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    Command:

    zip

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           zip  [-aABcdDeEfFghjklLmoqrRSTuvVwXyz!@$] [--longoption ...]  [-b path]
           [-n suffixes] [-t date] [-tt date] [zipfile [file ...]]  [-xi list]
    
           zipcloak (see separate man page)
    
           zipnote (see separate man page)
    
           zipsplit (see separate man page)
    
           Note:  Command line processing in zip has been changed to support  long
           options  and  handle all options and arguments more consistently.  Some
           old command lines that depend on command line  inconsistencies  may  no
           longer work.
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           zip  is  a compression and file packaging utility for Unix, VMS, MSDOS,
           OS/2, Windows 9x/NT/XP, Minix, Atari, Macintosh, Amiga, and Acorn  RISC
           OS.   It  is analogous to a combination of the Unix commands tar(1) and
           compress(1) and is compatible with PKZIP (Phil  Katz's  ZIP  for  MSDOS
           systems).
    
           A  companion  program  (unzip(1L))  unpacks  zip archives.  The zip and
           unzip(1L) programs can work with archives produced by PKZIP (supporting
           most PKZIP features up to PKZIP version 4.6), and PKZIP and PKUNZIP can
           work with archives produced  by  zip  (with  some  exceptions,  notably
           streamed  archives,  but  recent  changes  in the zip file standard may
           facilitate better compatibility).  zip version 3.0 is  compatible  with
           PKZIP  2.04  and  also supports the Zip64 extensions of PKZIP 4.5 which
           allow archives as well as files to exceed the previous 2 GB limit (4 GB
           in  some  cases).  zip also now supports bzip2 compression if the bzip2
           library is included when zip is compiled.  Note that PKUNZIP 1.10  can-
           not extract files produced by PKZIP 2.04 or zip 3.0. You must use PKUN-
           ZIP 2.04g or unzip 5.0p1 (or later versions) to extract them.
    
           See the EXAMPLES section at the bottom of this  page  for  examples  of
           some typical uses of zip.
    
           Large Archives and Zip64.   zip automatically uses the Zip64 extensions
           when files larger than 4 GB are added to an archive,  an  archive  con-
           taining  Zip64 entries is updated (if the resulting archive still needs
           Zip64), the size of the archive will exceed 4 GB, or when the number of
           entries  in  the archive will exceed about 64K.  Zip64 is also used for
           archives streamed from standard input as the size of such archives  are
           not  known  in advance, but the option -fz- can be used to force zip to
           create PKZIP 2 compatible archives (as long as Zip64 extensions are not
           needed).   You must use a PKZIP 4.5 compatible unzip, such as unzip 6.0
           or later, to extract files using the Zip64 extensions.
    
           In addition, streamed archives, entries encrypted with standard encryp-
           tion,  or  split archives created with the pause option may not be com-
           patible with PKZIP as data descriptors are used and PKZIP at  the  time
    
    
    

    USE

           The program is useful for packaging a set of  files  for  distribution;
           for archiving files; and for saving disk space by temporarily compress-
           ing unused files or directories.
    
           The zip program puts one or more compressed files  into  a  single  zip
           archive, along with information about the files (name, path, date, time
           of last modification, protection, and check information to verify  file
           integrity).   An  entire  directory  structure can be packed into a zip
           archive with a single command.  Compression ratios of 2:1  to  3:1  are
           common  for text files.  zip has one compression method (deflation) and
           can also store files without compression.  (If bzip2 support is  added,
           zip can also compress using bzip2 compression, but such entries require
           a reasonably modern unzip to decompress.   When  bzip2  compression  is
           selected,  it replaces deflation as the default method.)  zip automati-
           cally chooses the better of the two (deflation or store or, if bzip2 is
           selected, bzip2 or store) for each file to be compressed.
    
           Command format.  The basic command format is
    
                  zip options archive inpath inpath ...
    
           where  archive  is a new or existing zip archive and inpath is a direc-
           tory or file path optionally including wildcards.  When given the  name
           of  an existing zip archive, zip will replace identically named entries
           in the zip archive (matching  the  relative  names  as  stored  in  the
           archive)  or add entries for new names.  For example, if foo.zip exists
           and contains foo/file1 and foo/file2, and the  directory  foo  contains
           the files foo/file1 and foo/file3, then:
    
                  zip -r foo.zip foo
    
           or more concisely
    
                  zip -r foo foo
    
           will  replace foo/file1 in foo.zip and add foo/file3 to foo.zip.  After
           this,  foo.zip  contains  foo/file1,  foo/file2,  and  foo/file3,  with
           foo/file2 unchanged from before.
    
           So if before the zip command is executed foo.zip has:
    
                   foo/file1 foo/file2
    
           and directory foo has:
    
                   file1 file3
    
           then foo.zip will have:
    
           files in the current directory and its subdirectories:
    
                  find . -name "*.[ch]" -print | zip source -@
    
           (note  that the pattern must be quoted to keep the shell from expanding
           it).
    
           Streaming input and output.  zip will also accept a single  dash  ("-")
           as the zip file name, in which case it will write the zip file to stan-
           dard output, allowing the output to be piped to  another  program.  For
           example:
    
                  zip -r - . | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k
    
           would  write the zip output directly to a tape with the specified block
           size for the purpose of backing up the current directory.
    
           zip also accepts a single dash ("-") as the name of a file to  be  com-
           pressed,  in  which  case  it  will  read the file from standard input,
           allowing zip to take input from another program. For example:
    
                  tar cf - . | zip backup -
    
           would compress the output of the tar command for the purpose of backing
           up  the  current  directory. This generally produces better compression
           than the previous example using the -r  option  because  zip  can  take
           advantage of redundancy between files. The backup can be restored using
           the command
    
                  unzip -p backup | tar xf -
    
           When no zip file name is given and stdout is not a terminal,  zip  acts
           as  a filter, compressing standard input to standard output.  For exam-
           ple,
    
                  tar cf - . | zip | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k
    
           is equivalent to
    
                  tar cf - . | zip - - | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k
    
           zip archives created in this manner can be extracted with  the  program
           funzip  which  is  provided in the unzip package, or by gunzip which is
           provided in the gzip package (but some gunzip may not support  this  if
           zip used the Zip64 extensions). For example:
    
                  dd if=/dev/nrst0  ibs=16k | funzip | tar xvf -
    
           The stream can also be saved to a file and unzip used.
    
           If  Zip64  support  for  large files and archives is enabled and zip is
           used as a filter, zip creates a Zip64 archive that requires a PKZIP 4.5
                  zip archive "*.h" "*.c" -x donotinclude.h orthis.h > tofile
    
           Zip files.   When  changing  an  existing zip archive, zip will write a
           temporary file with the new contents, and only replace the old one when
           the  process  of  creating  the  new version has been completed without
           error.
    
           If the name of the zip archive  does  not  contain  an  extension,  the
           extension  .zip  is  added.  If  the name already contains an extension
           other than .zip, the existing extension is  kept  unchanged.   However,
           split  archives  (archives  split over multiple files) require the .zip
           extension on the last split.
    
           Scanning and reading files.  When zip starts, it  scans  for  files  to
           process  (if  needed).  If this scan takes longer than about 5 seconds,
           zip will display  a  "Scanning  files"  message  and  start  displaying
           progress  dots  every  2  seconds  or  every so many entries processed,
           whichever takes longer.  If there is more than 2 seconds  between  dots
           it  could indicate that finding each file is taking time and could mean
           a slow network connection for example.  (Actually the initial file scan
           is  a  two-step  process where the directory scan is followed by a sort
           and these two steps are separated with a space in the dots.  If  updat-
           ing an existing archive, a space also appears between the existing file
           scan and the new file scan.)  The scanning  files  dots  are  not  con-
           trolled  by the -ds dot size option, but the dots are turned off by the
           -q quiet option.  The -sf show files option can be  used  to  scan  for
           files  and  get  the  list of files scanned without actually processing
           them.
    
