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    Command:

    x509

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           openssl x509 [-inform DER|PEM|NET] [-outform DER|PEM|NET] [-keyform
           DER|PEM] [-CAform DER|PEM] [-CAkeyform DER|PEM] [-in filename] [-out
           filename] [-serial] [-hash] [-subject_hash] [-issuer_hash] [-subject]
           [-issuer] [-nameopt option] [-email] [-ocsp_uri] [-startdate]
           [-enddate] [-purpose] [-dates] [-modulus] [-pubkey] [-fingerprint]
           [-alias] [-noout] [-trustout] [-clrtrust] [-clrreject] [-addtrust arg]
           [-addreject arg] [-setalias arg] [-days arg] [-set_serial n] [-signkey
           filename] [-x509toreq] [-req] [-CA filename] [-CAkey filename]
           [-CAcreateserial] [-CAserial filename] [-text] [-C]
           [-md2|-md5|-sha1|-mdc2] [-clrext] [-extfile filename] [-extensions
           section] [-engine id]
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           The x509 command is a multi purpose certificate utility. It can be used
           to display certificate information, convert certificates to various
           forms, sign certificate requests like a "mini CA" or edit certificate
           trust settings.
    
           Since there are a large number of options they will split up into
           various sections.
    
    
    

    OPTIONS

       INPUT, OUTPUT AND GENERAL PURPOSE OPTIONS
           -inform DER|PEM|NET
               This specifies the input format normally the command will expect an
               X509 certificate but this can change if other options such as -req
               are present. The DER format is the DER encoding of the certificate
               and PEM is the base64 encoding of the DER encoding with header and
               footer lines added. The NET option is an obscure Netscape server
               format that is now obsolete.
    
           -outform DER|PEM|NET
               This specifies the output format, the options have the same meaning
               as the -inform option.
    
           -in filename
               This specifies the input filename to read a certificate from or
               standard input if this option is not specified.
    
           -out filename
               This specifies the output filename to write to or standard output
               by default.
    
           -md2|-md5|-sha1|-mdc2
               the digest to use. This affects any signing or display option that
               uses a message digest, such as the -fingerprint, -signkey and -CA
               options. If not specified then SHA1 is used. If the key being used
               to sign with is a DSA key then this option has no effect: SHA1 is
               always used with DSA keys.  For full list of digests see openssl
               dgst -h output.
    
    
           -certopt option
               customise the output format used with -text. The option argument
               can be a single option or multiple options separated by commas. The
               -certopt switch may be also be used more than once to set multiple
               options. See the TEXT OPTIONS section for more information.
    
           -noout
               this option prevents output of the encoded version of the request.
    
           -pubkey
               outputs the the certificate's SubjectPublicKeyInfo block in PEM
               format.
    
           -modulus
               this option prints out the value of the modulus of the public key
               contained in the certificate.
    
           -serial
               outputs the certificate serial number.
    
           -subject_hash
               outputs the "hash" of the certificate subject name. This is used in
               OpenSSL to form an index to allow certificates in a directory to be
               looked up by subject name.
    
           -issuer_hash
               outputs the "hash" of the certificate issuer name.
    
           -hash
               synonym for "-subject_hash" for backward compatibility reasons.
    
           -subject_hash_old
               outputs the "hash" of the certificate subject name using the older
               algorithm as used by OpenSSL versions before 1.0.0.
    
           -issuer_hash_old
               outputs the "hash" of the certificate issuer name using the older
               algorithm as used by OpenSSL versions before 1.0.0.
    
           -subject
               outputs the subject name.
    
           -issuer
               outputs the issuer name.
    
           -nameopt option
               option which determines how the subject or issuer names are
               displayed. The option argument can be a single option or multiple
               options separated by commas.  Alternatively the -nameopt switch may
               be used more than once to set multiple options. See the NAME
               OPTIONS section for more information.
    
           -dates
               prints out the start and expiry dates of a certificate.
    
           -fingerprint
               prints out the digest of the DER encoded version of the whole
               certificate (see digest options).
    
           -C  this outputs the certificate in the form of a C source file.
    
       TRUST SETTINGS
           Please note these options are currently experimental and may well
           change.
    
           A trusted certificate is an ordinary certificate which has several
           additional pieces of information attached to it such as the permitted
           and prohibited uses of the certificate and an "alias".
    
           Normally when a certificate is being verified at least one certificate
           must be "trusted". By default a trusted certificate must be stored
           locally and must be a root CA: any certificate chain ending in this CA
           is then usable for any purpose.
    
           Trust settings currently are only used with a root CA. They allow a
           finer control over the purposes the root CA can be used for. For
           example a CA may be trusted for SSL client but not SSL server use.
    
