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           wget [option]... [URL]...


           GNU Wget is a free utility for non-interactive download of files from
           the Web.  It supports HTTP, HTTPS, and FTP protocols, as well as
           retrieval through HTTP proxies.
           Wget is non-interactive, meaning that it can work in the background,
           while the user is not logged on.  This allows you to start a retrieval
           and disconnect from the system, letting Wget finish the work.  By
           contrast, most of the Web browsers require constant user's presence,
           which can be a great hindrance when transferring a lot of data.
           Wget can follow links in HTML, XHTML, and CSS pages, to create local
           versions of remote web sites, fully recreating the directory structure
           of the original site.  This is sometimes referred to as "recursive
           downloading."  While doing that, Wget respects the Robot Exclusion
           Standard (/robots.txt).  Wget can be instructed to convert the links in
           downloaded files to point at the local files, for offline viewing.
           Wget has been designed for robustness over slow or unstable network
           connections; if a download fails due to a network problem, it will keep
           retrying until the whole file has been retrieved.  If the server
           supports regetting, it will instruct the server to continue the
           download from where it left off.


       Option Syntax
           Since Wget uses GNU getopt to process command-line arguments, every
           option has a long form along with the short one.  Long options are more
           convenient to remember, but take time to type.  You may freely mix
           different option styles, or specify options after the command-line
           arguments.  Thus you may write:
                   wget -r --tries=10 -o log
           The space between the option accepting an argument and the argument may
           be omitted.  Instead of -o log you can write -olog.
           You may put several options that do not require arguments together,
                   wget -drc <URL>
           This is completely equivalent to:
                   wget -d -r -c <URL>
           Since the options can be specified after the arguments, you may
           terminate them with --.  So the following will try to download URL -x,
           reporting failure to log:
           variable.  For example, --follow-ftp tells Wget to follow FTP links
           from HTML files and, on the other hand, --no-glob tells it not to
           perform file globbing on FTP URLs.  A boolean option is either
           affirmative or negative (beginning with --no).  All such options share
           several properties.
           Unless stated otherwise, it is assumed that the default behavior is the
           opposite of what the option accomplishes.  For example, the documented
           existence of --follow-ftp assumes that the default is to not follow FTP
           links from HTML pages.
           Affirmative options can be negated by prepending the --no- to the
           option name; negative options can be negated by omitting the --no-
           prefix.  This might seem superfluous---if the default for an
           affirmative option is to not do something, then why provide a way to
           explicitly turn it off?  But the startup file may in fact change the
           default.  For instance, using "follow_ftp = on" in .wgetrc makes Wget
           follow FTP links by default, and using --no-follow-ftp is the only way
           to restore the factory default from the command line.
       Basic Startup Options
               Display the version of Wget.
               Print a help message describing all of Wget's command-line options.
               Go to background immediately after startup.  If no output file is
               specified via the -o, output is redirected to wget-log.
           -e command
           --execute command
               Execute command as if it were a part of .wgetrc.  A command thus
               invoked will be executed after the commands in .wgetrc, thus taking
               precedence over them.  If you need to specify more than one wgetrc
               command, use multiple instances of -e.
       Logging and Input File Options
           -o logfile
               Log all messages to logfile.  The messages are normally reported to
               standard error.
           -a logfile
               Append to logfile.  This is the same as -o, only it appends to
               logfile instead of overwriting the old log file.  If logfile does
               not exist, a new file is created.
               Turn on verbose output, with all the available data.  The default
               output is verbose.
               Turn off verbose without being completely quiet (use -q for that),
               which means that error messages and basic information still get
           -i file
               Read URLs from a local or external file.  If - is specified as
               file, URLs are read from the standard input.  (Use ./- to read from
               a file literally named -.)
               If this function is used, no URLs need be present on the command
               line.  If there are URLs both on the command line and in an input
               file, those on the command lines will be the first ones to be
               retrieved.  If --force-html is not specified, then file should
               consist of a series of URLs, one per line.
               However, if you specify --force-html, the document will be regarded
               as html.  In that case you may have problems with relative links,
               which you can solve either by adding "<base href="url">" to the
               documents or by specifying --base=url on the command line.
               If the file is an external one, the document will be automatically
               treated as html if the Content-Type matches text/html.
               Furthermore, the file's location will be implicitly used as base
               href if none was specified.
               When input is read from a file, force it to be treated as an HTML
               file.  This enables you to retrieve relative links from existing
               HTML files on your local disk, by adding "<base href="url">" to
               HTML, or using the --base command-line option.
