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    Command:

    xfs_repair

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           xfs_repair  [  -dfLnPv  ]  [  -m maxmem ] [ -c subopt=value ] [ -o sub-
           opt[=value] ] [ -t interval ] [ -l logdev ] [ -r rtdev ] device
           xfs_repair -V
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           xfs_repair repairs corrupt or damaged  XFS  filesystems  (see  xfs(5)).
           The  filesystem  is specified using the device argument which should be
           the device name of the disk partition or volume containing the filesys-
           tem.  If  given  the name of a block device, xfs_repair will attempt to
           find the raw device associated with the specified block device and will
           use the raw device instead.
    
           Regardless, the filesystem to be repaired must be unmounted, otherwise,
           the resulting filesystem may be inconsistent or corrupt.
    
    
    

    OPTIONS

           -f     Specifies that the filesystem image to be processed is stored in
                  a regular file at device (see the mkfs.xfs -d file option). This
                  might happen if an image copy of a filesystem has been copied or
                  written  into  an  ordinary  file.  This option implies that any
                  external log or realtime section is also in an ordinary file.
    
           -L     Force Log Zeroing.  Forces xfs_repair to zero the log even if it
                  is  dirty  (contains  metadata changes).  When using this option
                  the filesystem will likely appear to be corrupt, and  can  cause
                  the loss of user files and/or data.
    
           -l logdev
                  Specifies  the device special file where the filesystem's exter-
                  nal log resides. Only for those filesystems which use an  exter-
                  nal  log.  See the mkfs.xfs -l option, and refer to xfs(5) for a
                  detailed description of the XFS log.
    
           -r rtdev
                  Specifies the device special file where the  filesystem's  real-
                  time  section  resides.  Only  for those filesystems which use a
                  realtime section.  See the mkfs.xfs  -r  option,  and  refer  to
                  xfs(5) for a detailed description of the XFS realtime section.
    
           -n     No  modify mode. Specifies that xfs_repair should not modify the
                  filesystem but should only scan the filesystem and indicate what
                  repairs would have been made.
    
           -P     Disable  prefetching  of  inode  and  directory blocks. Use this
                  option if you find xfs_repair gets stuck and  stops  proceeding.
                  Interrupting a stuck xfs_repair is safe.
    
           -m maxmem
                  Specifies   the   approximate   maximum  amount  of  memory,  in
                  megabytes, to use for xfs_repair.  xfs_repair has its own inter-
                  nal  block  cache  which  will scale out up to the lesser of the
                  The suboptions supported are:
    
                     ihash=ihashsize
                            overrides the default inode cache hash size. The total
                            number  of  inode cache entries are limited to 8 times
                            this amount. The default  ihashsize  is  1024  (for  a
                            total of 8192 entries).
    
                     bhash=bhashsize
                            overrides  the  default  buffer  cache  hash size. The
                            total number of buffer cache entries are limited to  8
                            times  this  amount. The default size is set to use up
                            the remainder of 75%  of  the  system's  physical  RAM
                            size.
    
                     ag_stride=ags_per_concat_unit
                            This creates additional processing threads to parallel
                            process AGs that span multiple concat units. This  can
                            significantly  reduce  repair  times  on  concat based
                            filesystems.
    
                     force_geometry
                            Check the  filesystem  even  if  geometry  information
                            could  not be validated.  Geometry information can not
                            be validated if only a  single  allocation  group  and
                            exist  and  thus  we  do  not have a backup superblock
                            available, or if there are two allocation  groups  and
                            the  two  superblocks  do  not agree on the filesystem
                            geometry.  Only use this option if you  validated  the
                            geometry  yourself and know what you are doing.  If In
                            doubt run in no modify mode first.
    
           -t  interval
                  Modify reporting interval. During long runs  xfs_repair  outputs
                  its  progress every 15 minutes. Reporting is only activated when
                  ag_stride is enabled.
    
           -v     Verbose output.
    
           -d     Repair dangerously. Allow xfs_repair to repair an XFS filesystem
                  mounted  read  only.  This is typically done on a root fileystem
                  from single user mode, immediately followed by a reboot.
    
           -V     Prints out the current version number and exits.
    