           See the description of the verify utility for more information on the
           meaning of trust settings.
    
           Future versions of OpenSSL will recognize trust settings on any
           certificate: not just root CAs.
    
           -trustout
               this causes x509 to output a trusted certificate. An ordinary or
               trusted certificate can be input but by default an ordinary
               certificate is output and any trust settings are discarded. With
               the -trustout option a trusted certificate is output. A trusted
               certificate is automatically output if any trust settings are
               modified.
    
           -setalias arg
               sets the alias of the certificate. This will allow the certificate
               to be referred to using a nickname for example "Steve's
               Certificate".
    
           -alias
               outputs the certificate alias, if any.
    
           -clrtrust
               clears all the permitted or trusted uses of the certificate.
    
               this option performs tests on the certificate extensions and
               outputs the results. For a more complete description see the
               CERTIFICATE EXTENSIONS section.
    
       SIGNING OPTIONS
           The x509 utility can be used to sign certificates and requests: it can
           thus behave like a "mini CA".
    
           -signkey filename
               this option causes the input file to be self signed using the
               supplied private key.
    
               If the input file is a certificate it sets the issuer name to the
               subject name (i.e.  makes it self signed) changes the public key to
               the supplied value and changes the start and end dates. The start
               date is set to the current time and the end date is set to a value
               determined by the -days option. Any certificate extensions are
               retained unless the -clrext option is supplied.
    
               If the input is a certificate request then a self signed
               certificate is created using the supplied private key using the
               subject name in the request.
    
           -clrext
               delete any extensions from a certificate. This option is used when
               a certificate is being created from another certificate (for
               example with the -signkey or the -CA options). Normally all
               extensions are retained.
    
           -keyform PEM|DER
               specifies the format (DER or PEM) of the private key file used in
               the -signkey option.
    
           -days arg
               specifies the number of days to make a certificate valid for. The
               default is 30 days.
    
           -x509toreq
               converts a certificate into a certificate request. The -signkey
               option is used to pass the required private key.
    
           -req
               by default a certificate is expected on input. With this option a
               certificate request is expected instead.
    
           -set_serial n
               specifies the serial number to use. This option can be used with
               either the -signkey or -CA options. If used in conjunction with the
               -CA option the serial number file (as specified by the -CAserial or
               -CAcreateserial options) is not used.
    
               The serial number can be decimal or hex (if preceded by 0x).
               sets the CA private key to sign a certificate with. If this option
               is not specified then it is assumed that the CA private key is
               present in the CA certificate file.
    
           -CAserial filename
               sets the CA serial number file to use.
    
               When the -CA option is used to sign a certificate it uses a serial
               number specified in a file. This file consist of one line
               containing an even number of hex digits with the serial number to
               use. After each use the serial number is incremented and written
               out to the file again.
    
               The default filename consists of the CA certificate file base name
               with ".srl" appended. For example if the CA certificate file is
               called "mycacert.pem" it expects to find a serial number file
               called "mycacert.srl".
    
           -CAcreateserial
               with this option the CA serial number file is created if it does
               not exist: it will contain the serial number "02" and the
               certificate being signed will have the 1 as its serial number.
               Normally if the -CA option is specified and the serial number file
               does not exist it is an error.
    
           -extfile filename
               file containing certificate extensions to use. If not specified
               then no extensions are added to the certificate.
    
           -extensions section
               the section to add certificate extensions from. If this option is
               not specified then the extensions should either be contained in the
               unnamed (default) section or the default section should contain a
               variable called "extensions" which contains the section to use. See
               the x509v3_config(5) manual page for details of the extension
               section format.
    
       NAME OPTIONS
           The nameopt command line switch determines how the subject and issuer
           names are displayed. If no nameopt switch is present the default
           "oneline" format is used which is compatible with previous versions of
           OpenSSL.  Each option is described in detail below, all options can be
           preceded by a - to turn the option off. Only the first four will
           normally be used.
    
           compat
               use the old format. This is equivalent to specifying no name
               options at all.
    
           RFC2253
               displays names compatible with RFC2253 equivalent to esc_2253,
               esc_ctrl, esc_msb, utf8, dump_nostr, dump_unknown, dump_der,
               is ,+"<>;. Additionally # is escaped at the beginning of a string
               and a space character at the beginning or end of a string.
    
           esc_ctrl
               escape control characters. That is those with ASCII values less
               than 0x20 (space) and the delete (0x7f) character. They are escaped
               using the RFC2253 \XX notation (where XX are two hex digits
               representing the character value).
    
           esc_msb
               escape characters with the MSB set, that is with ASCII values
               larger than 127.
    
           use_quote
               escapes some characters by surrounding the whole string with "
               characters, without the option all escaping is done with the \
               character.
    