           -B URL
               Resolves relative links using URL as the point of reference, when
               reading links from an HTML file specified via the -i/--input-file
               option (together with --force-html, or when the input file was
               fetched remotely from a server describing it as HTML). This is
               equivalent to the presence of a "BASE" tag in the HTML input file,
               with URL as the value for the "href" attribute.
               For instance, if you specify http://foo/bar/a.html for URL, and
               Wget reads ../baz/b.html from the input file, it would be resolved
           -O file
               The documents will not be written to the appropriate files, but all
               will be concatenated together and written to file.  If - is used as
               file, documents will be printed to standard output, disabling link
               conversion.  (Use ./- to print to a file literally named -.)
               Use of -O is not intended to mean simply "use the name file instead
               of the one in the URL;" rather, it is analogous to shell
               redirection: wget -O file http://foo is intended to work like wget
               -O - http://foo > file; file will be truncated immediately, and all
               downloaded content will be written there.
               For this reason, -N (for timestamp-checking) is not supported in
               combination with -O: since file is always newly created, it will
               always have a very new timestamp. A warning will be issued if this
               combination is used.
               Similarly, using -r or -p with -O may not work as you expect: Wget
               won't just download the first file to file and then download the
               rest to their normal names: all downloaded content will be placed
               in file. This was disabled in version 1.11, but has been reinstated
               (with a warning) in 1.11.2, as there are some cases where this
               behavior can actually have some use.
               Note that a combination with -k is only permitted when downloading
               a single document, as in that case it will just convert all
               relative URIs to external ones; -k makes no sense for multiple URIs
               when they're all being downloaded to a single file.
               If a file is downloaded more than once in the same directory,
               Wget's behavior depends on a few options, including -nc.  In
               certain cases, the local file will be clobbered, or overwritten,
               upon repeated download.  In other cases it will be preserved.
               When running Wget without -N, -nc, -r, or -p, downloading the same
               file in the same directory will result in the original copy of file
               being preserved and the second copy being named file.1.  If that
               file is downloaded yet again, the third copy will be named file.2,
               and so on.  (This is also the behavior with -nd, even if -r or -p
               are in effect.)  When -nc is specified, this behavior is
               suppressed, and Wget will refuse to download newer copies of file.
               Therefore, ""no-clobber"" is actually a misnomer in this
               mode---it's not clobbering that's prevented (as the numeric
               suffixes were already preventing clobbering), but rather the
               multiple version saving that's prevented.
               When running Wget with -r or -p, but without -N, -nd, or -nc, re-
               downloading a file will result in the new copy simply overwriting
               Continue getting a partially-downloaded file.  This is useful when
               you want to finish up a download started by a previous instance of
               Wget, or by another program.  For instance:
                       wget -c
               If there is a file named ls-lR.Z in the current directory, Wget
               will assume that it is the first portion of the remote file, and
               will ask the server to continue the retrieval from an offset equal
               to the length of the local file.
               Note that you don't need to specify this option if you just want
               the current invocation of Wget to retry downloading a file should
               the connection be lost midway through.  This is the default
               behavior.  -c only affects resumption of downloads started prior to
               this invocation of Wget, and whose local files are still sitting
               Without -c, the previous example would just download the remote
               file to ls-lR.Z.1, leaving the truncated ls-lR.Z file alone.
               Beginning with Wget 1.7, if you use -c on a non-empty file, and it
               turns out that the server does not support continued downloading,
               Wget will refuse to start the download from scratch, which would
               effectively ruin existing contents.  If you really want the
               download to start from scratch, remove the file.
               Also beginning with Wget 1.7, if you use -c on a file which is of
               equal size as the one on the server, Wget will refuse to download
               the file and print an explanatory message.  The same happens when
               the file is smaller on the server than locally (presumably because
               it was changed on the server since your last download
               attempt)---because "continuing" is not meaningful, no download
               On the other side of the coin, while using -c, any file that's
               bigger on the server than locally will be considered an incomplete
               download and only "(length(remote) - length(local))" bytes will be
               downloaded and tacked onto the end of the local file.  This
               behavior can be desirable in certain cases---for instance, you can
               use wget -c to download just the new portion that's been appended
               to a data collection or log file.
               However, if the file is bigger on the server because it's been
               changed, as opposed to just appended to, you'll end up with a
               garbled file.  Wget has no way of verifying that the local file is
               really a valid prefix of the remote file.  You need to be
               especially careful of this when using -c in conjunction with -r,
               since every file will be considered as an "incomplete download"
               retrieval.  If the output is not a TTY, the "dot" bar will be used
               by default.
               Use --progress=dot to switch to the "dot" display.  It traces the
               retrieval by printing dots on the screen, each dot representing a
               fixed amount of downloaded data.
