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    Command:

    xargs

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           xargs  [-0prtx]  [-E  eof-str] [-e[eof-str]] [--eof[=eof-str]] [--null]
           [-d delimiter] [--delimiter delimiter]  [-I  replace-str]  [-i[replace-
           str]]    [--replace[=replace-str]]   [-l[max-lines]]   [-L   max-lines]
           [--max-lines[=max-lines]] [-n max-args] [--max-args=max-args] [-s  max-
           chars]  [--max-chars=max-chars]  [-P max-procs] [--max-procs=max-procs]
           [--interactive]      [--verbose]      [--exit]      [--no-run-if-empty]
           [--arg-file=file]   [--show-limits]   [--version]   [--help]   [command
           [initial-arguments]]
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           This manual page documents the GNU version of xargs.  xargs reads items
           from  the  standard  input, delimited by blanks (which can be protected
           with double or single quotes or a backslash) or newlines, and  executes
           the  command (default is /bin/echo) one or more times with any initial-
           arguments followed by items read from standard input.  Blank  lines  on
           the standard input are ignored.
    
           Because  Unix  filenames  can contain blanks and newlines, this default
           behaviour is often problematic; filenames containing blanks and/or new-
           lines  are  incorrectly  processed by xargs.  In these situations it is
           better to use the -0 option, which prevents such problems.   When using
           this option you will need to ensure that the program which produces the
           input for xargs also uses a null character as  a  separator.   If  that
           program  is GNU find for example, the -print0 option does this for you.
    
           If any invocation of the command exits with a status of 255, xargs will
           stop  immediately  without reading any further input.  An error message
           is issued on stderr when this happens.
    
    
    

    OPTIONS

           --arg-file=file
           -a file
                  Read items from file instead of standard input.  If you use this
                  option,  stdin  remains unchanged when commands are run.  Other-
                  wise, stdin is redirected from /dev/null.
    
           --null
           -0     Input items are terminated by a null  character  instead  of  by
                  whitespace,  and the quotes and backslash are not special (every
                  character is taken literally).  Disables the end of file string,
                  which  is  treated  like  any other argument.  Useful when input
                  items might contain white space, quote  marks,  or  backslashes.
                  The  GNU  find  -print0  option produces input suitable for this
                  mode.
    
           --delimiter=delim
           -d delim
                  Input items are terminated by the specified  character.   Quotes
                  and  backslash  are not special; every character in the input is
                  taken literally.  Disables  the  end-of-file  string,  which  is
                  used.
    
           --eof[=eof-str]
           -e[eof-str]
                  This option is a synonym for the -E option.  Use -E instead, be-
                  cause it is POSIX compliant while this option is not.   If  eof-
                  str  is  omitted, there is no end of file string.  If neither -E
                  nor -e is used, no end of file string is used.
    
           --help Print a summary of the options to xargs and exit.
    
           -I replace-str
                  Replace occurrences of replace-str in the initial-arguments with
                  names  read  from  standard input.  Also, unquoted blanks do not
                  terminate input items; instead  the  separator  is  the  newline
                  character.  Implies -x and -L 1.
    
           --replace[=replace-str]
           -i[replace-str]
                  This  option  is  a  synonym for -Ireplace-str if replace-str is
                  specified, and for -I{} otherwise.  This option  is  deprecated;
                  use -I instead.
    
           -L max-lines
                  Use  at  most  max-lines  nonblank input lines per command line.
                  Trailing blanks cause an input line to be logically continued on
                  the next input line.  Implies -x.
    
           --max-lines[=max-lines]
           -l[max-lines]
                  Synonym for the -L option.  Unlike -L, the max-lines argument is
                  optional.  If max-lines is not specified, it  defaults  to  one.
                  The  -l  option is deprecated since the POSIX standard specifies
                  -L instead.
    
           --max-args=max-args
           -n max-args
                  Use at most max-args arguments per  command  line.   Fewer  than
                  max-args  arguments will be used if the size (see the -s option)
                  is exceeded, unless the -x option is given, in which case  xargs
                  will exit.
    
           --interactive
           -p     Prompt  the user about whether to run each command line and read
                  a line from the terminal.  Only run the command line if the  re-
                  sponse starts with 'y' or 'Y'.  Implies -t.
    