           utf8
               convert all strings to UTF8 format first. This is required by
               RFC2253. If you are lucky enough to have a UTF8 compatible terminal
               then the use of this option (and not setting esc_msb) may result in
               the correct display of multibyte (international) characters. Is
               this option is not present then multibyte characters larger than
               0xff will be represented using the format \UXXXX for 16 bits and
               \WXXXXXXXX for 32 bits.  Also if this option is off any UTF8Strings
               will be converted to their character form first.
    
           no_type
               this option does not attempt to interpret multibyte characters in
               any way. That is their content octets are merely dumped as though
               one octet represents each character. This is useful for diagnostic
               purposes but will result in rather odd looking output.
    
           show_type
               show the type of the ASN1 character string. The type precedes the
               field contents. For example "BMPSTRING: Hello World".
    
           dump_der
               when this option is set any fields that need to be hexdumped will
               be dumped using the DER encoding of the field. Otherwise just the
               content octets will be displayed. Both options use the RFC2253
               #XXXX... format.
    
           dump_nostr
               dump non character string types (for example OCTET STRING) if this
               option is not set then non character string types will be displayed
               as though each content octet represents a single character.
    
           dump_all
               dump all fields. This option when used with dump_der allows the DER
               encoding of the structure to be unambiguously determined.
    
           dn_rev
               reverse the fields of the DN. This is required by RFC2253. As a
               side effect this also reverses the order of multiple AVAs but this
               is permissible.
    
           nofname, sname, lname, oid
               these options alter how the field name is displayed. nofname does
               not display the field at all. sname uses the "short name" form (CN
               for commonName for example). lname uses the long form.  oid
               represents the OID in numerical form and is useful for diagnostic
               purpose.
    
           align
               align field values for a more readable output. Only usable with
               sep_multiline.
    
           space_eq
               places spaces round the = character which follows the field name.
    
       TEXT OPTIONS
           As well as customising the name output format, it is also possible to
           customise the actual fields printed using the certopt options when the
           text option is present. The default behaviour is to print all fields.
    
           compatible
               use the old format. This is equivalent to specifying no output
               options at all.
    
           no_header
               don't print header information: that is the lines saying
               "Certificate" and "Data".
    
           no_version
               don't print out the version number.
    
           no_serial
               don't print out the serial number.
    
           no_signame
               don't print out the signature algorithm used.
    
           no_validity
               don't print the validity, that is the notBefore and notAfter
               fields.
    
           no_subject
               don't print out the subject name.
    
           no_issuer
               don't print out the issuer name.
    
           no_pubkey
    
           ext_error
               print an error message for unsupported certificate extensions.
    
           ext_parse
               ASN1 parse unsupported extensions.
    
           ext_dump
               hex dump unsupported extensions.
    
           ca_default
               the value used by the ca utility, equivalent to no_issuer,
               no_pubkey, no_header, no_version, no_sigdump and no_signame.
    
    
    

    EXAMPLES

           Note: in these examples the '\' means the example should be all on one
           line.
    
           Display the contents of a certificate:
    
            openssl x509 -in cert.pem -noout -text
    
           Display the certificate serial number:
    
            openssl x509 -in cert.pem -noout -serial
    
           Display the certificate subject name:
    
            openssl x509 -in cert.pem -noout -subject
    
           Display the certificate subject name in RFC2253 form:
    
            openssl x509 -in cert.pem -noout -subject -nameopt RFC2253
    
           Display the certificate subject name in oneline form on a terminal
           supporting UTF8:
    
            openssl x509 -in cert.pem -noout -subject -nameopt oneline,-esc_msb
    
           Display the certificate MD5 fingerprint:
    
            openssl x509 -in cert.pem -noout -fingerprint
    
           Display the certificate SHA1 fingerprint:
    
            openssl x509 -sha1 -in cert.pem -noout -fingerprint
    
           Convert a certificate from PEM to DER format:
    
            openssl x509 -in cert.pem -inform PEM -out cert.der -outform DER
    
           Convert a certificate to a certificate request:
    
           Set a certificate to be trusted for SSL client use and change set its
           alias to "Steve's Class 1 CA"
    
            openssl x509 -in cert.pem -addtrust clientAuth \
                   -setalias "Steve's Class 1 CA" -out trust.pem
    
    
    

    NOTES

           The PEM format uses the header and footer lines:
    
            -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
            -----END CERTIFICATE-----
    
           it will also handle files containing:
    
            -----BEGIN X509 CERTIFICATE-----
            -----END X509 CERTIFICATE-----
    
           Trusted certificates have the lines
    
            -----BEGIN TRUSTED CERTIFICATE-----
            -----END TRUSTED CERTIFICATE-----
    
           The conversion to UTF8 format used with the name options assumes that
           T61Strings use the ISO8859-1 character set. This is wrong but Netscape
           and MSIE do this as do many certificates. So although this is incorrect
           it is more likely to display the majority of certificates correctly.
    
