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    Command:

    xmodmap

    
    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           xmodmap [-options ...] [filename]
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           The xmodmap program is used to edit and display the  keyboard  modifier
           map  and  keymap  table that are used by client applications to convert
           event keycodes into keysyms.  It is usually run from the user's session
           startup  script to configure the keyboard according to personal tastes.
    
    
    

    OPTIONS

           The following options may be used with xmodmap:
    
           -display display
                   This option specifies the host and display to use.
    
           -help   This option indicates that a brief description of  the  command
                   line arguments should be printed on the standard error channel.
                   This will be done whenever an unhandled argument  is  given  to
                   xmodmap.
    
           -grammar
                   This  option  indicates  that  a  help  message  describing the
                   expression grammar used in files and with -e expressions should
                   be printed on the standard error.
    
           -verbose
                   This  option indicates that xmodmap should print logging infor-
                   mation as it parses its input.
    
           -quiet  This option  turns  off  the  verbose  logging.   This  is  the
                   default.
    
           -n      This  option  indicates that xmodmap should not change the map-
                   pings, but should display what it would do, like  make(1)  does
                   when given this option.
    
           -e expression
                   This option specifies an expression to be executed.  Any number
                   of expressions may be specified from the command line.
    
           -pm     This option indicates that the current modifier map  should  be
                   printed  on  the standard output.   This is the default mode of
                   operation if no other mode options are specified.
    
           -pk     This option indicates that the current keymap table  should  be
                   printed on the standard output.
    
           -pke    This  option  indicates that the current keymap table should be
                   printed on the standard output in the form of expressions  that
                   can be fed back to xmodmap.
    
           ing to worry as much about name conflicts.
    
           The  list  of  keysym  names  may  be  found   in   the   header   file
           <X11/keysymdef.h>  (without the XK_ prefix), supplemented by the keysym
           database  /usr/share/X11/XKeysymDB.  Keysyms matching  Unicode  charac-
           ters  may  be  specified as "U0020" to "U007E" and "U00A0" to "U10FFFF"
           for all possible Unicode characters.
    
           keycode NUMBER = KEYSYMNAME ...
                   The list of keysyms is assigned to the indicated keycode (which
                   may be specified in decimal, hex or octal and can be determined
                   by running the xev  program).   Up  to  eight  keysyms  may  be
                   attached  to  a  key, however the last four are not used in any
                   major X server implementation.  The first keysym is  used  when
                   no  modifier  key  is pressed in conjunction with this key, the
                   second with Shift, the third when the Mode_switch key  is  used
                   with  this  key  and  the  fourth when both the Mode_switch and
                   Shift keys are used.
    
           keycode any = KEYSYMNAME ...
                   If no existing key has the specified list of  keysyms  assigned
                   to  it, a spare key on the keyboard is selected and the keysyms
                   are assigned to it.  The list of keysyms may  be  specified  in
                   decimal, hex or octal.
    
           keysym KEYSYMNAME = KEYSYMNAME ...
                   The  KEYSYMNAME on the left hand side is translated into match-
                   ing keycodes used to perform the corresponding set  of  keycode
                   expressions.  Note that if the same keysym is bound to multiple
                   keys, the expression is executed for each matching keycode.
    
           clear MODIFIERNAME
                   This removes all entries in the modifier map for the given mod-
                   ifier,  where valid name are: Shift, Lock, Control, Mod1, Mod2,
                   Mod3, Mod4, and Mod5 (case does not matter in  modifier  names,
                   although  it  does  matter  for all other names).  For example,
                   ''clear Lock'' will remove all any keys that were bound to  the
                   shift lock modifier.
    
           add MODIFIERNAME = KEYSYMNAME ...
                   This  adds  all  keys containing the given keysyms to the indi-
                   cated modifier map.  The keysym names are evaluated  after  all
                   input expressions are read to make it easy to write expressions
                   to swap keys (see the EXAMPLES section).
    
           remove MODIFIERNAME = KEYSYMNAME ...
                   This removes all keys containing the  given  keysyms  from  the
                   indicated modifier map.  Unlike add, the keysym names are eval-
                   uated as the line is read in.  This allows you to  remove  keys
                   from  a  modifier  without having to worry about whether or not
                   they have been reassigned.
    
