
            .     In conjunction with / or // this modifier causes any extracted
                  pathname beginning with '/' to be interpreted relative to the
                  current directory, resulting in the possible creation of a sub-
                  tree rooted at the current directory.  In conjunction with the
                  command P the .  modifier causes the packed archive to be cre-
                  ated in the current directory.  This is intended to allow users
                  with limited disk space but multiple disk drives to pack large
                  archives.
    
           d      Most commands that act on an archive act only on files that are
                  not deleted.  The d modifier makes commands act on both normal
                  and deleted files.  If doubled as dd, this modifier forces
                  selection only of deleted files.
    
           f      Applied to the a and u commands, the f modifier causes fast
                  archiving by adding files without compression.  Applied to l it
                  causes a fast listing of files in a multicolumn format.
    
           q      Be quiet.  Normally zoo lists the name of each file and what
                  action it is performing.  The q modifier suppresses this.  When
                  files are being extracted to standard output, the q modifier
                  suppresses the header preceding each file.  When archive con-
                  tents are being listed, this modifier suppresses any header and
                  trailer.  When a fast columnized listing is being obtained, this
                  modifier causes all output to be combined into a single set of
                  filenames for all archives being listed.
    
                  When doubled as qq, this modifier suppresses WARNING messages,
                  and when tripled as qqq, ERROR messages are suppressed too.
                  FATAL error messages are never suppressed.
    
           Recovering data from damaged archives
    
           The @ modifier allows the user to specify the exact position in an
           archive where zoo should extract a file from, allowing damaged portions
           of an archive to be skipped.  This modifier must be immediately fol-
           cause the first 456 bytes of the archive to be skipped and extraction
           to begin at offset 456;  in addition, zoo will attempt to extract the
           file data from position 575 in the archive instead of the value that is
           found in the directory entry read from the archive.  For example, here
           is some of the output of fiz when it acts on a damaged zoo archive:
    
           ****************
               2526: DIR  [changes] ==>   95
               2587: DATA
           ****************
               3909: DIR  [copyrite] ==> 1478
               3970: DATA
               4769: DATA
           ****************
    
           In such output, DIR indicates where fiz found a directory entry in the
           archive, and DATA indicates where fiz found file data in the archive.
           Filenames located by fiz are enclosed in square brackets, and the nota-
           tion "==>   95" indicates that the directory entry found by fiz at
           position 2526 has a file data pointer to position 95.  (This is clearly
           wrong, since file data always occur in an archive after their directory
           entry.)  In actuality, fiz found file data at positions 2587, 3970, and
           4769.  Since fiz found only two directory entries, and each directory
           entry corresponds to one file, one of the file data positions is an
           artifact.
    
           In this case, commands to try giving to zoo might be x@2526,2587
           (extract beginning at position 2526, and get file data from position
           2587), x@3090,3970 (extract at 3090, get data from 3970) and
           x@3909,4769 (extract at 3909, get data from 4769).  Once a correctly-
           matched directory entry/file data pair is found, zoo will in most cases
           synchronize with and correctly extract all files subsequently found in
           the archive.  Trial and error should allow all undamaged files to be
           extracted.  Also note that self-extracting archives created using sez
           (the Self-Extracting Zoo utility for MS-DOS), which are normally exe-
           cuted on an MS-DOS system for extraction, can be extracted on non-MSDOS
           systems using zoo's damaged-archive recovery method using the @ modi-
           fier.
    
           Wildcard handling
    
           Under the **IX family of operating systems, the shell normally expands
           wildcards to a list of matching files.  Wildcards that are meant to
           match files within an archive must therefore be escaped or quoted.
           When selecting files to be added to an archive, wildcard conventions
           are as defined for the shell.  When selecting files from within an
           archive, wildcard handling is done by zoo as described below.
    
           Under MS-DOS and AmigaDOS, quoting of wildcards is not needed.  All
           wildcard expansion of filenames is done by zoo, and wildcards inside
    
           /      If a supplied pattern contains a slash anywhere in it, then the
                  slash separating any directory prefix from the filename must be
                  matched explicitly.  If a supplied pattern contains no slashes,
                  the match is selective only on the filename.
    
           c-c    Two characters separated by a hyphen specify a character range.
                  All filenames beginning with those characters will match.  The
                  character range is meaningful only by itself or preceded by a
                  directory name.  It is not specially interpreted if it is part
                  of a filename.
    