           The -fingerprint option takes the digest of the DER encoded
           certificate.  This is commonly called a "fingerprint". Because of the
           nature of message digests the fingerprint of a certificate is unique to
           that certificate and two certificates with the same fingerprint can be
           considered to be the same.
    
           The Netscape fingerprint uses MD5 whereas MSIE uses SHA1.
    
           The -email option searches the subject name and the subject alternative
           name extension. Only unique email addresses will be printed out: it
           will not print the same address more than once.
    
    
    

    CERTIFICATE EXTENSIONS

           The -purpose option checks the certificate extensions and determines
           what the certificate can be used for. The actual checks done are rather
           complex and include various hacks and workarounds to handle broken
           certificates and software.
    
           The same code is used when verifying untrusted certificates in chains
           so this section is useful if a chain is rejected by the verify code.
    
           The basicConstraints extension CA flag is used to determine whether the
           certificate can be used as a CA. If the CA flag is true then it is a
           CA, if the CA flag is false then it is not a CA. All CAs should have
           made on the uses of the certificate. A CA certificate must have the
           keyCertSign bit set if the keyUsage extension is present.
    
           The extended key usage extension places additional restrictions on the
           certificate uses. If this extension is present (whether critical or
           not) the key can only be used for the purposes specified.
    
           A complete description of each test is given below. The comments about
           basicConstraints and keyUsage and V1 certificates above apply to all CA
           certificates.
    
           SSL Client
               The extended key usage extension must be absent or include the "web
               client authentication" OID.  keyUsage must be absent or it must
               have the digitalSignature bit set. Netscape certificate type must
               be absent or it must have the SSL client bit set.
    
           SSL Client CA
               The extended key usage extension must be absent or include the "web
               client authentication" OID. Netscape certificate type must be
               absent or it must have the SSL CA bit set: this is used as a work
               around if the basicConstraints extension is absent.
    
           SSL Server
               The extended key usage extension must be absent or include the "web
               server authentication" and/or one of the SGC OIDs.  keyUsage must
               be absent or it must have the digitalSignature, the keyEncipherment
               set or both bits set.  Netscape certificate type must be absent or
               have the SSL server bit set.
    
           SSL Server CA
               The extended key usage extension must be absent or include the "web
               server authentication" and/or one of the SGC OIDs.  Netscape
               certificate type must be absent or the SSL CA bit must be set: this
               is used as a work around if the basicConstraints extension is
               absent.
    
           Netscape SSL Server
               For Netscape SSL clients to connect to an SSL server it must have
               the keyEncipherment bit set if the keyUsage extension is present.
               This isn't always valid because some cipher suites use the key for
               digital signing.  Otherwise it is the same as a normal SSL server.
    
           Common S/MIME Client Tests
               The extended key usage extension must be absent or include the
               "email protection" OID. Netscape certificate type must be absent or
               should have the S/MIME bit set. If the S/MIME bit is not set in
               netscape certificate type then the SSL client bit is tolerated as
               an alternative but a warning is shown: this is because some
               Verisign certificates don't set the S/MIME bit.
    
           S/MIME Signing
               The keyUsage extension must be absent or it must have the CRL
               signing bit set.
    
           CRL Signing CA
               The normal CA tests apply. Except in this case the basicConstraints
               extension must be present.
    
    
    

    BUGS

           Extensions in certificates are not transferred to certificate requests
           and vice versa.
    
           It is possible to produce invalid certificates or requests by
           specifying the wrong private key or using inconsistent options in some
           cases: these should be checked.
    
           There should be options to explicitly set such things as start and end
           dates rather than an offset from the current time.
    
           The code to implement the verify behaviour described in the TRUST
           SETTINGS is currently being developed. It thus describes the intended
           behaviour rather than the current behaviour. It is hoped that it will
           represent reality in OpenSSL 0.9.5 and later.
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           req(1), ca(1), genrsa(1), gendsa(1), verify(1), x509v3_config(5)
    
    
    

    HISTORY

           Before OpenSSL 0.9.8, the default digest for RSA keys was MD5.
    
           The hash algorithm used in the -subject_hash and -issuer_hash options
           before OpenSSL 1.0.0 was based on the deprecated MD5 algorithm and the
           encoding of the distinguished name. In OpenSSL 1.0.0 and later it is
           based on a canonical version of the DN using SHA1. This means that any
           directories using the old form must have their links rebuilt using
           c_rehash or similar.
    
    
    

    1.0.1e 2016-01-07 X509(1)

    
    
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