           --no-run-if-empty
           -r     If the standard input does not contain any nonblanks, do not run
                  the command.  Normally, the command is run once even if there is
                  no input.  This option is a GNU extension.
    
    
           --version
                  Print the version number of xargs and exit.
    
           --show-limits
                  Display  the limits on the command-line length which are imposed
                  by the operating system, xargs' choice of buffer size and the -s
                  option.   Pipe  the  input  from  /dev/null (and perhaps specify
                  --no-run-if-empty) if you don't want xargs to do anything.
    
           --exit
           -x     Exit if the size (see the -s option) is exceeded.
    
           --max-procs=max-procs
           -P max-procs
                  Run up to max-procs processes at a time; the default is  1.   If
                  max-procs  is 0, xargs will run as many processes as possible at
                  a time.  Use the -n option with -P; otherwise chances  are  that
                  only one exec will be done.
    
    
    

    EXAMPLES

           find /tmp -name core -type f -print | xargs /bin/rm -f
    
           Find  files  named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them.
           Note that this will work incorrectly if there are  any  filenames  con-
           taining newlines or spaces.
    
           find /tmp -name core -type f -print0 | xargs -0 /bin/rm -f
    
           Find  files  named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them,
           processing filenames in such a way that file or  directory  names  con-
           taining spaces or newlines are correctly handled.
    
           find /tmp -depth -name core -type f -delete
    
           Find  files  named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them,
           but more efficiently than in the previous example (because we avoid the
           need  to use fork(2) and exec(2) to launch rm and we don't need the ex-
           tra xargs process).
    
           cut -d: -f1 < /etc/passwd | sort | xargs echo
    
           Generates a compact listing of all the users on the system.
    
           xargs sh -c 'emacs "$@" < /dev/tty' emacs
    
           Launches the minimum number of copies of Emacs needed,  one  after  the
           other, to edit the files listed on xargs' standard input.  This example
           achieves the same effect as BSD's -o option, but in a more flexible and
    
           Exit  codes  greater  than 128 are used by the shell to indicate that a
           program died due to a fatal signal.
    
    
    

    STANDARDS CONFORMANCE

           As of GNU xargs version 4.2.9, the default behaviour of xargs is not to
           have  a  logical end-of-file marker.  POSIX (IEEE Std 1003.1, 2004 Edi-
           tion) allows this.
    
           The -l and -i options appear in the 1997 version of the POSIX standard,
           but  do  not appear in the 2004 version of the standard.  Therefore you
           should use -L and -I instead, respectively.
    
           The POSIX standard allows implementations to have a limit on  the  size
           of arguments to the exec functions.  This limit could be as low as 4096
           bytes including the  size  of  the  environment.   For  scripts  to  be
           portable,  they must not rely on a larger value.  However, I know of no
           implementation whose actual limit is that small.  The --show-limits op-
           tion  can be used to discover the actual limits in force on the current
           system.
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           find(1), locate(1), locatedb(5), updatedb(1), fork(2), execvp(3), Find-
           ing Files (on-line in Info, or printed)
    
    
    

    BUGS

           The  -L  option  is incompatible with the -I option, but perhaps should
           not be.
    
           It is not possible for xargs to be used securely, since there will  al-
           ways  be  a  time gap between the production of the list of input files
           and their use in the commands that xargs issues.  If other  users  have
           access  to  the  system, they can manipulate the filesystem during this
           time window to force the action of the commands xargs runs to apply  to
           files  that  you didn't intend.  For a more detailed discussion of this
           and related problems, please refer to the  ''Security  Considerations''
           chapter in the findutils Texinfo documentation.  The -execdir option of
           find can often be used as a more secure alternative.
    
           When you use the -I option, each line read from the input  is  buffered
           internally.    This means that there is an upper limit on the length of
           input line that xargs will accept when used with  the  -I  option.   To
           work  around this limitation, you can use the -s option to increase the
           amount of buffer space that xargs uses, and you can also use  an  extra
           invocation  of  xargs to ensure that very long lines do not occur.  For
           example:
    
           somecommand | xargs -s 50000 echo | xargs -I '{}' -s 100000 rm '{}'
    
           Here, the first invocation of xargs has no input line length limit  be-
    
                                                                          XARGS(1)
    
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