           : and ;
                  These characters are used to separate a filename from a genera-
                  tion number and are used when selecting specific generations of
                  archived files.  If no generation character is used, the file-
                  name specified matches only the latest generation of the file.
                  If the generation character is specified, the filename and the
                  generation are matched independently by zoo's wildcard mecha-
                  nism.  If no generation is specified following the : or ; char-
                  acter, all generations of that file will match.  As a special
                  case, a generation number of 0 matches only the latest genera-
                  tion of a file, while ^0 matches all generations of a file
                  except the latest one.  If no filename is specified preceding
                  the generation character, all filenames will match.  As a corol-
                  lary, the generation character by itself matches all generations
                  of all files.
    
           MS-DOS users should note that zoo does not treat the dot as a special
           character, and it does not ignore characters following an asterisk.
           Thus * matches all filenames; *.*  matches filenames containing a dot;
           *_* matches filenames containing an underscore;  and *z matches all
           filenames that end with the character z, whether or not they contain a
           dot.
    
           Usage hints
    
           The Novice command set in zoo is meant to provide an interface with
           functionality and format that will be familiar to users of other simi-
           lar archive utilities.  In keeping with this objective, the Novice com-
           mands do not maintain or use any subdirectory information or allow the
           use of zoo's ability to maintain multiple generations of files.  For
           this reason, users should switch to exclusively using the Expert com-
           mands as soon as possible.
    
           Although the Expert command set is quite large, it should be noted that
           in almost every case, all legal modifiers for a command are fully
           orthogonal.  This means that the user can select any combination of
           modifiers, and when they act together, they will have the intuitively
           Further, the c modifier can be used to cause zoo to prompt the user for
           a comment to attach to each file added.  And the f modifier can cause
           fast addition (addition without compression).  It should be obvious
           then that the command auncf will cause zoo to update already-archived
           files, add new files, prompt the user for comments, and do the addition
           of files without any compression.  Furthermore, if the user wishes to
           move files to the archive, i.e., delete the disk copy of each file
           after it is added to the archive, it is only necessary to add the M
           modifier to the command, so it becomes auncfM.  And if the user also
           wishes to cause the archive to be packed as part of the command, thus
           recovering space from any files that are replaced, the command can be
           modified to auncfMP by adding the P modifier that causes packing.
    
           Similarly, the archive listing commands can be built up by combining
           modifiers.  The basic command to list the contents of an archive is l.
           If the user wants a fast columnized listing, the f modifier can be
           added to give the lf command.  Since this listing will have a header
           giving the archive name and a trailer summarizing interesting informa-
           tion about the archive, such as the number of deleted files, the user
           may wish to "quieten" the listing by suppressing these;  the relevant
           modifier is q, which when added to the command gives lfq.  If the user
           wishes to see the **IX mode (file protection) bits, and also informa-
           tion about multiple generations, the modifiers m (show mode bits) and g
           (show generation information) can be added, giving the command lfqmg.
           If the user also wishes to see an attached archive comment, the modi-
           fier A (for archive) will serve.  Thus the command lfqmgA will give a
           fast columnized listing of the archive, suppressing any header and
           trailer, showing mode bits and generation information, and showing any
           comment attached to the archive as a whole.  If in addition individual
           comments attached to files are also needed, simply append the c modi-
           fier to the command, making it lfqmgAc.  The above command will not
           show any deleted files, however;  to see them, use the d modifier, mak-
           ing the command lfqmgAcd (or double it as in lfqmgAcdd if only the
           deleted files are to be listed).  And if the user also wishes to see
           the CRC value for each file being listed, the modifier C will do this,
           as in the command lfqmgAcdC, which gives a fast columnized listing of
           all files, including deleted files, showing any archive comment and
           file comments, and file protection codes and generation information, as
           well as the CRC value of each file.
    
           Note that the above command lfqmgAcdC could also be abbreviated to
           VfqmgdC because the command V is shorthand for lcA (archive listing
           with all comments shown).  Similarly the command v is shorthand for lA
           (archive listing with archive comment shown).  Both V and v can be used
           as modifiers to any of the other archive listing commands.
    
           Generations
    
           By default, zoo assumes that only the latest generation of a specified
           file is needed.  If generations other than the latest one need to be
           selected, this may be done by specifying them in the filename.  For
           or just :, all filenames of the specified generation will be selected.
           Thus :5 selects generation 5 of each file, and :* and : select all gen-
           erations of all files.
    