           If zip is not able to read a file, it issues a warning  but  continues.
           See  the -MM option below for more on how zip handles patterns that are
           not matched and files that  are  not  readable.   If  some  files  were
           skipped, a warning is issued at the end of the zip operation noting how
           many files were read and how many skipped.
    
           Command modes.  zip now supports two distinct types of  command  modes,
           external  and  internal.  The external modes (add, update, and freshen)
           read files from the file system (as well as from an  existing  archive)
           while  the  internal  modes  (delete  and  copy) operate exclusively on
           entries in an existing archive.
    
           add
                  Update existing entries and add new files.  If the archive  does
                  not exist create it.  This is the default mode.
    
           update (-u)
                  Update  existing entries if newer on the file system and add new
                  files.  If the archive does not exist issue warning then  create
                  a new archive.
    
           freshen (-f)
           The new File Sync option (-FS) is also considered a new mode, though it
           is similar to update.  This mode  synchronizes  the  archive  with  the
           files  on  the OS, only replacing files in the archive if the file time
           or size of the OS file is different, adding  new  files,  and  deleting
           entries from the archive where there is no matching file.  As this mode
           can delete entries from the archive, consider making a backup  copy  of
           the archive.
    
           Also see -DF for creating difference archives.
    
           See  each option description below for details and the EXAMPLES section
           below for examples.
    
           Split archives.  zip version 3.0 and later can create  split  archives.
           A  split  archive  is a standard zip archive split over multiple files.
           (Note that split archives are not just archives split in to pieces,  as
           the  offsets of entries are now based on the start of each split.  Con-
           catenating the pieces together will invalidate these offsets, but unzip
           can  usually  deal  with it.  zip will usually refuse to process such a
           spliced archive unless the -FF fix option is used to fix the  offsets.)
    
           One use of split archives is storing a large archive on multiple remov-
           able media.  For a split archive with 20 split files the files are typ-
           ically   named   (replace  ARCHIVE  with  the  name  of  your  archive)
           ARCHIVE.z01, ARCHIVE.z02, ..., ARCHIVE.z19, ARCHIVE.zip.  Note that the
           last  file  is  the  .zip  file.  In contrast, spanned archives are the
           original multi-disk archive generally requiring floppy disks and  using
           volume  labels  to store disk numbers.  zip supports split archives but
           not spanned archives, though a procedure exists  for  converting  split
           archives  of  the  right size to spanned archives.  The reverse is also
           true, where each file of a spanned archive can be copied  in  order  to
           files with the above names to create a split archive.
    
           Use  -s  to set the split size and create a split archive.  The size is
           given as a number followed optionally by one of k (kB), m (MB), g (GB),
           or  t (TB) (the default is m).  The -sp option can be used to pause zip
           between splits to allow changing removable media, for example, but read
           the descriptions and warnings for both -s and -sp below.
    
           Though  zip does not update split archives, zip provides the new option
           -O (--output-file or --out) to allow split archives to be  updated  and
           saved in a new archive.  For example,
    
                  zip inarchive.zip foo.c bar.c --out outarchive.zip
    
           reads  archive  inarchive.zip,  even if split, adds the files foo.c and
           bar.c, and writes the resulting archive to  outarchive.zip.   If  inar-
           chive.zip is split then outarchive.zip defaults to the same split size.
           Be aware that if outarchive.zip and any split files  that  are  created
           with  it  already exist, these are always overwritten as needed without
           warning.  This may be changed in the future.
    
           be skipped during a local character set directory scan.  zip with  Uni-
           code support now can read and store these paths.  Note that Win 9x sys-
           tems and FAT file systems don't fully support Unicode.
    
           Be aware that console windows on Win32 and Unix, for example, sometimes
           don't  accurately  show all characters due to how each operating system
           switches in character sets for display.  However, directory  navigation
           tools should show the correct paths if the needed fonts are loaded.
    
           Command line format.  This version of zip has updated command line pro-
           cessing and support for long options.
    
           Short options take the form
    
                  -s[-][s[-]...][value][=value][ value]
    
           where s is a one or two character short option.  A  short  option  that
           takes  a value is last in an argument and anything after it is taken as
           the value.  If the option can be negated and  "-"  immediately  follows
           the  option, the option is negated.  Short options can also be given as
           separate arguments
    
                  -s[-][value][=value][ value] -s[-][value][=value][ value] ...
    
           Short options in general take values either as part of the  same  argu-
           ment  or  as  the following argument.  An optional = is also supported.
           So
    
                  -ttmmddyyyy
    
           and
    
                  -tt=mmddyyyy
    
           and
    
                  -tt mmddyyyy
    
           all work.  The -x and -i options accept  lists  of  values  and  use  a
           slightly  different format described below.  See the -x and -i options.
    
           Long options take the form
    
                  --longoption[-][=value][ value]
    
           where the option starts with --, has a multicharacter name, can include
           a  trailing  dash to negate the option (if the option supports it), and
           can have a value (option argument) specified by preceeding  it  with  =
           (no spaces).  Values can also follow the argument.  So
    
                  --before-date=mmddyyyy
    
    
    
    

    OPTIONS

           -a
           --ascii
                  [Systems using EBCDIC] Translate file to ASCII format.
    
           -A
           --adjust-sfx
                  Adjust self-extracting executable  archive.   A  self-extracting
                  executable  archive  is created by prepending the SFX stub to an
                  existing archive. The -A option tells zip to  adjust  the  entry
                  offsets  stored in the archive to take into account this "pream-
                  ble" data.
    
           Note: self-extracting archives for the Amiga are a  special  case.   At
           present, only the Amiga port of zip is capable of adjusting or updating
           these without corrupting them. -J can be used to remove the SFX stub if
           other updates need to be made.
    
           -AC
           --archive-clear
                  [WIN32]   Once  archive  is  created  (and tested if -T is used,
                  which is recommended), clear the  archive  bits  of  files  pro-
                  cessed.   WARNING:  Once  the bits are cleared they are cleared.
                  You may want to use the -sf show files option to store the  list
                  of  files  processed  in  case  the  archive  operation  must be
                  repeated.  Also consider using the -MM must  match  option.   Be
                  sure to check out -DF as a possibly better way to do incremental
                  backups.
    
           -AS
           --archive-set
                  [WIN32]  Only include files  that  have  the  archive  bit  set.
                  Directories  are  not stored when -AS is used, though by default
                  the paths of entries, including directories, are stored as usual
                  and can be used by most unzips to recreate directories.
    
                  The  archive  bit  is set by the operating system when a file is
                  modified and, if used with -AC, -AS can provide  an  incremental
                  backup  capability.   However, other applications can modify the
                  archive bit and it may not be  a  reliable  indicator  of  which
                  files  have  changed since the last archive operation.  Alterna-
                  tive ways to create incremental backups are using -t to use file
                  dates,  though  this won't catch old files copied to directories
                  being archived, and -DF to create a differential archive.
    
           -B
           --binary
                  ple:
    
                         zip -b /tmp stuff *
    
                  will put the temporary zip archive in the directory /tmp,  copy-
                  ing  over  stuff.zip  to  the  current directory when done. This
                  option is useful when updating an existing archive and the  file
                  system containing this old archive does not have enough space to
                  hold both old and new archives at the same time.  It may also be
                  useful  when  streaming in some cases to avoid the need for data
                  descriptors.  Note that using this option may require  zip  take
                  additional time to copy the archive file when done to the desti-
                  nation file system.
    