       Checks Performed
           Inconsistencies corrected include the following:
    
           1.     Inode and inode blockmap (addressing) checks: bad  magic  number
                  in  inode,  bad  magic numbers in inode blockmap blocks, extents
                  out of order, incorrect number  of  records  in  inode  blockmap
                  blocks,  blocks claimed that are not in a legal data area of the
                  rect number of entries  in  a  directory  block,  bad  freespace
                  information  in  a  directory  leaf  block, entry pointing to an
                  unallocated (free) or out of range inode,  overlapping  entries,
                  missing  or  incorrect  dot  and  dotdot entries, entries out of
                  hashvalue order, incorrect internal directory  pointers,  direc-
                  tory type not consistent with inode format and size.
    
           5.     Pathname  checks: files or directories not referenced by a path-
                  name starting from the filesystem root, illegal pathname  compo-
                  nents.
    
           6.     Link count checks: link counts that do not agree with the number
                  of directory references to the inode.
    
           7.     Freemap checks: blocks claimed free  by  the  freemap  but  also
                  claimed  by  an  inode,  blocks  unclaimed  by any inode but not
                  appearing in the freemap.
    
           8.     Super Block checks: total free block and/or  free  i-node  count
                  incorrect,  filesystem geometry inconsistent, secondary and pri-
                  mary superblocks contradictory.
    
           Orphaned files and directories (allocated, in-use but unreferenced) are
           reconnected  by  placing  them  in  the lost+found directory.  The name
           assigned is the inode number.
    
       Disk Errors
           xfs_repair aborts on most disk I/O errors. Therefore, if you are trying
           to  repair  a  filesystem that was damaged due to a disk drive failure,
           steps should be taken to ensure that all blocks in the  filesystem  are
           readable  and  writeable  before attempting to use xfs_repair to repair
           the filesystem. A possible method is using dd(8) to copy the data  onto
           a good disk.
    
       lost+found
           The directory lost+found does not have to already exist in the filesys-
           tem being repaired.  If the directory does not exist, it  is  automati-
           cally  created  if  required.  If it already exists, it will be checked
           for consistency and if valid  will  be  used  for  additional  orphaned
           files. Invalid lost+found directories are removed and recreated. Exist-
           ing files in a valid lost+found are not removed or renamed.
    
       Corrupted Superblocks
           XFS has both primary and secondary superblocks.  xfs_repair uses infor-
           mation in the primary superblock to automatically find and validate the
           primary superblock against the secondary superblocks before proceeding.
           Should  the  primary be too corrupted to be useful in locating the sec-
           ondary superblocks, the program scans the filesystem until it finds and
           validates  some  secondary  superblocks.  At that point, it generates a
           primary superblock.
    
       Quotas
           taken.   Most  of  the  messages  are completely understandable only to
           those who are knowledgeable about  the  structure  of  the  filesystem.
           Some  of  the  more  common messages are explained here.  Note that the
           language of the messages is slightly different if xfs_repair is run  in
           no-modify  mode  because  the program is not changing anything on disk.
           No-modify mode indicates what it would do to repair the  filesystem  if
           run without the no-modify flag.
    
           disconnected inode ino, moving to lost+found
    
                  An inode numbered ino was not connected to the filesystem direc-
                  tory tree and was reconnected to the lost+found  directory.  The
                  inode  is  assigned  the  name  of its inode number (ino).  If a
                  lost+found directory does not exist, it  is  automatically  cre-
                  ated.
    
           disconnected dir inode ino, moving to lost+found
    
                  As  above  only  the inode is a directory inode.  If a directory
                  inode is attached to lost+found, all of its  children  (if  any)
                  stay  attached  to the directory and therefore get automatically
                  reconnected when the directory is reconnected.
    
           imap claims in-use inode ino is free, correcting imap
    
                  The inode allocation map thinks that inode ino is  free  whereas
                  examination  of the inode indicates that the inode may be in use
                  (although it may be  disconnected).   The  program  updates  the
                  inode allocation map.
    
           imap claims free inode ino is in use, correcting imap
    
                  The inode allocation map thinks that inode ino is in use whereas
                  examination of the inode indicates that the inode is not in  use
                  and therefore is free.  The program updates the inode allocation
                  map.
    
