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    Command:

    xfsrestore

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           xfsrestore -h
           xfsrestore [ options ] -f source [ -f source ... ] dest
           xfsrestore [ options ] - dest
           xfsrestore -I [ subopt=value ... ]
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           xfsrestore restores filesystems from dumps produced by xfsdump(8).  Two
           modes of operation are available: simple and cumulative.
    
           The default is simple mode.  xfsrestore populates the specified  desti-
           nation directory, dest, with the files contained in the dump media.
    
           The -r option specifies the cumulative mode.  Successive invocations of
           xfsrestore are used to apply  a  chronologically  ordered  sequence  of
           delta  dumps  to a base (level 0) dump.  The contents of the filesystem
           at the time each dump was produced is  reproduced.   This  can  involve
           adding,  deleting,  renaming, linking, and unlinking files and directo-
           ries.
    
           A delta dump is defined as  either  an  incremental  dump  (xfsdump  -l
           option  with  level  >  0)  or a resumed dump (xfsdump -R option).  The
           deltas must be applied in the order they  were  produced.   Each  delta
           applied  must  have  been produced with the previously applied delta as
           its base.
    
           xfsrestore keeps state information in the xfsrestorehousekeepingdir, to
           inform  subsequent  invocations when used in cumulative mode, or in the
           event a restore is interrupted.  To ensure that the  state  information
           can  be  processed, a compatible version of xfsrestore must be used for
           each subsequent invocation. Additionally, each invocation must run on a
           system of the same endianness and page size.
    
           The options to xfsrestore are:
    
           -a housekeeping
                Each  invocation  of  xfsrestore creates a directory called xfsre-
                storehousekeepingdir.  This directory is normally created directly
                under  the  dest  directory.  The -a option allows the operator to
                specify an alternate directory, housekeeping, in which  xfsrestore
                creates  the xfsrestorehousekeepingdir directory.  When performing
                a cumulative  (-r  option)  restore  or  resuming  (-R  option)  a
                restore,  each  successive invocation must specify the same alter-
                nate directory.
    
           -b blocksize
                Specifies the blocksize, in bytes, to be  used  for  the  restore.
                For other drives such as DAT or 8 mm , the same blocksize used for
                the xfsdump operation must be specified to restore the tape.   The
                default block size is 1Mb.
    
           -c progname
           -i   Selects interactive operation.  Once the on-media directory  hier-
                archy has been read, an interactive dialogue is begun.  The opera-
                tor uses a small set of commands to peruse the  directory  hierar-
                chy,  selecting  files and subtrees for extraction.  The available
                commands are given below.  Initially nothing is  selected,  except
                for those subtrees specified with -s command line options.
    
                ls [arg]       List  the  entries  in the current directory or the
                               specified directory, or the specified non-directory
                               file entry.  Both the entry's original inode number
                               and name are displayed.  Entries that are  directo-
                               ries  are  appended  with a '/'.  Entries that have
                               been selected for extraction are prepended  with  a
                               '*'.
    
                cd [arg]       Change  the current working directory to the speci-
                               fied argument, or to the filesystem root  directory
                               if no argument is specified.
    
                pwd            Print  the pathname of the current directory, rela-
                               tive to the filesystem root.
    
                add [arg]      The current directory or specified file  or  direc-
                               tory  within  the current directory is selected for
                               extraction.  If a directory is specified,  then  it
                               and all its descendents are selected.  Entries that
                               are selected for extraction are  prepended  with  a
                               '*' when they are listed by ls.
    
                delete [arg]   The  current  directory or specified file or direc-
                               tory within the current directory is deselected for
                               extraction.   If  a directory is specified, then it
                               and all its descendents are deselected.   The  most
                               expedient  way  to extract most of the files from a
                               directory is to select the directory and then dese-
                               lect those files that are not needed.
    
                extract        Ends  the  interactive  dialogue,  and  causes  all
                               selected subtrees to be restored.
    
                quit           xfsrestore ends the interactive dialogue and  imme-
                               diately  exits, even if there are files or subtrees
                               selected for extraction.
    
                help           List a summary of the available commands.
    
           -m   Use the minimal tape protocol.  This option cannot be used without
                specifying a blocksize to be used (see -b option above).
    
           -n file
                Allows xfsrestore to restore only files newer than file.  The mod-
                ification time of file (i.e., as displayed with the ls -l command)
    
           -q   Source  tape  drive  is a QIC tape.  QIC tapes only use a 512 byte
                blocksize, for which xfsrestore must make special allowances.
    