           -c
           --entry-comments
                  Add one-line comments for each file.  File  operations  (adding,
                  updating)  are  done  first, and the user is then prompted for a
                  one-line comment for each file.  Enter the comment  followed  by
                  return, or just return for no comment.
    
           -C
           --preserve-case
                  [VMS]   Preserve  case  all  on VMS.  Negating this option (-C-)
                  downcases.
    
           -C2
           --preserve-case-2
                  [VMS]  Preserve case ODS2 on VMS.  Negating this  option  (-C2-)
                  downcases.
    
           -C5
           --preserve-case-5
                  [VMS]   Preserve  case ODS5 on VMS.  Negating this option (-C5-)
                  downcases.
    
           -d
           --delete
                  Remove (delete) entries from a zip archive.  For example:
    
                         zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/\* \*.o
    
                  will remove the entry foo/tom/junk, all of the files that  start
                  with  foo/harry/,  and all of the files that end with .o (in any
                  path).  Note that shell pathname expansion  has  been  inhibited
                  with  backslashes,  so  that zip can see the asterisks, enabling
                  zip to match on the contents of the zip archive instead  of  the
                  sidered making this case insensitive on systems where paths were
                  case insensitive, but it is possible the  archive  came  from  a
                  system where case does matter and the archive could include both
                  Bar and bar as separate files in the archive.)  But see the  new
                  option -ic to ignore case in the archive.
    
           -db
           --display-bytes
                  Display  running  byte  counts  showing the bytes zipped and the
                  bytes to go.
    
           -dc
           --display-counts
                  Display running count of entries zipped and entries to go.
    
           -dd
           --display-dots
                  Display dots while each entry is zipped (except  on  ports  that
                  have  their  own progress indicator).  See -ds below for setting
                  dot size.  The default is a dot every 10 MB of input  file  pro-
                  cessed.   The -v option also displays dots (previously at a much
                  higher rate than this but now -v also defaults  to  10  MB)  and
                  this rate is also controlled by -ds.
    
           -df
           --datafork
                  [MacOS] Include only data-fork of files zipped into the archive.
                  Good  for  exporting   files   to   foreign   operating-systems.
                  Resource-forks will be ignored at all.
    
           -dg
           --display-globaldots
                  Display  progress dots for the archive instead of for each file.
                  The command
    
                             zip -qdgds 10m
    
                  will turn off most output except dots every 10 MB.
    
           -ds size
           --dot-size size
                  Set amount of input file processed for each dot displayed.   See
                  -dd to enable displaying dots.  Setting this option implies -dd.
                  Size is in the format nm where n is a number and m is  a  multi-
                  plier.  Currently m can be k (KB), m (MB), g (GB), or t (TB), so
                  if n is 100 and m is k, size would be 100k which is 100 KB.  The
                  Display the uncompressed size of each entry.
    
           -dv
           --display-volume
                  Display the volume (disk) number each entry is being read  from,
                  if reading an existing archive, and being written to.
    
           -D
           --no-dir-entries
                  Do  not  create  entries  in  the  zip  archive for directories.
                  Directory  entries  are  created  by  default  so   that   their
                  attributes  can  be  saved  in the zip archive.  The environment
                  variable ZIPOPT can be used to change the default  options.  For
                  example under Unix with sh:
    
                         ZIPOPT="-D"; export ZIPOPT
    
                  (The  variable  ZIPOPT  can be used for any option, including -i
                  and -x using a new option format detailed below, and can include
                  several  options.)  The option -D is a shorthand for -x "*/" but
                  the latter previously could not be set as default in the  ZIPOPT
                  environment  variable  as  the  contents of ZIPOPT gets inserted
                  near the beginning of the command line and the file list had  to
                  end at the end of the line.
    
                  This  version  of  zip does allow -x and -i options in ZIPOPT if
                  the form
    
                  -x file file ... @
    
                  is used, where the @ (an argument that is just @) terminates the
                  list.
    
           -DF
           --difference-archive
                  Create  an archive that contains all new and changed files since
                  the original archive was created.  For this to work,  the  input
                  file  list  and current directory must be the same as during the
                  original zip operation.
    
                  For example, if the existing archive was created using
    
                         zip -r foofull .
    
                  from the bar directory, then the command
    
                         zip -r foofull . -DF --out foonew
    
    
           -e
           --encrypt
                  Encrypt the contents of the zip archive using a  password  which
                  is  entered  on  the terminal in response to a prompt (this will
                  not be echoed; if standard error is not a  tty,  zip  will  exit
                  with  an  error).   The  password prompt is repeated to save the
                  user from typing errors.
    
           -E
           --longnames
                  [OS/2] Use the .LONGNAME Extended Attribute (if found) as  file-
                  name.
    
           -f
           --freshen
                  Replace  (freshen)  an existing entry in the zip archive only if
                  it has been modified more recently than the version  already  in
                  the zip archive; unlike the update option (-u) this will not add
                  files that are not already in the zip archive.  For example:
    
                         zip -f foo
    
                  This command should be run from the same  directory  from  which
                  the  original  zip  command  was  run, since paths stored in zip
                  archives are always relative.
    
                  Note that the timezone environment variable  TZ  should  be  set
                  according  to  the local timezone in order for the -f, -u and -o
                  options to work correctly.
    
                  The reasons behind this are somewhat subtle but have to do  with
                  the  differences  between  the Unix-format file times (always in
                  GMT) and most of the other operating systems (always local time)
                  and  the  necessity  to  compare the two.  A typical TZ value is
                  ''MET-1MEST'' (Middle European time  with  automatic  adjustment
                  for ''summertime'' or Daylight Savings Time).
    
                  The  format is TTThhDDD, where TTT is the time zone such as MET,
                  hh is the difference between GMT  and  local  time  such  as  -1
                  above, and DDD is the time zone when daylight savings time is in
                  effect.  Leave off the DDD if there is no daylight savings time.
                  For the US Eastern time zone EST5EDT.
    
           -F
           --fix
           -FF
           --fixfix
                  Fix  the zip archive. The -F option can be used if some portions
                  option is needed to fix archives where -F might have been suffi-
                  cient before.
    
                  Neither  option will recover archives that have been incorrectly
                  transferred in ascii mode instead of binary. After  the  repair,
                  the  -t option of unzip may show that some files have a bad CRC.
                  Such files cannot be recovered; you can  remove  them  from  the
                  archive using the -d option of zip.
    
                  Note  that  -FF may have trouble fixing archives that include an
                  embedded zip archive that was stored  (without  compression)  in
                  the  archive  and,  depending  on  the  damage,  it may find the
                  entries in the embedded archive rather than the archive  itself.
                  Try -F first as it does not have this problem.
    
                  The  format  of  the fix commands have changed.  For example, to
                  fix the damaged archive foo.zip,
    
                         zip -F foo --out foofix
    
                  tries to read the entries normally, copying good entries to  the
                  new  archive  foofix.zip.   If  this  doesn't  work, as when the
                  archive is truncated, or if some entries you  know  are  in  the
                  archive are missed, then try
    
                         zip -FF foo --out foofixfix
    
                  and  compare the resulting archive to the archive created by -F.
                  The -FF option may create an inconsistent archive.  Depending on
                  what  is  damaged,  you  can  then use the -F option to fix that
                  archive.
    
                  A split archive with missing split files can be fixed  using  -F
                  if  you  have the last split of the archive (the .zip file).  If
                  this file is missing, you must use -FF to fix the archive, which
                  will prompt you for the splits you have.
    
                  Currently  the fix options can't recover entries that have a bad
                  checksum or are otherwise damaged.
    
           -FI
           --fifo [Unix]  Normally zip  skips  reading  any  FIFOs  (named  pipes)
                  encountered, as zip can hang if the FIFO is not being fed.  This
                  option tells zip to read the contents of any FIFO it finds.
    
