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    Command:

    xfsdump

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           xfsdump -h
           xfsdump [ options ] -f dest [ -f dest ... ] filesystem
           xfsdump [ options ] - filesystem
           xfsdump -I [ subopt=value ... ]
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           xfsdump backs up files and their attributes in a filesystem.  The files
           are dumped to storage  media,  a  regular  file,  or  standard  output.
           Options  allow  the  operator to have all files dumped, just files that
           have changed since a previous dump, or just files contained in  a  list
           of pathnames.
    
           The  xfsrestore(8)  utility re-populates a filesystem with the contents
           of the dump.
    
           Each invocation of xfsdump dumps just one filesystem.  That  invocation
           is  termed a dump session.  The dump session splits the filesystem into
           one or more dump streams, one per destination.  The split  is  done  in
           filesystem inode number (ino) order, at boundaries selected to equalize
           the size of each stream.  Furthermore, the breakpoints between  streams
           may be in the middle of very large files (at extent boundaries) if nec-
           essary to achieve  reasonable  stream  size  equalization.   Each  dump
           stream  can  span  several media objects, and a single media object can
           contain several dump streams.  The typical media object is a tape  car-
           tridge.   The media object records the dump stream as one or more media
           files.  A media file is a self-contained partial dump, intended to min-
           imize  the  impact  of  media dropouts on the entire dump stream at the
           expense of increasing the  time  required  to  complete  the  dump.  By
           default  only  one  media  file  is written unless a media file size is
           specified using the -d option. Other techniques, such as making a  sec-
           ond copy of the dump image, provide more protection against media fail-
           ures than multiple media files will.
    
           However, the current implementation in Linux only supports one destina-
           tion and running single threaded. Therefore, the above comments regard-
           ing multiple streams describe the possible future capabilities.
    
           xfsdump maintains an online dump inventory  in  /var/lib/xfsdump/inven-
           tory.   The  -I  option displays the inventory contents hierarchically.
           The levels of the hierarchy are: filesystem, dump session, stream,  and
           media file.
    
           The options to xfsdump are:
    
           -a   Specifies  that  files for which the Data Migration Facility (DMF)
                has complete offline copies (dual-state files) be  treated  as  if
                they  were  offline (OFL).  This means that the file data will not
                be dumped by xfsdump, resulting in a smaller dump  file.   If  the
                file  is  later restored the file data is still accessible through
                DMF.  If both '-a option' and '-z option' are specified,  the  '-a
                option' takes precedence (see '-z option' below).
                specified,  xfsdump  will  dump  data to tape using a single media
                file per media object.  The specified media file size may need  to
                be  adjusted if, for example, xfsdump cannot fit a media file onto
                a single tape.
    
           -e   Allow files to be excluded from the dump.  This will cause xfsdump
                to skip files which have the "no dump" file attribute set. See the
                "Excluding individual files" section below for details on  setting
                this  file  attribute.  Files  with  an  extended  attribute named
                "SGI_XFSDUMP_SKIP_FILE" will also be skipped, however this  method
                is  deprecated  and  xfsdump will stop checking for it in a future
                version.
    
           -f dest [ -f dest ... ]
                Specifies a dump destination.  A dump destination can be the path-
                name  of  a  device  (such  as  a tape drive), a regular file or a
                remote tape drive (see rmt(8)).  This option must  be  omitted  if
                the standard output option (a lone - preceding the source filesys-
                tem specification) is specified.
    
           -l level
                Specifies a dump level of 0 to 9.  The dump level  determines  the
                base  dump  to  which this dump is relative.  The base dump is the
                most recent dump at a lesser level.  A level 0 dump is absolute  -
                all  files  are  dumped.   A  dump  level where 1 <= level <= 9 is
                referred to as an incremental dump.  Only  files  that  have  been
                changed since the base dump are dumped.  Subtree dumps (see the -s
                option below) cannot be used as the base for incremental dumps.
    