           -r   Selects the cumulative mode of operation. The -a  and  destination
                options must be the same for each invocation.
    
           -s subtree
                Specifies  a  subtree  to  restore.   Any number of -s options are
                allowed.  The restore is constrained to the union of all  subtrees
                specified.   Each  subtree  is specified as a pathname relative to
                the restore dest.  If a directory is specified, the directory  and
                all files beneath that directory are restored.
    
           -t   Displays  the  contents of the dump, but does not create or modify
                any files or directories.  It may be desirable  to  set  the  ver-
                bosity level to silent when using this option.
    
           -v verbosity
           -v subsys=verbosity[,subsys=verbosity,...]
                Specifies  the  level of detail used for messages displayed during
                the course of the restore. The verbosity argument can be passed as
                either a string or an integer. If passed as a string the following
                values may be used: silent, verbose, trace, debug, or  nitty.   If
                passed  as an integer, values from 0-5 may be used. The values 0-4
                correspond to the strings already listed. The value 5 can be  used
                to produce even more verbose debug output.
    
                The first form of this option activates message logging across all
                restore subsystems. The second form  allows  the  message  logging
                level to be controlled on a per-subsystem basis. The two forms can
                be combined (see the example below). The argument subsys can  take
                one  of  the following values: general, proc, drive, media, inven-
                tory, and tree.
    
                For example, to restore the root filesystem with tracing activated
                for all subsystems:
    
                     # xfsrestore -v trace -f /dev/tape /
    
                To enable debug-level tracing for drive and media operations:
    
                     # xfsrestore -v drive=debug,media=debug -f /dev/tape /
    
                To  enable tracing for all subsystems, and debug level tracing for
                drive operations only:
    
                     # xfsrestore -v trace,drive=debug -f /dev/tape /
    
           -A   Do  not  restore  extended  file  attributes.   When  restoring  a
                filesystem managed within a DMF environment this option should not
    
           -E   Prevents xfsrestore from overwriting newer versions of files.  The
                inode modification time of the on-media file is  compared  to  the
                inode  modification  time of corresponding file in the dest direc-
                tory.  The file is restored only if the on-media version is  newer
                than  the  version  in the dest directory.  The inode modification
                time of a file can be displayed with the ls -lc command.
    
           -F   Inhibit interactive operator prompts.  This option inhibits xfsre-
                store from prompting the operator for verification of the selected
                dump as the restore  target  and  from  prompting  for  any  media
                change.
    
           -I   Causes  the  xfsdump inventory to be displayed (no restore is per-
                formed).  Each time  xfsdump  is  used,  an  online  inventory  in
                /var/lib/xfsdump/inventory  is updated.  This is used to determine
                the base for incremental dumps.  It is also  useful  for  manually
                identifying  a  dump  session  to  be  restored (see the -L and -S
                options).   Suboptions  to  filter  the  inventory   display   are
                described later.
    
           -J   Inhibits  inventory update when on-media session inventory encoun-
                tered during restore.  xfsrestore  opportunistically  updates  the
                online inventory when it encounters an on-media session inventory,
                but only if run with an effective user id of root and only if this
                option is not given.
    
           -L session_label
                Specifies  the  label  of  the  dump  session to be restored.  The
                source media is searched for this  label.   It  is  any  arbitrary
                string  up  to 255 characters long.  The label of the desired dump
                session can be copied from the inventory display produced  by  the
                -I option.
    
           -O options_file
                Insert the options contained in options_file into the beginning of
                the command line.  The options are specified just  as  they  would
                appear if typed into the command line.  In addition, newline char-
                acters (\n) can be used as whitespace.   The  options  are  placed
                before  all options actually given on the command line, just after
                the command name.  Only one -O option can be used.  Recursive  use
                is  ignored.   The  destination  directory  cannot be specified in
                options_file.
    
           -Q   Force completion of an interrupted restore session.   This  option
                is  required  to  work  around one specific pathological scenario.
                When restoring a dump session which was interrupted due to an  EOM
                condition and no online session inventory is available, xfsrestore
                cannot know when the restore of that  dump  session  is  complete.
                The  operator is forced to interrupt the restore session.  In that
                case, if the operator tries to subsequently apply a  resumed  dump
                (using  the -r option), xfsrestore refuses to do so.  The operator
    
           -T   Inhibits  interactive  dialogue  timeouts.  xfsrestore prompts the
                operator for media changes.  This dialogue normally times  out  if
                no response is supplied.  This option prevents the timeout.
    