           -FS
           --filesync
                  Synchronize the contents of an archive with the files on the OS.
                  Normally  when  an  archive  is updated, new files are added and
                  changed files are updated but files that no longer exist on  the
                  same  directory  it  was created in so the relative paths match.
                  If few files are being copied from the old archive,  it  may  be
                  faster to create a new archive instead.
    
                  Note  that  the  timezone  environment variable TZ should be set
                  according to the local timezone in order for this option to work
                  correctly.   A change in timezone since the original archive was
                  created could result in no times matching and  recompression  of
                  all files.
    
                  This option deletes files from the archive.  If you need to pre-
                  serve the original archive, make a copy of the archive first  or
                  use  the  --out  option  to  output the updated archive to a new
                  file.  Even though it may be slower, creating a new archive with
                  a  new  archive name is safer, avoids mismatches between archive
                  and OS paths, and is preferred.
    
           -g
           --grow
                  Grow (append to) the specified zip archive, instead of  creating
                  a  new one. If this operation fails, zip attempts to restore the
                  archive to its original state. If  the  restoration  fails,  the
                  archive  might  become  corrupted.  This  option is ignored when
                  there's no existing archive or when at least one archive  member
                  must be updated or deleted.
    
           -h
           -?
           --help
                  Display  the  zip  help information (this also appears if zip is
                  run with no arguments).
    
           -h2
           --more-help
                  Display extended help including more  on  command  line  format,
                  pattern matching, and more obscure options.
    
           -i files
           --include files
                  Include only the specified files, as in:
    
                         zip -r foo . -i \*.c
    
                  which  will include only the files that end in .c in the current
                  directory and its subdirectories. (Note  for  PKZIP  users:  the
                  equivalent command is
    
                         pkzip -rP foo *.c
                         zip -r foo . -i dir/\*
    
                  or
    
                         zip -r foo . -i "dir/*"
    
                  to match paths such as dir/a and dir/b/file.c [on ports  without
                  wildcard expansion in the shell such as MSDOS and Windows
    
                         zip -r foo . -i dir/*
    
                  is  used.]   Note  that  currently  the trailing / is needed for
                  directories (as in
    
                         zip -r foo . -i dir/
    
                  to include directory dir).
    
                  The long option form of the first example is
    
                         zip -r foo . --include \*.c
    
                  and does the same thing as the short option form.
    
                  Though the command syntax used to require -i at the end  of  the
                  command  line,  this  version  actually allows -i (or --include)
                  anywhere.  The list of files terminates  at  the  next  argument
                  starting with -, the end of the command line, or the list termi-
                  nator @ (an argument that is just @).  So the above can be given
                  as
    
                         zip -i \*.c @ -r foo .
    
                  for  example.   There must be a space between the option and the
                  first file of a list.  For just one file you can use the  single
                  value form
    
                         zip -i\*.c -r foo .
    
                  (no space between option and value) or
    
                         zip --include=\*.c -r foo .
    
                  as  additional  examples.  The single value forms are not recom-
                  mended because they can be confusing  and,  in  particular,  the
                  -ifile  format  can  cause  problems if the first letter of file
                  combines with i to form a two-letter  option  starting  with  i.
                  Use -sc to see how your command line will be parsed.
    
                  Also possible:
    
                         zip -r foo  . -i@include.lst
    
                  them as single files.
    
                  For example, if you have SparkFS loaded, zipping a Spark archive
                  will result in a zipfile containing a directory  (and  its  con-
                  tent)  while  using the 'I' option will result in a zipfile con-
                  taining a Spark archive. Obviously this second case will also be
                  obtained (without the 'I' option) if SparkFS isn't loaded.
    
           -ic
           --ignore-case
                  [VMS,  WIN32]  Ignore  case when matching archive entries.  This
                  option is only available on systems where the case of  files  is
                  ignored.  On systems with case-insensitive file systems, case is
                  normally ignored when matching files on the file system  but  is
                  not  ignored for -f (freshen), -d (delete), -U (copy), and simi-
                  lar modes when matching against archive  entries  (currently  -f
                  ignores case on VMS) because archive entries can be from systems
                  where case does matter and names that are the  same  except  for
                  case can exist in an archive.  The -ic option makes all matching
                  case insensitive.  This can result in multiple  archive  entries
                  matching a command line pattern.
    
           -j
           --junk-paths
                  Store  just the name of a saved file (junk the path), and do not
                  store directory names. By default, zip will store the full  path
                  (relative to the current directory).
    
           -jj
           --absolute-path
                  [MacOS] record Fullpath (+ Volname). The complete path including
                  volume will be stored. By default  the  relative  path  will  be
                  stored.
    
           -J
           --junk-sfx
                  Strip any prepended data (e.g. a SFX stub) from the archive.
    
           -k
           --DOS-names
                  Attempt  to  convert  the  names  and paths to conform to MSDOS,
                  store only the MSDOS attribute (just the  user  write  attribute
                  from  Unix), and mark the entry as made under MSDOS (even though
                  it was not); for compatibility with PKUNZIP  under  MSDOS  which
                  cannot handle certain names such as those with two dots.
    
           -l
           --to-crlf
                  Open a logfile at the given path.  By default any existing  file
                  at  that location is overwritten, but the -la option will result
                  in an existing file being opened and  the  new  log  information
                  appended  to any existing information.  Only warnings and errors
                  are written to the log unless the -li option is also given, then
                  all information messages are also written to the log.
    
           -li
           --log-info
                  Include  information  messages, such as file names being zipped,
                  in the log.  The default is to only include  the  command  line,
                  any warnings and errors, and the final status.
    
           -ll
           --from-crlf
                  Translate the MSDOS end-of-line CR LF into Unix LF.  This option
                  should not be used on binary files.  This option can be used  on
                  MSDOS  if the zip file is intended for unzip under Unix.  If the
                  file is converted and the file is later determined to be  binary
                  a warning is issued and the file is probably corrupted.  In this
                  release if -ll detects binary in the first buffer  read  from  a
                  file,  zip now issues a warning and skips line end conversion on
                  the file.  This check seems to catch all  binary  files  tested,
                  but  the original check remains and if a converted file is later
                  determined to be binary that warning is  still  issued.   A  new
                  algorithm  is  now  being  used for binary detection that should
                  allow line end conversion of text files  in  UTF-8  and  similar
                  encodings.
    
           -L
           --license
                  Display the zip license.
    
           -m
           --move
                  Move  the  specified  files into the zip archive; actually, this
                  deletes the target directories/files after making the  specified
                  zip  archive.  If a directory becomes empty after removal of the
                  files, the directory is also  removed.  No  deletions  are  done
                  until zip has created the archive without error.  This is useful
                  for conserving disk space, but is potentially dangerous so it is
                  recommended to use it in combination with -T to test the archive
                  before removing all input files.
    
           -MM
           --must-match
                  All input patterns must match at least one file  and  all  input
                  files  found  must  be readable.  Normally when an input pattern
                  does not match a file the "name not matched" warning  is  issued
                  and  when  an  input file has been found but later is missing or
                  not readable a missing or not readable warning  is  issued.   In
                  either  case zip continues creating the archive, with missing or
                  create the archive anyway and only need to know  if  files  were
                  skipped, don't use -MM and just check the return code.  Also -lf
                  could be useful.
    