               When using the dotted retrieval, you may also set the style by
               specifying the type as dot:style.  Different styles assign
               different meaning to one dot.  With the "default" style each dot
               represents 1K, there are ten dots in a cluster and 50 dots in a
               line.  The "binary" style has a more "computer"-like
               orientation---8K dots, 16-dots clusters and 48 dots per line (which
               makes for 384K lines).  The "mega" style is suitable for
               downloading very large files---each dot represents 64K retrieved,
               there are eight dots in a cluster, and 48 dots on each line (so
               each line contains 3M).
               Note that you can set the default style using the "progress"
               command in .wgetrc.  That setting may be overridden from the
               command line.  The exception is that, when the output is not a TTY,
               the "dot" progress will be favored over "bar".  To force the bar
               output, use --progress=bar:force.
               Turn on time-stamping.
               Print the headers sent by HTTP servers and responses sent by FTP
               When invoked with this option, Wget will behave as a Web spider,
               which means that it will not download the pages, just check that
               they are there.  For example, you can use Wget to check your
                       wget --spider --force-html -i bookmarks.html
               This feature needs much more work for Wget to get close to the
               functionality of real web spiders.
           -T seconds
               Set the network timeout to seconds seconds.  This is equivalent to
               specifying --dns-timeout, --connect-timeout, and --read-timeout,
               all at the same time.
               When interacting with the network, Wget can check for timeout and
               abort the operation if it takes too long.  This prevents anomalies
               system libraries.
               Set the connect timeout to seconds seconds.  TCP connections that
               take longer to establish will be aborted.  By default, there is no
               connect timeout, other than that implemented by system libraries.
               Set the read (and write) timeout to seconds seconds.  The "time" of
               this timeout refers to idle time: if, at any point in the download,
               no data is received for more than the specified number of seconds,
               reading fails and the download is restarted.  This option does not
               directly affect the duration of the entire download.
               Of course, the remote server may choose to terminate the connection
               sooner than this option requires.  The default read timeout is 900
               Limit the download speed to amount bytes per second.  Amount may be
               expressed in bytes, kilobytes with the k suffix, or megabytes with
               the m suffix.  For example, --limit-rate=20k will limit the
               retrieval rate to 20KB/s.  This is useful when, for whatever
               reason, you don't want Wget to consume the entire available
               This option allows the use of decimal numbers, usually in
               conjunction with power suffixes; for example, --limit-rate=2.5k is
               a legal value.
               Note that Wget implements the limiting by sleeping the appropriate
               amount of time after a network read that took less time than
               specified by the rate.  Eventually this strategy causes the TCP
               transfer to slow down to approximately the specified rate.
               However, it may take some time for this balance to be achieved, so
               don't be surprised if limiting the rate doesn't work well with very
               small files.
           -w seconds
               Wait the specified number of seconds between the retrievals.  Use
               of this option is recommended, as it lightens the server load by
               making the requests less frequent.  Instead of in seconds, the time
               can be specified in minutes using the "m" suffix, in hours using
               "h" suffix, or in days using "d" suffix.
               Specifying a large value for this option is useful if the network
               or the destination host is down, so that Wget can wait long enough
               to reasonably expect the network error to be fixed before the
               retry.  The waiting interval specified by this function is
               influenced by "--random-wait", which see.
               similarities in the time between requests. This option causes the
               time between requests to vary between 0.5 and 1.5 * wait seconds,
               where wait was specified using the --wait option, in order to mask
               Wget's presence from such analysis.
               A 2001 article in a publication devoted to development on a popular
               consumer platform provided code to perform this analysis on the
               fly.  Its author suggested blocking at the class C address level to
               ensure automated retrieval programs were blocked despite changing
               DHCP-supplied addresses.
               The --random-wait option was inspired by this ill-advised
               recommendation to block many unrelated users from a web site due to
               the actions of one.
               Don't use proxies, even if the appropriate *_proxy environment
               variable is defined.
           -Q quota
               Specify download quota for automatic retrievals.  The value can be
               specified in bytes (default), kilobytes (with k suffix), or
               megabytes (with m suffix).
               Note that quota will never affect downloading a single file.  So if
               you specify wget -Q10k, all of
               the ls-lR.gz will be downloaded.  The same goes even when several
               URLs are specified on the command-line.  However, quota is
               respected when retrieving either recursively, or from an input
               file.  Thus you may safely type wget -Q2m -i sites---download will
               be aborted when the quota is exceeded.
               Setting quota to 0 or to inf unlimits the download quota.