           resetting inode ino nlinks from x to y
    
                  The program detected a mismatch  between  the  number  of  valid
                  directory entries referencing inode ino and the number of refer-
                  ences recorded in the inode and corrected the the number in  the
                  inode.
    
           fork-type fork in ino ino claims used block bno
    
                  Inode  ino  claims  a block bno that is used (claimed) by either
                  another inode or the filesystem itself for metadata storage. The
                  fork-type  is either data or attr indicating whether the problem
                  lies in the portion of the inode that tracks regular data or the
                  portion  of  the inode that stores XFS attributes.  If the inode
                  is a real-time (rt) inode, the message says so.  Any inode  that
                  are  out of the legal range of the filesystem.  The message sup-
                  plies the start, end, and file offset of the extent.   The  mes-
                  sage  is  slightly  different  if the extent is a real-time (rt)
                  extent.
    
           bad fork-type fork in inode ino
    
                  There was something structurally wrong or inconsistent with  the
                  data structures that map offsets to filesystem blocks.
    
           cleared inode ino
    
                  There  was something wrong with the inode that was uncorrectable
                  so the program freed the inode.  This  usually  happens  because
                  the  inode  claims blocks that are used by something else or the
                  inode itself is badly corrupted. Typically, this message is pre-
                  ceded by one or more messages indicating why the inode needed to
                  be cleared.
    
           bad attribute fork in inode ino, clearing attr fork
    
                  There was something wrong with the portion  of  the  inode  that
                  stores  XFS attributes (the attribute fork) so the program reset
                  the attribute fork.  As a result of this, all attributes on that
                  inode are lost.
    
           correcting nextents for inode ino, was x - counted y
    
                  The  program  found that the number of extents used to store the
                  data in the inode is wrong and corrected the number.   The  mes-
                  sage  refers  to nextents if the count is wrong on the number of
                  extents used to store attribute information.
    
           entry name in dir dir_ino not consistent with .. value  (xxxx)  in  dir
           ino ino, junking entry name in directory inode dir_ino
    
                  The entry name in directory inode dir_ino references a directory
                  inode ino.  However, the .. entry  in  directory  ino  does  not
                  point  back  to  directory  dir_ino,  so the program deletes the
                  entry name in directory inode dir_ino.  If the  directory  inode
                  ino  winds up becoming a disconnected inode as a result of this,
                  it is moved to lost+found later.
    
           entry name in dir dir_ino references already  connected  dir  ino  ino,
           junking entry name in directory inode dir_ino
    
                  The  entry name in directory inode dir_ino points to a directory
                  inode ino that is known to be  a  child  of  another  directory.
                  Therefore,  the  entry  is invalid and is deleted.  This message
                  refers to an entry in a small directory.  If this were  a  large
                  directory, the last phrase would read "will clear entry".
    
    
    

    BUGS

           The filesystem to be checked and  repaired  must  have  been  unmounted
           cleanly  using  normal  system administration procedures (the umount(8)
           command or system shutdown), not as a  result  of  a  crash  or  system
           reset.   If the filesystem has not been unmounted cleanly, mount it and
           unmount it cleanly before running xfs_repair.
    
           xfs_repair does not do a thorough job on XFS extended attributes.   The
           structure  of  the attribute fork will be consistent, but only the con-
           tents of attribute forks that will fit into an inode are checked.  This
           limitation will be fixed in the future.
    
           The no-modify mode (-n option) is not completely accurate.  It does not
           catch inconsistencies in the freespace  and  inode  maps,  particularly
           lost blocks or subtly corrupted maps (trees).
    
           The  no-modify mode can generate repeated warnings about the same prob-
           lems because it cannot fix the problems as they are encountered.
    
           If a filesystem fails to be repaired, a metadump image can be generated
           with  xfs_metadump(8)  and  be sent to an XFS maintainer to be analysed
           and xfs_repair fixed and/or improved.
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           dd(1), mkfs.xfs(8), umount(8), xfs_admin(8),  xfs_check(8),  xfs_metad-
           ump(8), xfs(5).
    
                                                                     xfs_repair(8)
    
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