           -n suffixes
           --suffixes suffixes
                  Do not attempt to compress files named with the given  suffixes.
                  Such  files are simply stored (0% compression) in the output zip
                  file, so that zip doesn't waste  its  time  trying  to  compress
                  them.   The  suffixes  are  separated  by either colons or semi-
                  colons.  For example:
    
                         zip -rn .Z:.zip:.tiff:.gif:.snd  foo foo
    
                  will copy everything from foo into foo.zip, but will  store  any
                  files  that end in .Z, .zip, .tiff, .gif, or .snd without trying
                  to compress them (image and sound files  often  have  their  own
                  specialized compression methods).  By default, zip does not com-
                  press     files     with     extensions     in     the      list
                  .Z:.zip:.zoo:.arc:.lzh:.arj.   Such files are stored directly in
                  the output archive.  The environment variable ZIPOPT can be used
                  to change the default options. For example under Unix with csh:
    
                         setenv ZIPOPT "-n .gif:.zip"
    
                  To attempt compression on all files, use:
    
                         zip -n : foo
    
                  The  maximum  compression option -9 also attempts compression on
                  all files regardless of extension.
    
                  On Acorn RISC OS systems the suffixes are actually filetypes  (3
                  hex  digit format). By default, zip does not compress files with
                  filetypes in the list DDC:D96:68E (i.e. Archives, CFS files  and
                  PackDir files).
    
           -nw
           --no-wild
                  Do not perform internal wildcard processing (shell processing of
                  wildcards is still done by the shell unless  the  arguments  are
                  escaped).   Useful if a list of paths is being read and no wild-
                  card substitution is desired.
    
           -N
           --notes
                  [Amiga, MacOS] Save Amiga or MacOS  filenotes  as  zipfile  com-
                  ments.  They can be restored by using the -N option of unzip. If
                  -c is used also, you are prompted for comments  only  for  those
                  files that do not have filenotes.
    
           -o
                  the existing archive, output the  new  archive  to  output-file.
                  Useful  for  updating  an  archive without changing the existing
                  archive and the input archive must be a different file than  the
                  output archive.
    
                  This  option  can  be used to create updated split archives.  It
                  can also be used with  -U  to  copy  entries  from  an  existing
                  archive to a new archive.  See the EXAMPLES section below.
    
                  Another  use  is  converting  zip  files  from one split size to
                  another.  For instance, to convert an archive  with  700  MB  CD
                  splits to one with 2 GB DVD splits, can use:
    
                         zip -s 2g cd-split.zip --out dvd-split.zip
    
                  which uses copy mode.  See -U below.  Also:
    
                         zip -s 0 split.zip --out unsplit.zip
    
                  will convert a split archive to a single-file archive.
    
                  Copy  mode  will  convert stream entries (using data descriptors
                  and which should be  compatible  with  most  unzips)  to  normal
                  entries  (which should be compatible with all unzips), except if
                  standard encryption  was  used.   For  archives  with  encrypted
                  entries,  zipcloak  will decrypt the entries and convert them to
                  normal entries.
    
           -p
           --paths
                  Include relative file paths as part of the names of files stored
                  in  the  archive.  This is the default.  The -j option junks the
                  paths and just stores the names of the files.
    
           -P password
           --password password
                  Use password to encrypt zipfile entries (if any).  THIS IS INSE-
                  CURE!   Many  multi-user  operating systems provide ways for any
                  user to see the current command line of any other user; even  on
                  stand-alone  systems  there  is  always  the threat of over-the-
                  shoulder peeking.  Storing the plaintext password as part  of  a
                  command  line  in  an  automated script is even worse.  Whenever
                  possible, use the non-echoing, interactive prompt to enter pass-
                  words.   (And  where  security  is  truly  important, use strong
                  encryption such as Pretty Good Privacy instead of the relatively
                  weak standard encryption provided by zipfile utilities.)
    
           -q
           --quiet
                  Quiet   mode;   eliminate  informational  messages  and  comment
                  prompts.  (Useful, for example, in shell scripts and  background
                  tasks).
    
                  or more concisely
    
                         zip -r foo foo
    
                  In this case, all the files and directories in foo are saved  in
                  a zip archive named foo.zip, including files with names starting
                  with ".", since the recursion does not use the shell's file-name
                  substitution  mechanism.  If you wish to include only a specific
                  subset of the files in directory foo and its subdirectories, use
                  the  -i  option  to specify the pattern of files to be included.
                  You should not use -r with the name  ".*",  since  that  matches
                  ".."   which will attempt to zip up the parent directory (proba-
                  bly not what was intended).
    
                  Multiple source directories are allowed as in
    
                         zip -r foo foo1 foo2
    
                  which first zips up foo1 and then foo2, going down  each  direc-
                  tory.
    
                  Note  that  while  wildcards  to -r are typically resolved while
                  recursing down directories in the file system, any -R,  -x,  and
                  -i  wildcards are applied to internal archive pathnames once the
                  directories are scanned.  To have wildcards apply  to  files  in
                  subdirectories  when recursing on Unix and similar systems where
                  the shell does wildcard substitution, either  escape  all  wild-
                  cards  or put all arguments with wildcards in quotes.  This lets
                  zip see the wildcards and match files  in  subdirectories  using
                  them as it recurses.
    
           -R
           --recurse-patterns
                  Travel  the directory structure recursively starting at the cur-
                  rent directory; for example:
    
                         zip -R foo "*.c"
    
                  In this case, all the files matching *.c in the tree starting at
                  the  current  directory  are  stored  into  a  zip archive named
                  foo.zip.  Note that *.c will match file.c, a/file.c and  a/b/.c.
                  More than one pattern can be listed as separate arguments.  Note
                  for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is
    
                         pkzip -rP foo *.c
    
                  Patterns are relative file paths as they appear in the  archive,
                  or  will after zipping, and can have optional wildcards in them.
                  For example, given the current directory is foo and under it are
                  directories foo1 and foo2 and in foo1 is the file bar.c,
    
                  resulting from the need to escape "[" and "]" in  names,  it  is
                  now  off  by  default for Windows so "[" and "]" are just normal
                  characters in names.  This option enables [] matching again.
    
           -s splitsize
           --split-size splitsize
                  Enable creating a split archive and set the split size.  A split
                  archive  is  an archive that could be split over many files.  As
                  the archive is created, if the size of the archive  reaches  the
                  specified  split  size,  that split is closed and the next split
                  opened.  In general all splits but the last will  be  the  split
                  size  and  the  last  will  be  whatever is left.  If the entire
                  archive is smaller than the split size a single-file archive  is
                  created.
    
                  Split  archives  are  stored in numbered files.  For example, if
                  the output  archive  is  named  archive  and  three  splits  are
                  required,  the  resulting  archive  will  be  in the three files
                  archive.z01, archive.z02, and archive.zip.  Do  not  change  the
                  numbering  of these files or the archive will not be readable as
                  these are used to determine the order the splits are read.
    
                  Split size is a number  optionally  followed  by  a  multiplier.
                  Currently  the  number  must  be an integer.  The multiplier can
                  currently be one of k (kilobytes), m (megabytes), g (gigabytes),
                  or  t  (terabytes).   As  64k is the minimum split size, numbers
                  without multipliers default to megabytes.  For example, to  cre-
                  ate  a  split  archive  called  foo with the contents of the bar
                  directory with splits of 670 MB that might be useful for burning
                  on CDs, the command:
    
                         zip -s 670m -r foo bar
    
                  could be used.
    
                  Currently  the  old  splits  of a split archive are not excluded
                  from a new archive, but they can be specifically  excluded.   If
                  possible,  keep  the  input  and output archives out of the path
                  being zipped when creating split archives.
    
                  Using -s without -sp as above creates all the splits  where  foo
                  is  being  written,  in  this  case the current directory.  This
                  split mode updates the splits as the archive is  being  created,
                  requiring  all  splits  to  remain  writable,  but creates split
                  archives that are readable by  any  unzip  that  supports  split
                  archives.   See  -sp  below  for enabling split pause mode which
                  allows splits to be written directly to removable media.
    