               Turn off caching of DNS lookups.  Normally, Wget remembers the IP
               addresses it looked up from DNS so it doesn't have to repeatedly
               contact the DNS server for the same (typically small) set of hosts
               it retrieves from.  This cache exists in memory only; a new Wget
               run will contact DNS again.
               However, it has been reported that in some situations it is not
               desirable to cache host names, even for the duration of a short-
               running application like Wget.  With this option Wget issues a new
               DNS lookup (more precisely, a new call to "gethostbyname" or
               "getaddrinfo") each time it makes a new connection.  Please note
               that this option will not affect caching that might be performed by
               the resolving library or by an external caching layer, such as
               If you don't understand exactly what this option does, you probably
               a non-native partition, or because you want to disable escaping of
               the control characters, or you want to further restrict characters
               to only those in the ASCII range of values.
               The modes are a comma-separated set of text values. The acceptable
               values are unix, windows, nocontrol, ascii, lowercase, and
               uppercase. The values unix and windows are mutually exclusive (one
               will override the other), as are lowercase and uppercase. Those
               last are special cases, as they do not change the set of characters
               that would be escaped, but rather force local file paths to be
               converted either to lower- or uppercase.
               When "unix" is specified, Wget escapes the character / and the
               control characters in the ranges 0--31 and 128--159.  This is the
               default on Unix-like operating systems.
               When "windows" is given, Wget escapes the characters \, |, /, :, ?,
               ", *, <, >, and the control characters in the ranges 0--31 and
               128--159.  In addition to this, Wget in Windows mode uses + instead
               of : to separate host and port in local file names, and uses @
               instead of ? to separate the query portion of the file name from
               the rest.  Therefore, a URL that would be saved as
      in Unix mode would be
               saved as in Windows mode.
               This mode is the default on Windows.
               If you specify nocontrol, then the escaping of the control
               characters is also switched off. This option may make sense when
               you are downloading URLs whose names contain UTF-8 characters, on a
               system which can save and display filenames in UTF-8 (some possible
               byte values used in UTF-8 byte sequences fall in the range of
               values designated by Wget as "controls").
               The ascii mode is used to specify that any bytes whose values are
               outside the range of ASCII characters (that is, greater than 127)
               shall be escaped. This can be useful when saving filenames whose
               encoding does not match the one used locally.
               Force connecting to IPv4 or IPv6 addresses.  With --inet4-only or
               -4, Wget will only connect to IPv4 hosts, ignoring AAAA records in
               DNS, and refusing to connect to IPv6 addresses specified in URLs.
               Conversely, with --inet6-only or -6, Wget will only connect to IPv6
               hosts and ignore A records and IPv4 addresses.
               Neither options should be needed normally.  By default, an
               IPv6-aware Wget will use the address family specified by the host's
               DNS record.  If the DNS responds with both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses,
               Wget will try them in sequence until it finds one it can connect
               hosts that resolve to both IPv6 and IPv4 addresses from IPv4
               networks.  For example, resolves to
               2001:200:0:8002:203:47ff:fea5:3085 and to  When
               the preferred family is "IPv4", the IPv4 address is used first;
               when the preferred family is "IPv6", the IPv6 address is used
               first; if the specified value is "none", the address order returned
               by DNS is used without change.
               Unlike -4 and -6, this option doesn't inhibit access to any address
               family, it only changes the order in which the addresses are
               accessed.  Also note that the reordering performed by this option
               is stable---it doesn't affect order of addresses of the same
               family.  That is, the relative order of all IPv4 addresses and of
               all IPv6 addresses remains intact in all cases.
               Consider "connection refused" a transient error and try again.
               Normally Wget gives up on a URL when it is unable to connect to the
               site because failure to connect is taken as a sign that the server
               is not running at all and that retries would not help.  This option
               is for mirroring unreliable sites whose servers tend to disappear
               for short periods of time.
               Specify the username user and password password for both FTP and
               HTTP file retrieval.  These parameters can be overridden using the
               --ftp-user and --ftp-password options for FTP connections and the
               --http-user and --http-password options for HTTP connections.
               Prompt for a password for each connection established. Cannot be
               specified when --password is being used, because they are mutually
               Turn off internationalized URI (IRI) support. Use --iri to turn it
               on. IRI support is activated by default.
               You can set the default state of IRI support using the "iri"
               command in .wgetrc. That setting may be overridden from the command
               Force Wget to use encoding as the default system encoding. That
               affects how Wget converts URLs specified as arguments from locale
               to UTF-8 for IRI support.
               Wget use the function "nl_langinfo()" and then the "CHARSET"
               environment variable to get the locale. If it fails, ASCII is used.
               You can set the default local encoding using the "local_encoding"
               in .wgetrc. That setting may be overridden from the command line.