           -m   Use the minimal tape protocol for non-scsi  tape  destinations  or
                remote  tape destinations which are not scsi Linux tape drives nor
                IRIX tape drives.  This option cannot be used without specifying a
                blocksize to be used (see -b option above).
    
           -o   Overwrite  the  tape.  With this option, xfsdump does not read the
                tape first to check the contents. This option may be used if  xfs-
                dump is unable to determine the block size of a tape .
    
           -p interval
                Causes  progress  reports to be printed at the specified interval.
                interval is given in seconds.  The progress report  indicates  how
                many  files  have  been dumped, the total number of files to dump,
                the percentage of data dumped, and the elapsed time.
    
           -q   Destination tape drive is a QIC tape.  QIC tapes only  use  a  512
                byte blocksize, for which xfsdump must make special allowances.
    
           -s pathname [ -s pathname ... ]
                Restricts  the  dump to files contained in the specified pathnames
                (subtrees).  A pathname must be relative to the mount point of the
                filesystem.   For  example, if a filesystem is mounted at /d2, the
                pathname argument for the directory  /d2/users  is  ''users''.   A
    
           -v verbosity
           -v subsys=verbosity[,subsys=verbosity,...]
                Specifies the level of detail used for messages  displayed  during
                the  course  of  the dump. The verbosity argument can be passed as
                either a string or an integer. If passed as a string the following
                values  may  be used: silent, verbose, trace, debug, or nitty.  If
                passed as an integer, values from 0-5 may be used. The values  0-4
                correspond  to the strings already listed. The value 5 can be used
                to produce even more verbose debug output.
    
                The first form of this option activates message logging across all
                dump  subsystems. The second form allows the message logging level
                to be controlled on a per-subsystem basis. The two  forms  can  be
                combined (see the example below). The argument subsys can take one
                of the following values: general, proc, drive,  media,  inventory,
                inomap and excluded_files.
    
                For  example,  to  dump the root filesystem with tracing activated
                for all subsystems:
    
                     # xfsdump -v trace -f /dev/tape /
    
                To enable debug-level tracing for drive and media operations:
    
                     # xfsdump -v drive=debug,media=debug -f /dev/tape /
    
                To enable tracing for all subsystems, and debug level tracing  for
                drive operations only:
    
                     # xfsdump -v trace,drive=debug -f /dev/tape /
    
                To list files that will be excluded from the dump:
    
                     # xfsdump -e -v excluded_files=debug -f /dev/tape /
    
           -z size
                Specifies  the maximum size, in kilobytes, of files to be included
                in the dump.  Files over this size,  will  be  excluded  from  the
                dump,  except  for DMF dual-state files when '-a option' is speci-
                fied (see '-a option' above).  When specified, '-a  option'  takes
                precedence  over '-z option'. The size is an estimate based on the
                number of disk blocks actually used by the file, and so  does  not
                include holes.  In other words, size refers to the amount of space
                the file would take in the  resulting  dump.   On  an  interactive
                restore,  the  skipped  file is visible with xfsrestore's 'ls' and
                while you can use the 'add' and 'extract' commands,  nothing  will
                be restored.
    
           -A   Do  not  dump extended file attributes.  When dumping a filesystem
                managed within a DMF environment this option should not  be  used.
                DMF  stores file migration status within extended attributes asso-
                dump  session is an incremental dump with a level one greater than
                that of the base session.   This  option  allows  incremental  and
                resumed  dumps  to be based on any previous dump, rather than just
                the most recent.
    
           -E   Pre-erase media.  If this option is  specified,  media  is  erased
                prior  to  use.  The operator is prompted for confirmation, unless
                the -F option is also specified.
    
           -F   Don't prompt the operator.  When xfsdump encounters a media object
                containing  non-xfsdump  data,  xfsdump normally asks the operator
                for permission to overwrite.  With this option  the  overwrite  is
                performed,  no  questions  asked.  When xfsdump encounters end-of-
                media during a dump, xfsdump normally asks the operator if another
                media  object  will  be  provided.   With  this option the dump is
                instead interrupted.
    