                  The option -sv can be used to enable verbose splitting and  pro-
                  vide details of how the splitting is being done.  The -sb option
                  can be used to ring the bell when zip pauses for the next  split
                  pauses for each split destination.
    
           -sc
           --show-command
                  Show  the  command line starting zip as processed and exit.  The
                  new command parser permutes the arguments, putting  all  options
                  and  any values associated with them before any non-option argu-
                  ments.  This allows an option to appear anywhere in the  command
                  line  as  long as any values that go with the option go with it.
                  This option displays the command line as zip sees it,  including
                  any arguments from the environment such as from the ZIPOPT vari-
                  able.  Where allowed, options later  in  the  command  line  can
                  override options earlier in the command line.
    
           -sf
           --show-files
                  Show  the  files  that  would  be  operated  on, then exit.  For
                  instance, if creating a new archive, this will  list  the  files
                  that  would  be  added.   If the option is negated, -sf-, output
                  only to an open log file.  Screen display is not recommended for
                  large lists.
    
           -so
           --show-options
                  Show  all  available options supported by zip as compiled on the
                  current system.  As this command  reads  the  option  table,  it
                  should include all options.  Each line includes the short option
                  (if defined), the long option (if defined), the  format  of  any
                  value  that  goes with the option, if the option can be negated,
                  and a small description.  The value  format  can  be  no  value,
                  required  value,  optional value, single character value, number
                  value, or a list of values.  The output of this  option  is  not
                  intended  to  show  how  to  use  any  option but only show what
                  options are available.
    
           -sp
           --split-pause
                  If splitting is enabled with -s, enable split pause mode.   This
                  creates split archives as -s does, but stream writing is used so
                  each split can be closed as soon as it is written and  zip  will
                  pause  between each split to allow changing split destination or
                  media.
    
                  Though this split mode allows writing splits directly to  remov-
                  able  media, it uses stream archive format that may not be read-
                  able by some unzips.  Before relying on splits created with -sp,
                  test a split archive with the unzip you will be using.
    
                  To  convert a stream split archive (created with -sp) to a stan-
                  dard archive see the --out option.
    
           -su
           --system-hidden
                  [MSDOS, OS/2, WIN32 and ATARI] Include system and hidden  files.
                  [MacOS]  Includes finder invisible files, which are ignored oth-
                  erwise.
    
           -t mmddyyyy
           --from-date mmddyyyy
                  Do not operate on files modified prior to  the  specified  date,
                  where  mm  is  the  month  (00-12),  dd  is the day of the month
                  (01-31), and  yyyy  is  the  year.   The  ISO 8601  date  format
                  yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted.  For example:
    
                         zip -rt 12071991 infamy foo
    
                         zip -rt 1991-12-07 infamy foo
    
                  will  add  all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were
                  last modified on or after 7 December 1991, to  the  zip  archive
                  infamy.zip.
    
           -tt mmddyyyy
           --before-date mmddyyyy
                  Do not operate on files modified after or at the specified date,
                  where mm is the month (00-12),  dd  is  the  day  of  the  month
                  (01-31),  and  yyyy  is  the  year.   The  ISO 8601  date format
                  yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted.  For example:
    
                         zip -rtt 11301995 infamy foo
    
                         zip -rtt 1995-11-30 infamy foo
    
                  will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories  that  were
                  last  modified  before  30  November  1995,  to  the zip archive
                  infamy.zip.
    
           -T
           --test
                  Test the integrity of the new zip file. If the check fails,  the
                  old  zip  file  is  unchanged  and (with the -m option) no input
                  files are removed.
    
           -TT cmd
           --unzip-command cmd
                  Use command cmd instead of 'unzip -tqq' to test an archive  when
                  the  -T  option is used.  On Unix, to use a copy of unzip in the
                  current directory instead of the standard  system  unzip,  could
                  use:
    
                   zip archive file1 file2 -T -TT "./unzip -tqq"
    
                  In  cmd,  {}  is  replaced by the name of the temporary archive,
                  otherwise the name of the archive is appended to the end of  the
    
                  Note that the -u option with no input file arguments  acts  like
                  the -f (freshen) option.
    
           -U
           --copy-entries
                  Copy  entries  from  one archive to another.  Requires the --out
                  option to  specify  a  different  output  file  than  the  input
                  archive.  Copy mode is the reverse of -d delete.  When delete is
                  being used with --out, the selected entries are deleted from the
                  archive  and  all  other  entries are copied to the new archive,
                  while copy mode selects the files to include in the new archive.
                  Unlike -u update, input patterns on the command line are matched
                  against archive entries only and not the file system files.  For
                  instance,
    
                         zip inarchive "*.c" --copy --out outarchive
    
                  copies  entries  with  names ending in .c from inarchive to out-
                  archive.  The wildcard must be escaped on some systems  to  pre-
                  vent  the  shell  from substituting names of files from the file
                  system which may  have  no  relevance  to  the  entries  in  the
                  archive.
    
                  If  no input files appear on the command line and --out is used,
                  copy mode is assumed:
    
                         zip inarchive --out outarchive
    
                  This is useful for changing split size for instance.  Encrypting
                  and  decrypting  entries  is  not yet supported using copy mode.
                  Use zipcloak for that.
    
           -UN v
           --unicode v
                  Determine what zip should do with Unicode file names.   zip 3.0,
                  in  addition  to  the standard file path, now includes the UTF-8
                  translation of the path if the entry path is not entirely  7-bit
                  ASCII.   When  an entry is missing the Unicode path, zip reverts
                  back to the standard file path.   The  problem  with  using  the
                  standard  path is this path is in the local character set of the
                  zip that created the entry, which may  contain  characters  that
                  are  not  valid  in  the  character set being used by the unzip.
                  When zip is reading an archive, if an entry also has  a  Unicode
                  path, zip now defaults to using the Unicode path to recreate the
                  standard path using the current local character set.
    
                  This option can be used to determine what  zip  should  do  with
                  this  path  if  there  is a mismatch between the stored standard
                  path and the stored UTF-8 path (which can happen if the standard
                  path  was  updated).  In all cases, if there is a mismatch it is
                  assumed that the standard path is  more  current  and  zip  uses
                  for a hex digit.  The first is used if a 16-bit character number
                  is sufficient to represent the Unicode character and the  second
                  if  the character needs more than 16 bits to represent it's Uni-
                  code character code.  Setting -UN to
    
                         e - escape
    
                  as in
    
                         zip archive -sU -UN=e
    
                  forces zip to escape all characters that are not printable 7-bit
                  ASCII.
    
                  Normally zip stores UTF-8 directly in the standard path field on
                  systems where UTF-8 is the current character set and stores  the
                  UTF-8 in the new extra fields otherwise.  The option
    
                         u - UTF-8
    
                  as in
    
                         zip archive dir -r -UN=UTF8
    
                  forces  zip  to store UTF-8 as native in the archive.  Note that
                  storing UTF-8 directly is the default on Unix systems that  sup-
                  port  it.   This option could be useful on Windows systems where
                  the escaped path is too large to be a valid path and  the  UTF-8
                  version of the path is smaller, but native UTF-8 is not backward
                  compatible on Windows systems.
    
           -v
           --verbose
                  Verbose mode or print diagnostic version info.
    
                  Normally, when applied to real operations, this  option  enables
                  the  display of a progress indicator during compression (see -dd
                  for more on dots) and requests  verbose  diagnostic  info  about
                  zipfile structure oddities.
    