           -X subtree
                Specifies  a  subtree  to exclude.  This is the converse of the -s
                option.  Any number of -X options are allowed.   Each  subtree  is
                specified as a pathname relative to the restore dest.  If a direc-
                tory is specified, the directory and all files beneath that direc-
                tory are excluded.
    
           -Y io_ring_length
                Specify  I/O  buffer ring length.  xfsrestore uses a ring of input
                buffers to achieve maximum throughput  when  restoring  from  tape
                drives.  The default ring length is 3.  However, this is only sup-
                ported when running multi-threaded which has  not  been  done  for
                Linux yet - making this option benign.
    
           -    A lone - causes the standard input to be read as the source of the
                dump to be restored.  Standard input can be a  pipe  from  another
                utility  (such  as  xfsdump(8)) or a redirected file.  This option
                cannot be used with the -f option.  The - must  follow  all  other
                options, and precede the dest specification.
    
           The dumped filesystem is restored into the dest directory.  There is no
           default; the dest must be specified.
    
    
    

    NOTES

       Cumulative Restoration
           A base (level 0) dump and an ordered set of delta dumps can be  sequen-
           tially restored, each on top of the previous, to reproduce the contents
           of the original filesystem at the time the  last  delta  was  produced.
           The operator invokes xfsrestore once for each dump.  The -r option must
           be specified.  The dest directory must be the same for all invocations.
           Each  invocation leaves a directory named xfsrestorehousekeeping in the
           dest directory (however, see the -a option above).  This directory con-
           tains  the  state information that must be communicated between invoca-
           tions.  The operator must remove this directory after  the  last  delta
           has been applied.
    
           xfsrestore  also  generates  a  directory  named  orphanage in the dest
           directory.  xfsrestore removes this directory after completing a simple
           restore.   However, if orphanage is not empty, it is not removed.  This
           can happen if files present on the dump media are not referenced by any
           of  the restored directories.  The orphanage has an entry for each such
           file.  The entry name is the file's original inode number, a  ".",  and
           the  file's generation count modulo 4096 (only the lower 12 bits of the
           generation count are used).
    
           xfsrestore does not remove the  orphanage  after  cumulative  restores.
           Like  the xfsrestorehousekeeping directory, the operator must remove it
           after applying all delta dumps.
           file dumped.  The operator is prompted when the next  media  object  is
           needed.
    
           Media  objects can contain more than one dump.  The operator can select
           the desired dump by specifying the dump label (-L option), or by speci-
           fying  the  dump UUID (-S option).  If neither is specified, xfsrestore
           scans the entire media object, prompting the operator as each dump ses-
           sion is encountered.
    
           The  inventory  display (-I option) is useful for identifying the media
           objects required.  It is also useful for identifying  a  dump  session.
           The  session  UUID  can  be copied from the inventory display to the -S
           option  argument  to  unambiguously  identify  a  dump  session  to  be
           restored.
    
           Dumps placed in regular files or the standard output do not span multi-
           ple media objects, nor do they contain multiple dumps.
    
       Inventory
           Each dump  session  updates  an  inventory  database  in  /var/lib/xfs-
           dump/inventory.   This database can be displayed by invoking xfsrestore
           with the -I option.  The display uses tabbed indentation to present the
           inventory  hierarchically.   The first level is filesystem.  The second
           level is session.  The third level is media stream (currently only  one
           stream  is  supported).  The fourth level lists the media files sequen-
           tially composing the stream.
    
           The following suboptions are available to filter the display.
    
           -I depth=n
                (where n is 1, 2, or 3) limits the hierarchical depth of the  dis-
                play. When n is 1, only the filesystem information from the inven-
                tory is displayed. When n is 2, only filesystem and session infor-
                mation  are  displayed.  When n is 3, only filesystem, session and
                stream information are displayed.
    
           -I level=n
                (where n is the dump level) limits the display to  dumps  of  that
                particular dump level.
    
           The  display  may  be restricted to media files contained in a specific
           media object.
    
           -I mobjid=value
                (where value is a media ID) specifies  the  media  object  by  its
                media ID.
    
           -I mobjlabel=value
                (where  value  is a media label) specifies the media object by its
                media label.
    
           Similarly, the display can be restricted to a specific filesystem.
    
           More  than  one of these suboptions, separated by commas, may be speci-
           fied at the same time to limit the display of the  inventory  to  those
           dumps  of  interest.  However, at most four suboptions can be specified
           at once: one to constrain the display hierarchy depth, one to constrain
           the dump level, one to constrain the media object, and one to constrain
           the filesystem.
    