           -I   Displays the xfsdump inventory (no dump  is  performed).   xfsdump
                records  each dump session in an online inventory in /var/lib/xfs-
                dump/inventory.  xfsdump uses this inventory to determine the base
                for incremental dumps.  It is also useful for manually identifying
                a dump session to be restored.  Suboptions to filter the inventory
                display are described later.
    
           -J   Inhibits  the normal update of the inventory.  This is useful when
                the media being dumped to will be discarded or overwritten.
    
           -L session_label
                Specifies a label for the dump session.  It can be  any  arbitrary
                string up to 255 characters long.
    
           -M label [ -M label ... ]
                Specifies  a  label  for the first media object (for example, tape
                cartridge) written on the  corresponding  destination  during  the
                session.   It  can  be  any  arbitrary string up to 255 characters
                long.  Multiple media object labels can be specified, one for each
                destination.
    
           -O options_file
                Insert the options contained in options_file into the beginning of
                the command line.  The options are specified just  as  they  would
                appear if typed into the command line.  In addition, newline char-
                acters (\n) can be used as whitespace.   The  options  are  placed
                before  all options actually given on the command line, just after
                the command name.  Only one -O option can be used.  Recursive  use
                is   ignored.   The  source  filesystem  cannot  be  specified  in
                options_file.
    
           -R   Resumes a previously interrupted dump session.  If the most recent
                dump  at  this dump's level (-l option) was interrupted, this dump
                contains only files not in the  interrupted  dump  and  consistent
                with  the  incremental  level.   However,  files  contained in the
    
           -    A lone - causes the dump stream to be sent to the standard output,
                where  it can be piped to another utility such as xfsrestore(8) or
                redirected to a file.  This option cannot  be  used  with  the  -f
                option.   The  -  must  follow  all  other options and precede the
                filesystem specification.
    
           The filesystem, filesystem, can be specified either as a mount point or
           as  a  special  device  file  (for  example,  /dev/dsk/dks0d1s0).   The
           filesystem must be mounted to be dumped.
    
    
    

    NOTES

       Dump Interruption
           A dump can be interrupted at any time and later resumed.  To interrupt,
           type  control-C  (or  the  current  terminal interrupt character).  The
           operator is prompted to select one  of  several  operations,  including
           dump  interruption.   After the operator selects dump interruption, the
           dump continues until a convenient break point is encountered (typically
           the end of the current file).  Very large files are broken into smaller
           subfiles, so the wait for the end of the current file is brief.
    
       Dump Resumption
           A previously interrupted dump can  be  resumed  by  specifying  the  -R
           option.   If  the  most  recent  dump at the specified level was inter-
           rupted, the new dump does not include files already dumped, unless they
           have changed since the interrupted dump.
    
       Media Management
           A  single  media  object  can contain many dump streams.  Conversely, a
           single dump stream can span multiple media objects.  If a  dump  stream
           is sent to a media object already containing one or more dumps, xfsdump
           appends the new dump stream after the last dump  stream.   Media  files
           are  never  overwritten.   If  end-of-media  is  encountered during the
           course of a dump, the operator is prompted to insert a new media object
           into  the  drive.   The  dump stream continuation is appended after the
           last media file on the new media object.
    
       Inventory
           Each dump  session  updates  an  inventory  database  in  /var/lib/xfs-
           dump/inventory.   xfsdump  uses  the inventory to determine the base of
           incremental and resumed dumps.
    
           This database can be displayed by invoking xfsdump with the -I  option.
           The display uses tabbed indentation to present the inventory hierarchi-
           cally.  The first level is filesystem.  The second  level  is  session.
           The  third  level  is  media  stream (currently only one stream is sup-
           ported).  The fourth level lists the media files sequentially composing
           the stream.
    
           The following suboptions are available to filter the display.
    
           -I depth=n
                (where  value  is  a  media  ID) specifies the media object by its
                media ID.
    