                  However,  when -v is the only command line argument a diagnostic
                  screen is printed instead.  This should now work even if  stdout
                  is redirected to a file, allowing easy saving of the information
                  for sending with bug reports to Info-ZIP.   The  version  screen
                  provides  the help screen header with program name, version, and
                  release date, some pointers to the Info-ZIP home  and  distribu-
                  tion  sites,  and shows information about the target environment
                  (compiler type and version, OS version, compilation date and the
                  enabled optional features used to create the zip executable).
    
           -V
                  rupt.
    
           -w
           --VMS-versions
                  [VMS] Append the version  number  of  the  files  to  the  name,
                  including  multiple  versions  of files.  Default is to use only
                  the most recent version of a specified file.
    
           -ww
           --VMS-dot-versions
                  [VMS] Append the version  number  of  the  files  to  the  name,
                  including  multiple  versions  of  files, using the .nnn format.
                  Default is to use only the most recent version  of  a  specified
                  file.
    
           -ws
           --wild-stop-dirs
                  Wildcards match only at a directory level.  Normally zip handles
                  paths as strings and given the paths
    
                         /foo/bar/dir/file1.c
    
                         /foo/bar/file2.c
    
                  an input pattern such as
    
                         /foo/bar/*
    
                  normally would match both paths, the * matching dir/file1.c  and
                  file2.c.   Note  that in the first case a directory boundary (/)
                  was crossed in the match.  With -ws no directory bounds will  be
                  included  in  the  match,  making  wildcards local to a specific
                  directory level.  So, with -ws enabled,  only  the  second  path
                  would be matched.
    
                  When using -ws, use ** to match across directory boundaries as *
                  does normally.
    
           -x files
           --exclude files
                  Explicitly exclude the specified files, as in:
    
                         zip -r foo foo -x \*.o
    
                  which will include the contents of foo in foo.zip while  exclud-
                  ing  all  the  files  that  end in .o.  The backslash avoids the
                  shell filename substitution, so that the name matching  is  per-
                  formed by zip at all directory levels.
    
                  Also possible:
    
                         zip -r foo foo -x@exclude.lst
    
                         zip -r foo foo -x \*.o \*.c
    
                  If  there is no space between -x and the pattern, just one value
                  is assumed (no list):
    
                         zip -r foo foo -x\*.o
    
                  See -i for more on include and exclude.
    
           -X
           --no-extra
                  Do not save extra file attributes (Extended Attributes on  OS/2,
                  uid/gid  and  file  times  on  Unix).  The zip format uses extra
                  fields to include additional information for each  entry.   Some
                  extra fields are specific to particular systems while others are
                  applicable to all systems.  Normally when zip reads entries from
                  an  existing archive, it reads the extra fields it knows, strips
                  the rest, and adds the extra fields applicable to  that  system.
                  With -X, zip strips all old fields and only includes the Unicode
                  and Zip64 extra fields (currently these two extra fields  cannot
                  be disabled).
    
                  Negating  this  option,  -X-,  includes  all  the  default extra
                  fields, but also copies over any unrecognized extra fields.
    
           -y
           --symlinks
                  For UNIX and VMS (V8.3 and later), store symbolic links as  such
                  in  the zip archive, instead of compressing and storing the file
                  referred to by the link.  This  can  avoid  multiple  copies  of
                  files  being  included in the archive as zip recurses the direc-
                  tory trees and accesses files directly and by links.
    
           -z
           --archive-comment
                  Prompt for a multi-line comment for the entire zip archive.  The
                  comment  is  ended by a line containing just a period, or an end
                  of file condition (^D on Unix, ^Z on MSDOS, OS/2, and VMS).  The
                  comment can be taken from a file:
    
                         zip -z foo < foowhat
    
           -Z cm
           --compression-method cm
                  Set  the default compression method.  Currently the main methods
                  supported by zip are store and deflate.  Compression method  can
                  be set to:
    
                  store  -  Setting  the compression method to store forces zip to
                  store entries with no compression.   This  is  generally  faster
                  sion:
    
                         zip -Z bzip2 foo bar.c
    
                  The compression method can be abbreviated:
    
                         zip -Zb foo bar.c
    
           -#
           (-0, -1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -8, -9)
                  Regulate  the  speed of compression using the specified digit #,
                  where -0 indicates no compression (store all  files),  -1  indi-
                  cates  the  fastest  compression speed (less compression) and -9
                  indicates the slowest compression  speed  (optimal  compression,
                  ignores the suffix list). The default compression level is -6.
    
                  Though  still  being  worked, the intention is this setting will
                  control compression speed for  all  compression  methods.   Cur-
                  rently only deflation is controlled.
    
           -!
           --use-privileges
                  [WIN32]  Use  priviliges  (if  granted) to obtain all aspects of
                  WinNT security.
    
           -@
           --names-stdin
                  Take the list of input files from standard input. Only one file-
                  name per line.
    
           -$
           --volume-label
                  [MSDOS,  OS/2,  WIN32]  Include  the  volume label for the drive
                  holding the first file to be compressed.  If you want to include
                  only  the  volume  label  or  to force a specific drive, use the
                  drive name as first file name, as in:
    
                         zip -$ foo a: c:bar
    
    
    

    EXAMPLES

           The simplest example:
    
                  zip stuff *
    
           creates the archive stuff.zip (assuming it does not exist) and puts all
           the  files in the current directory in it, in compressed form (the .zip
           suffix is added automatically, unless the archive name contains  a  dot
           already; this allows the explicit specification of other suffixes).
    
           Because  of the way the shell on Unix does filename substitution, files
           You may want to make a zip archive that  contains  the  files  in  foo,
           without  recording  the directory name, foo.  You can use the -j option
           to leave off the paths, as in:
    
                  zip -j foo foo/*
    
           If you are short on disk space, you might not have enough room to  hold
           both  the  original  directory  and  the  corresponding  compressed zip
           archive.  In this case, you can create the archive in steps  using  the
           -m  option.   If  foo contains the subdirectories tom, dick, and harry,
           you can:
    
                  zip -rm foo foo/tom
                  zip -rm foo foo/dick
                  zip -rm foo foo/harry
    
           where the first command creates foo.zip, and the next two  add  to  it.
           At  the  completion  of  each  zip command, the last created archive is
           deleted, making room for the next zip command to function.
    
           Use -s to set the split size and create a split archive.  The  size  is
           given as a number followed optionally by one of k (kB), m (MB), g (GB),
           or t (TB).  The command
    
                  zip -s 2g -r split.zip foo
    
           creates a split archive of the directory foo with splits no bigger than
           2 GB  each.   If  foo  contained 5 GB of contents and the contents were
           stored in the split archive without compression (to make  this  example
           simple),  this  would create three splits, split.z01 at 2 GB, split.z02
           at 2 GB, and split.zip at a little over 1 GB.
    
           The -sp option can be used to pause zip between splits to allow  chang-
           ing  removable  media, for example, but read the descriptions and warn-
           ings for both -s and -sp below.
    
           Though zip does not update split archives, zip provides the new  option
           -O (--output-file) to allow split archives to be updated and saved in a
           new archive.  For example,
    
                  zip inarchive.zip foo.c bar.c --out outarchive.zip
    
           reads archive inarchive.zip, even if split, adds the  files  foo.c  and
           bar.c,  and  writes  the resulting archive to outarchive.zip.  If inar-
           chive.zip is split then outarchive.zip defaults to the same split size.
           Be  aware that outarchive.zip and any split files that are created with
           it are always overwritten without warning.  This may be changed in  the
           future.
    
    
           *      match any number of characters (including none)
    
           []     match  any  character in the range indicated within the brackets
                  (example: [a-f], [0-9]).  This form of wildcard matching  allows
                  a  user  to specify a list of characters between square brackets
                  and if any of the characters match the expression matches.   For
                  example:
    
                         zip archive "*.[hc]"
    
                  would  archive all files in the current directory that end in .h
                  or .c.
    