           It is important to note that zoo's idea of the latest generation of a
           file is not based upon searching the entire archive.  Instead, whenever
           zoo adds a file to an archive, it is marked as being the latest genera-
           tion.  Thus, if the latest generation of a file is deleted, then no
           generation of that file is considered the latest any more.  This can be
           surprising to the user.  For example, if an archive already contains
           the file stdio.h:5 and a new copy is added, appearing in the archive
           listing as stdio.h:6, and then stdio.h:6 is deleted, the remaining copy
           stdio.h:5 will no longer be considered to be the latest generation, and
           the file stdio.h:5, even if undeleted, will no longer appear in an
           archive listing unless generation 5 (or every generation) is specifi-
           cally requested.  This behavior will likely be improved in future
           releases of zoo.
    
    
    

    FILES

           xXXXXXX - temporary file used during packing
           archive_name.bak - backup of archive
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           compress(1), fiz(1)
    
    
    

    BUGS

           When files are being added to an archive on a non-MS-DOS system, it is
           possible for zoo to fail to detect a full disk and hence create an
           invalid archive.  This bug will be fixed in a future release.
    
           Files with generation counts that wrap around from 65535 to 1 are not
           currently handled correctly.  If a file's generation count reaches a
           value close to 65535, it should be manually set back down to a low num-
           ber.  This may be easily done with a command such as gc-65000, which
           subtracts 65000 from the generation count of each specified file.  This
           problem will be fixed in a future release.
    
           Although zoo on **IX systems preserves the lowest nine mode bits of
           regular files, it does not currently do the same for directories.
    
           Currently zoo's handling of the characters : and ; in filenames is not
           robust, because it interprets these to separate a filename from a gen-
           eration number.  A quoting mechanism will eventually be implemented.
    
           Standard input cannot be archived nor can a created archive be sent to
           standard output.  Spurious error messages may appear if the filename of
           an archive is too long.
    
           Since zoo never archives any file with the same name as the archive or
           its backup (regardless of any path prefixes), care should be taken to
           make sure that a file to be archived does not coincidentally have the
           same name as the archive it is being added to.  It usually suffices to
           system includes any uppercase characters, it must be enclosed in double
           quotes.  Under VAX/VMS, zoo does not currently restore file timestamps;
           this will be fixed as soon as I figure out RMS extended attribute
           blocks, or DEC supplies a utime() function, whichever occurs first.
           Other VMS bugs, related to file structures, can often be overcome by
           using the program bilf.c that is supplied with zoo.
    
           It is not currently possible to create a zoo archive containing all zoo
           archives that do not contain themselves.
    
    
    

    DIAGNOSTICS

           Error messages are intended to be self-explanatory and are divided into
           three categories.  WARNINGS are intended to inform the user of an
           unusual situation, such as a CRC error during extraction, or -freshen-
           ing of an archive containing a file newer than one specified on the
           command line.  ERRORS are fatal to one file, but execution continues
           with the next file if any.  FATAL errors cause execution to be aborted.
           The occurrence of any of these causes an exit status of 1.  Normal ter-
           mination without any errors gives an exit status of 0.  (Under VAX/VMS,
           however, to avoid an annoying message, zoo always exits with an error
           code of 1.)
    
    
    

    COMPATIBILITY

           All versions of zoo on all systems are required to create archives that
           can be extracted and listed with all versions of zoo on all systems,
           regardless of filename and directory syntax or archive structure;  fur-
           thermore, any version of zoo must be able to fully manipulate all
           archives created by all lower-numbered versions of zoo on all systems.
           So far as I can tell, this upward compatibility (all manipulations) and
           downward compatiblity (ability to extract and list) is maintained by
           zoo versions up to 2.01.  Version 2.1 adds the incompatibility that if
           high-performance compression is used, earlier versions cannot extract
           files compressed with version 2.1.  This is the only incompatibility
           that is permissible.  You are forbidden, with the force of copyright
           law, to create from the zoo source code any derivative work that vio-
           lates this compatibility goal, whether knowingly or through negligence.
           If any violation of this compatibility goal is observed, this should be
           considered a serious problem and reported to me.
    
    
    

    CHANGES

           Here is a list of changes occurring from version 1.50 to version 2.01.
           In parentheses is given the version in which each change occurred.
    
           -      (1.71) New modifiers to the list commands permit optional sup-
                  pression of header and trailer information, inclusion of direc-
                  tory names in columnized listings, and fast one-column listings.
    
           -      (1.71) Timezones are handled.
    
           -      (1.71) A bug was fixed that had made it impossible to individu-
                  ally update comments for a file whose name did not correspond to
                  MS-DOS format.
    