           -I mobjlabel=value
                (where value is a media label) specifies the media object  by  its
                media label.
    
           Similarly, the display can be restricted to a specific filesystem.
    
           -I mnt=mount_point
                (that  is,  [hostname:]pathname),  identifies  the  filesystem  by
                mountpoint.  Specifying the hostname is optional, but may be  use-
                ful  in  a  clustered  environment where more than one host can be
                responsible for dumping a filesystem.
    
           -I fsid=filesystem_id
                identifies the filesystem by filesystem ID.
    
           -I dev=device_pathname
                (that is, [hostname:]device_pathname) identifies the filesystem by
                device.  As  with  the  mnt  filter,  specifying  the  hostname is
                optional.
    
           More than one of these suboptions, separated by commas, may  be  speci-
           fied  at  the  same time to limit the display of the inventory to those
           dumps of interest.  However, at most four suboptions can  be  specified
           at once: one to constrain the display hierarchy depth, one to constrain
           the dump level, one to constrain the media object, and one to constrain
           the filesystem.
    
           For  example,  -I  depth=1,mobjlabel="tape 1",mnt=host1:/test_mnt would
           display only the filesystem information (depth=1) for those filesystems
           that  were mounted on host1:/test_mnt at the time of the dump, and only
           those filesystems dumped to the media object labeled "tape 1".
    
           Dump records may be removed (pruned) from the inventory using the  xfs-
           invutil program.
    
           An  additional  media  file  is  placed at the end of each dump stream.
           This media file contains the inventory information for the current dump
           session.   Its  contents  may  be merged back into the online inventory
           database at a later time using xfsrestore(1M).
    
           The inventory files stored in /var/lib/xfsdump are not included in  the
           dump,  even  if that directory is contained within the filesystem being
           dumped.  Including the inventory in the dump may lead to loss  or  cor-
           ruption  of  data,  should an older version be restored overwriting the
           current version.  To backup the  xfsdump  inventory,  the  contents  of
           /var/lib/xfsdump should be copied to another location which may then be
           safely dumped.  Upon restoration, those files may be copied  back  into
           /var/lib/xfsdump,  overwriting whatever files may be there, or xfsinvu-
           til(1M) may be used to selectively merge parts of the  restored  inven-
           The  media  label is used to identify media objects, and is independent
           of the session label.  Each media file on the media object  contains  a
           copy  of  the media label.  An error is returned if the operator speci-
           fies a media label that does not match  the  media  label  on  a  media
           object  containing valid media files.  Media labels are recorded in the
           inventory.
    
       UUIDs
           UUIDs (Universally Unique Identifiers) are used  in  three  places:  to
           identify  the  filesystem  being dumped (using the filesystem UUID, see
           xfs(5) for more details), to identify the dump session, and to identify
           each media object.  The inventory display (-I) includes all of these.
    
       Dump Level Usage
           The  dump  level  mechanism  provides  a structured form of incremental
           dumps.  A dump of level level includes only  files  that  have  changed
           since  the  most  recent dump at a level less than level.  For example,
           the operator can establish a dump schedule that involves  a  full  dump
           every  Friday  and  a daily incremental dump containing only files that
           have changed since the previous dump.  In this case Friday's dump would
           be  at  level 0, Saturday's at level 1, Sunday's at level 2, and so on,
           up to the Thursday dump at level 6.
    
           The above schedule results in a very tedious restore procedure to fully
           reconstruct  the  Thursday  version of the filesystem; xfsrestore would
           need to be fed all 7 dumps in sequence.  A compromise  schedule  is  to
           use  level 1 on Saturday, Monday, and Wednesday, and level 2 on Sunday,
           Tuesday, and Thursday.  The  Monday  and  Wednesday  dumps  would  take
           longer,  but  the  worst case restore requires the accumulation of just
           three dumps, one each at level 0, level 1, and level 2.
    