                  Ranges of characters are supported:
    
                         zip archive "[a-f]*"
    
                  would add to the archive all files  starting  with  "a"  through
                  "f".
    
                  Negation is also supported, where any character in that position
                  not in the list matches.  Negation is supported by adding ! or ^
                  to the beginning of the list:
    
                         zip archive "*.[!o]"
    
                  matches files that don't end in ".o".
    
                  On  WIN32, [] matching needs to be turned on with the -RE option
                  to avoid the confusion that names with [ or ] have caused.
    
           When these characters are encountered (without  being  escaped  with  a
           backslash  or  quotes),  the  shell will look for files relative to the
           current path that match the pattern, and replace the  argument  with  a
           list of the names that matched.
    
           The  zip  program can do the same matching on names that are in the zip
           archive being modified or, in the  case  of  the  -x  (exclude)  or  -i
           (include)  options,  on  the  list of files to be operated on, by using
           backslashes or quotes to tell the shell not to do the  name  expansion.
           In  general,  when zip encounters a name in the list of files to do, it
           first looks for the name in the file system.  If it finds it,  it  then
           adds  it  to the list of files to do.  If it does not find it, it looks
           for the name in the zip archive being modified (if  it  exists),  using
           the  pattern matching characters described above, if present.  For each
           match, it will add that name to the list  of  files  to  be  processed,
           unless  this  name  matches  one  given with the -x option, or does not
           match any name given with the -i option.
    
           The pattern matching includes the path, and so patterns like \*.o match
                  contains  default  options  that  will be used when running zip.
                  The contents of this environment variable will get added to  the
                  command line just after the zip command.
    
           ZIP
                  [Not on RISC OS and VMS] see ZIPOPT
    
           Zip$Options
                  [RISC OS] see ZIPOPT
    
           Zip$Exts
                  [RISC  OS]  contains extensions separated by a : that will cause
                  native filenames with one of  the  specified  extensions  to  be
                  added to the zip file with basename and extension swapped.
    
           ZIP_OPTS
                  [VMS] see ZIPOPT
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           compress(1), shar(1L), tar(1), unzip(1L), gzip(1L)
    
    
    

    DIAGNOSTICS

           The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by
           PKWARE and takes on the following values, except under VMS:
    
                  0      normal; no errors or warnings detected.
    
                  2      unexpected end of zip file.
    
                  3      a generic error in the zipfile format was detected.  Pro-
                         cessing may have completed successfully anyway; some bro-
                         ken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple work-
                         arounds.
    
                  4      zip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers
                         during program initialization.
    
                  5      a severe error in the zipfile format was detected.   Pro-
                         cessing probably failed immediately.
    
                  6      entry  too  large  to  be  processed (such as input files
                         larger than 2 GB when not using Zip64 or trying  to  read
                         an existing archive that is too large) or entry too large
                         to be split with zipsplit
    
                  7      invalid comment format
    
                  8      zip -T failed or out of memory
    
                  9      the user aborted zip prematurely with control-C (or simi-
                         lar)
    
                  18     zip could not open a specified file to read
    
                  19     zip  was compiled with options not supported on this sys-
                         tem
    
           VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as  other,  scarier-
           looking  things,  so zip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes.
           In general, zip sets VMS Facility = 1955 (0x07A3), Code = 2*  Unix_sta-
           tus,  and  an  appropriate  Severity  (as specified in ziperr.h).  More
           details  are  included  in   the   VMS-specific   documentation.    See
           [.vms]NOTES.TXT and [.vms]vms_msg_gen.c.
    
    
    

    BUGS

           zip 3.0 is not compatible with PKUNZIP 1.10. Use zip 1.1 to produce zip
           files which can be extracted by PKUNZIP 1.10.
    
           zip files produced by zip 3.0 must not be updated by zip 1.1  or  PKZIP
           1.10,  if  they contain encrypted members or if they have been produced
           in a pipe or on a non-seekable device. The old versions of zip or PKZIP
           would create an archive with an incorrect format.  The old versions can
           list the contents of the zip file but cannot extract it anyway (because
           of  the  new  compression algorithm).  If you do not use encryption and
           use regular disk files, you do not have to care about this problem.
    
           Under VMS, not all of the odd file formats are treated properly.   Only
           stream-LF  format  zip files are expected to work with zip.  Others can
           be converted using Rahul Dhesi's BILF program.   This  version  of  zip
           handles some of the conversion internally.  When using Kermit to trans-
           fer zip files from VMS to MSDOS, type "set file  type  block"  on  VMS.
           When  transfering from MSDOS to VMS, type "set file type fixed" on VMS.
           In both cases, type "set file type binary" on MSDOS.
    
           Under some older VMS versions, zip may  hang  for  file  specifications
           that use DECnet syntax foo::*.*.
    
           On OS/2, zip cannot match some names, such as those including an excla-
           mation mark or a hash sign.  This is a bug in OS/2 itself:  the  32-bit
           DosFindFirst/Next  don't  find  such names.  Other programs such as GNU
           tar are also affected by this bug.
    
           Under OS/2, the amount of Extended Attributes displayed by DIR is  (for
           compatibility)  the  amount returned by the 16-bit version of DosQuery-
           PathInfo(). Otherwise OS/2 1.3 and 2.0 would report different EA  sizes
           when  DIRing  a  file.   However,  the structure layout returned by the
           32-bit DosQueryPathInfo() is a bit different,  it  uses  extra  padding
           bytes  and  link  pointers  (it's  a linked list) to have all fields on
           4-byte boundaries for portability to future RISC OS/2 versions.  There-
           fore  the value reported by zip (which uses this 32-bit-mode size) dif-
           fers from that reported by DIR.   zip  stores  the  32-bit  format  for
           portability, even the 16-bit MS-C-compiled version running on OS/2 1.3,
           so even this one shows the 32-bit-mode size.
    
           notice is retained.
    
           LIKE  ANYTHING  ELSE  THAT'S FREE, ZIP AND ITS ASSOCIATED UTILITIES ARE
           PROVIDED AS IS AND COME WITH NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER  EXPRESSED
           OR  IMPLIED.  IN  NO EVENT WILL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY
           DAMAGES RESULTING FROM THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE.
    
           Please send bug reports and comments using the web page  at:  www.info-
           zip.org.   For  bug  reports,  please  include  the version of zip (see
           zip -h), the make options used to compile it (see zip -v), the  machine
           and operating system in use, and as much additional information as pos-
           sible.
    
    
    

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

           Thanks to R. P. Byrne for his Shrink.Pas program, which  inspired  this
           project,  and  from which the shrink algorithm was stolen; to Phil Katz
           for placing in the public domain the zip file format, compression  for-
           mat,  and  .ZIP  filename extension, and for accepting minor changes to
           the file format; to Steve Burg for clarifications on the  deflate  for-
           mat;  to Haruhiko Okumura and Leonid Broukhis for providing some useful
           ideas for the compression algorithm; to  Keith  Petersen,  Rich  Wales,
           Hunter Goatley and Mark Adler for providing a mailing list and ftp site
           for the Info-ZIP group to use; and most importantly,  to  the  Info-ZIP
           group  itself  (listed  in the file infozip.who) without whose tireless
           testing and bug-fixing efforts a portable zip would not have been  pos-
           sible.   Finally  we should thank (blame) the first Info-ZIP moderator,
           David Kirschbaum, for getting us into this mess  in  the  first  place.
           The  manual page was rewritten for Unix by R. P. C. Rodgers and updated
           by E. Gordon for zip 3.0.
    
    
    

    Info-ZIP 16 June 2008 (v3.0) ZIP(1L)

    
    
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