           -      (2.00) File attributes are preserved for **IX systems.
    
           -      (2.00) Multiple generations of the same file are supported.
    
           -      (2.00) Zoo will now act as a compression or decompression filter
                  on a stream of data and will use a CRC value to check the
                  integrity of a data stream that is uncompressed.
    
           -      (2.00) A bug was fixed that caused removal of a directory link
                  if files were moved to an archive by the superuser on a **IX
                  system.
    
           -      (2.00) The data recovery modifier @ was greatly enhanced.  Self-
                  extracting archives created for MS-DOS systems can now be
                  extracted by zoo on any system with help from fiz(1).
    
           -      (2.01) A bug was fixed that had caused the first generation of a
                  file to sometimes unexpectedly show up in archive listings.
    
           -      (2.01) A bug was fixed that had caused the MS-DOS version to
                  silently skip files that could not be extracted because of
                  insufficient disk space.
    
           -      (2.01) A bug was fixed that had sometimes made it impossible to
                  selectively extract a file by specifying its name, even though
                  all files could be extracted from the archive by not specifying
                  any filenames.  This occurred when a file had been archived on a
                  longer-filename system (e.g. AmigaDOS) and extraction was
                  attempted on a shorter-filename system (e.g. MS-DOS).
    
           -      (2.01) A change was made that will make zoo preserve the mode
                  (file protection) of a zoo archive when it is packed.  This is
                  effective only if zoo is compiled to preserve and restore file
                  attributes.  Currently this is so only for **IX systems.
    
           -      (2.01) A bug was fixed that had caused an update of an archive
                  to not always add all newer files.
    
           -      (2.01) Blanks around equal signs in commands given to "make"
                  were removed from the mk* scripts for better compatiblity with
                  more **IX implementations including Sun's.
    
           -      (2.1) Compression is now greatly improved if the "h" option is
                  used.
    
           -      (2.1) The default behavior is to preserve full pathnames during
                  extraction.
    
           -      (2.1) On some systems, extraction of files using the older
                  (default) compression method is greatly speeded up.
    
           -      (2.1) Extended multiscreen help is available.
           of zoo.
    
    
    

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

           The zoo archiver was initially developed using Microsoft C 3.0 on a PC
           clone manufactured by Toshiba of Japan and almost sold by Xerox.
           Availability of the following systems was helpful in achieving porta-
           bility: Paul Homchick's Compaq running Microport System V/AT;  The
           Eskimo BBS somewhere in Oregon running Xenix/68000; Greg Laskin's sys-
           tem 'gryphon' which is an Intel 310 running Xenix/286;  Ball State Uni-
           versity's AT&T 3B2/300, UNIX PC, and VAX-11/785 (4.3BSD and VAX/VMS)
           systems.  In addition J. Brian Waters provided feedback to help me make
           the code compilable on his Amiga using Manx/Aztec C.  The executable
           version 2.0 for MS-DOS is currently compiled with Borland's Turbo C++
           1.0.
    
           Thanks are due to the following people and many others too numerous to
           mention.
    
           J. Brian Waters <jbwaters@bsu-cs.bsu.edu>, who has worked diligently to
           port zoo to AmigaDOS, created Amiga-specific code, and continues keep-
           ing it updated.
    
           Paul Homchick <rutgers!cgh!paul>, who provided numerous detailed
           reports about some nasty bugs.
    
           Bill Davidsen <davidsen@crdos1.crd.ge.com>, who provided numerous
           improvements to this manual, contributed multiscreen help, and provided
           many useful bug reports, bug fixes, code improvements, and suggestions.
    
           Mark Alexander <amdahl!drivax!alexande>, who provided me with some bug
           fixes.
    
           Haruhiko Okumura, who wrote the ar archiver and some excellent compres-
           sion code, which I adapted for use in zoo.
    
           Randal L. Barnes <rlb@skyler.mavd.honeywell.com>, who (with Randy Mag-
           nuson) wrote the code to support the preservation of file timestamps
           under VAX/VMS.
    
           Raymond D. Gardner, who contributed replacement uncompression code that
           on some systems is twice as fast as the original.
    
           Greg Yachuk and Andre Van Dalen, who independently modified MS-DOS zoo
           to support multivolume archives.  (This support is not yet in this
           official release.)
    
    
    

    AUTHOR

           Rahul Dhesi
    
    
    

    7th Edition July 7, 1991 ZOO(1)

    
    
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