    
    

    EXAMPLES

           Many pointers are designed such that the first button is pressed  using
           the  index  finger  of the right hand.  People who are left-handed fre-
           quently find that it is more comfortable to reverse  the  button  codes
           that  get  generated  so  that  the primary button is pressed using the
           index finger of the left hand.  This  could  be  done  on  a  3  button
           pointer as follows:
    
                %  xmodmap -e "pointer = 3 2 1"
    
           Many  applications  support the notion of Meta keys (similar to Control
           keys except that Meta is held down instead of Control).  However,  some
           servers  do  not have a Meta keysym in the default keymap table, so one
           needs to be added by hand.  The following command will attach  Meta  to
           the  Multi-language key (sometimes labeled Compose Character).  It also
           takes advantage of the fact that applications that need a Meta key sim-
           ply  need  to get the keycode and don't require the keysym to be in the
           first column of the keymap table.  This means  that  applications  that
           are  looking for a Multi_key (including the default modifier map) won't
           notice any change.
    
                %  xmodmap -e "keysym Multi_key = Multi_key Meta_L"
    
           Similarly, some keyboards have an Alt key but no  Meta  key.   In  that
           case the following may be useful:
    
                %  xmodmap -e "keysym Alt_L = Meta_L Alt_L"
    
           One  of  the more simple, yet convenient, uses of xmodmap is to set the
           keyboard's "rubout" key to generate an  alternate  keysym.   This  fre-
           quently  involves  exchanging Backspace with Delete to be more comfort-
           able to the user.  If the ttyModes resource in xterm is  set  as  well,
           all terminal emulator windows will use the same key for erasing charac-
           ters:
    
                %  xmodmap -e "keysym BackSpace = Delete"
                %  echo "XTerm*ttyModes:  erase ^?" | xrdb -merge
    
           Some keyboards do not automatically generate less than and greater than
           characters  when  the  comma  and period keys are shifted.  This can be
           remedied with xmodmap by resetting  the  bindings  for  the  comma  and
           period with the following scripts:
    
                !
                ! make shift-, be < and shift-. be >
                !
                keysym comma = comma less
                keysym period = period greater
                add Control = Control_L
    
           This  example  can be run again to swap the keys back to their previous
           assignments.
    
           The keycode command is useful for assigning the same keysym to multiple
           keycodes.   Although  unportable,  it  also  makes it possible to write
           scripts that can reset the keyboard to a known  state.   The  following
           script  sets  the  backspace  key  to generate Delete (as shown above),
           flushes all existing caps lock bindings, makes the CapsLock  key  be  a
           control  key, make F5 generate Escape, and makes Break/Reset be a shift
           lock.
    
                !
                ! On the HP, the following keycodes have key caps as listed:
                !
                !     101  Backspace
                !      55  Caps
                !      14  Ctrl
                !      15  Break/Reset
                !      86  Stop
                !      89  F5
                !
                keycode 101 = Delete
                keycode 55 = Control_R
                clear Lock
                add Control = Control_R
                keycode 89 = Escape
                keycode 15 = Caps_Lock
                add Lock = Caps_Lock
    
    
    

    ENVIRONMENT

           DISPLAY to get default host and display number.
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           X(7), xev(1), setxkbmap(1), XStringToKeysym(3), Xlib  documentation  on
           key and pointer events
    
    
    

    BUGS

           Every  time  a  keycode expression is evaluated, the server generates a
           MappingNotify event on every client.  This can  cause  some  thrashing.
           All  of  the  changes  should  be  batched  together  and done at once.
           Clients that receive keyboard input  and  ignore  MappingNotify  events
           will not notice any changes made to keyboard mappings.
    
           Xmodmap  should  generate  "add" and "remove" expressions automatically
           whenever a keycode that is already bound to a modifier is changed.
    
           There should be a way to have the remove expression accept keycodes  as
           well  as keysyms for those times when you really mess up your mappings.
    
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