           For example, -I  depth=1,mobjlabel="tape  1",mnt=host1:/test_mnt  would
           display only the filesystem information (depth=1) for those filesystems
           that were mounted on host1:/test_mnt at the time of the dump, and  only
           those filesystems dumped to the media object labeled "tape 1".
    
           Dump  records may be removed (pruned) from the inventory using the xfs-
           invutil program.
    
           An additional media file is placed at the  end  of  each  dump  stream.
           This media file contains the inventory information for the current dump
           session.  If the online inventory files  in  /var/lib/xfsdump/inventory
           are  missing  information for the current dump session, then the inven-
           tory information in the media file is automatically added to the  files
           in  /var/lib/xfsdump/inventory.   If you wish to incorporate the inven-
           tory information from the media file without restoring  any  data,  you
           may do so using the -t option:
    
                # xfsrestore -t -f /dev/tape
    
           This  is useful to rebuild the inventory database if it is ever lost or
           corrupted.  The only caveat is that xfsrestore needs  to  read  through
           the entire dump in order to reach the inventory media file.  This could
           become time consuming for dump sessions with large media files.
    
       Media Errors
           xfsdump is tolerant of media errors, but cannot  do  error  correction.
           If  a  media  error  occurs in the body of a media file, the filesystem
           file represented at that point is lost.  The bad portion of  the  media
           is  skipped,  and  the  restoration resumes at the next filesystem file
           after the bad portion of the media.
    
           If a media error occurs in the beginning of the media file, the  entire
           media  file  is  lost.   For this reason, large dumps are broken into a
           number of reasonably sized media files.  The restore resumes  with  the
           next media file.
    
       Quotas
           When  xfsdump dumps a filesystem with user quotas, it creates a file in
           the root of the dump called  xfsdump_quotas.   xfsrestore  can  restore
           this  file  like any other file included in the dump.  This file can be
           processed by the restore command of xfs_quota(8) to reactivate the quo-
           tas.   However,  the xfsdump_quotas file contains information which may
           first require modification; specifically the filesystem  name  and  the
           user  ids.   If  you are restoring the quotas for the same users on the
           restored  in files called xfsdump_quotas_group and xfsdump_quotas_proj,
           respectively.
    
    
    

    EXAMPLES

           To restore the root filesystem from a locally mounted tape:
    
                # xfsrestore -f /dev/tape /
    
           To restore from a remote tape, specifying the dump session id:
    
                # xfsrestore -L session_1 -f otherhost:/dev/tape /new
    
           To restore the contents a of a dump to another subdirectory:
    
                # xfsrestore -f /dev/tape /newdir
    
           To copy the contents of a filesystem to  another  directory  (see  xfs-
           dump(8)):
    
                # xfsdump -J - / | xfsrestore -J - /new
    
    
    

    FILES

           /var/lib/xfsdump/inventory
                                    dump inventory database
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           rmt(8), xfsdump(8), xfsinvutil(8), xfs_quota(8), attr_set(2).
    
    
    

    DIAGNOSTICS

           The  exit  code  is  0  on  normal completion, and non-zero if an error
           occurred or the restore was terminated by the operator.
    
           For all verbosity levels greater than 0 (silent) the final line of  the
           output shows the exit status of the restore. It is of the form:
    
                xfsdump: Restore Status: code
    
           Where  code  takes one of the following values: SUCCESS (normal comple-
           tion), INTERRUPT (interrupted), QUIT (media no longer  usable),  INCOM-
           PLETE (restore incomplete), FAULT (software error), and ERROR (resource
           error).  Every attempt will be made to keep both  the  syntax  and  the
           semantics  of  this  log message unchanged in future versions of xfsre-
           store.  However, it may be necessary to refine or  expand  the  set  of
           exit codes, or their interpretation at some point in the future.
    
    
    

    BUGS

           Pathnames  of restored non-directory files (relative to the dest direc-
           tory) must be 1023 characters (MAXPATHLEN) or less.   Longer  pathnames
           are discarded and a warning message displayed.
    
           There is no verify option to xfsrestore.  This would allow the operator
           base.   It  would  be better to allow the operator to identify the last
           delta in the sequence of interest, and let  xfsrestore  work  backwards
           from  that  delta  to  identify and apply the preceding deltas and base
           dump, all in one invocation.
    
                                                                     xfsrestore(8)
    
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