       Quotas
           If the filesystem being dumped contains user quotas, xfsdump  will  use
           xfs_quota(8) to store the quotas in a file called xfsdump_quotas in the
           root of the filesystem to be dumped. This file will then be included in
           the  dump.   Upon  restoration, xfs_quota (8) can be used to reactivate
           the quotas for the filesystem.  Note, however, that the  xfsdump_quotas
           file  will  probably  require  modification to change the filesystem or
           UIDs if the filesystem has been restored to a  different  partition  or
           system.  Group  and project quotas will be handled in a similar fashion
           and saved in files called xfsdump_quotas_group and  xfsdump_quotas_proj
           , respectively.
    
       Excluding individual files
           It may be desirable to exclude particular files or directories from the
           dump.  The -s option can be used to  limit  the  dump  to  a  specified
           directory,  and  the -z option can be used to exclude files over a par-
           ticular size.  Additionally, when xfsdump is run with  the  -e  option,
           files  that  are  tagged  with the "no dump" file attribute will not be
           included in the dump.  The chattr(1) command can be used  to  set  this
           attribute on individual files or entire subtrees.
    
           mal  operation,  xfsdump  will  only report the number of files it will
           skip.  The -v excluded_files=debug option, however, will cause  xfsdump
           to list the inode numbers of the individual files affected.
    
    
    

    EXAMPLES

           To  perform  a  level 0, single stream dump of the root filesystem to a
           locally mounted tape drive, prompting for session and media labels when
           required:
    
                # xfsdump -f /dev/tape /
    
           To specify session and media labels explicitly:
    
                # xfsdump -L session_1 -M tape_0 -f /dev/tape /
    
           To perform a dump to a remote tape using the minimal rmt protocol and a
           set blocksize of 64k:
    
                # xfsdump -m -b 65536 -f otherhost:/dev/tape /
    
           To perform a level 0, multi-stream dump to  two  locally  mounted  tape
           drives:
    
                # xfsdump -L session_2 -f /dev/rmt/tps4d6v -M tape_1 \
                          -f /dev/rmt/tps5d6v -M tape_2 /
    
           To perform a level 1 dump relative to the last level 0 dump recorded in
           the inventory:
    
                # xfsdump -l 1 -f /dev/tape /
    
           To copy the contents of a filesystem to another directory  (see  xfsre-
           store(8)):
    
                # xfsdump -J - / | xfsrestore -J - /new
    
    
    

    FILES

           /var/lib/xfsdump/inventory
                                    dump inventory database
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           attr(1),    rmt(8),    xfsrestore(8),    xfsinvutil(8),   xfs_quota(8),
           attr_get(2).
    
    
    

    DIAGNOSTICS

           The exit code is 0 on normal completion, non-zero if an error occurs or
           the dump is terminated by the operator.
    
           For  all verbosity levels greater than 0 (silent) the final line of the
           output shows the exit status of the dump. It is of the form:
    
           files below affected directories will be placed in the orphanage direc-
           tory by xfsrestore.
    
    
    

    BUGS

           xfsdump does not dump unmounted filesystems.
    
           The dump frequency field of /etc/fstab is not supported.
    
           xfsdump uses the alert program only when a media change is required.
    
           xfsdump requires root privilege (except for inventory display).
    
           xfsdump can only dump XFS filesystems.
    
           The  media format used by xfsdump can only be understood by xfsrestore.
    
           xfsdump does not know how to manage  CD-ROM  or  other  removable  disk
           drives.
    
           xfsdump  can become confused when doing incremental or resumed dumps if
           on the same machine you dump two XFS filesystems and  both  filesystems
           have  the  same  filesystem  identifier (UUID).  Since xfsdump uses the
           filesystem identifier to identify filesystems,  xfsdump  maintains  one
           combined  set  of  dump inventories for both filesystems instead of two
           sets of dump inventories.  This scenario can happen only if dd or  some
           other  block-by-block  copy  program  was used to make a copy of an XFS
           filesystem.  See xfs_copy(8) and xfs(5) for more details.
    
                                                                        xfsdump(8)
    
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