       Directory Options
               Do not create a hierarchy of directories when retrieving
               recursively.  With this option turned on, all files will get saved
               to the current directory, without clobbering (if a name shows up
               more than once, the filenames will get extensions .n).
               The opposite of -nd---create a hierarchy of directories, even if
               one would not have been created otherwise.  E.g. wget -x
      will save the downloaded file to
               Disable generation of host-prefixed directories.  By default,
               invoking Wget with -r will create a
               structure of directories beginning with  This
               option disables such behavior.
               Use the protocol name as a directory component of local file names.
               For example, with this option, wget -r http://host will save to
               http/host/... rather than just to host/....
               Ignore number directory components.  This is useful for getting a
               fine-grained control over the directory where recursive retrieval
               will be saved.
               Take, for example, the directory at
       If you retrieve it with -r, it
               will be saved locally under  While the
               -nH option can remove the part, you are still stuck
               with pub/xemacs.  This is where --cut-dirs comes in handy; it makes
               Wget not "see" number remote directory components.  Here are
               several examples of how --cut-dirs option works.
                       No options        ->
                       -nH               -> pub/xemacs/
                       -nH --cut-dirs=1  -> xemacs/
                       -nH --cut-dirs=2  -> .
                       --cut-dirs=1      ->
               If you just want to get rid of the directory structure, this option
               is similar to a combination of -nd and -P.  However, unlike -nd,
               URLs that end in a slash), instead of index.html.
               If a file of type application/xhtml+xml or text/html is downloaded
               and the URL does not end with the regexp \.[Hh][Tt][Mm][Ll]?, this
               option will cause the suffix .html to be appended to the local
               filename.  This is useful, for instance, when you're mirroring a
               remote site that uses .asp pages, but you want the mirrored pages
               to be viewable on your stock Apache server.  Another good use for
               this is when you're downloading CGI-generated materials.  A URL
               like will be saved as
               Note that filenames changed in this way will be re-downloaded every
               time you re-mirror a site, because Wget can't tell that the local
               X.html file corresponds to remote URL X (since it doesn't yet know
               that the URL produces output of type text/html or
               application/xhtml+xml.  To prevent this re-downloading, you must
               use -k and -K so that the original version of the file will be
               saved as X.orig.
               As of version 1.12, Wget will also ensure that any downloaded files
               of type text/css end in the suffix .css, and the option was renamed
               from --html-extension, to better reflect its new behavior. The old
               option name is still acceptable, but should now be considered
               At some point in the future, this option may well be expanded to
               include suffixes for other types of content, including content
               types that are not parsed by Wget.
               Specify the username user and password password on an HTTP server.
               According to the type of the challenge, Wget will encode them using
               either the "basic" (insecure), the "digest", or the Windows "NTLM"
               authentication scheme.
               Another way to specify username and password is in the URL itself.
               Either method reveals your password to anyone who bothers to run
               "ps".  To prevent the passwords from being seen, store them in
               .wgetrc or .netrc, and make sure to protect those files from other
               users with "chmod".  If the passwords are really important, do not
               leave them lying in those files either---edit the files and delete
               them after Wget has started the download.
               Turn off the "keep-alive" feature for HTTP downloads.  Normally,
               Wget asks the server to keep the connection open so that, when you
               download more than one document from the same server, they get
               transferred over the same TCP connection.  This saves time and at
               Caching is allowed by default.
               Disable the use of cookies.  Cookies are a mechanism for
               maintaining server-side state.  The server sends the client a
               cookie using the "Set-Cookie" header, and the client responds with
               the same cookie upon further requests.  Since cookies allow the
               server owners to keep track of visitors and for sites to exchange
               this information, some consider them a breach of privacy.  The
               default is to use cookies; however, storing cookies is not on by
           --load-cookies file
               Load cookies from file before the first HTTP retrieval.  file is a
               textual file in the format originally used by Netscape's
               cookies.txt file.
               You will typically use this option when mirroring sites that
               require that you be logged in to access some or all of their
               content.  The login process typically works by the web server
               issuing an HTTP cookie upon receiving and verifying your
               credentials.  The cookie is then resent by the browser when
               accessing that part of the site, and so proves your identity.
               Mirroring such a site requires Wget to send the same cookies your
               browser sends when communicating with the site.  This is achieved
               by --load-cookies---simply point Wget to the location of the
               cookies.txt file, and it will send the same cookies your browser
               would send in the same situation.  Different browsers keep textual
               cookie files in different locations:
               Netscape 4.x.
                   The cookies are in ~/.netscape/cookies.txt.
               Mozilla and Netscape 6.x.
                   Mozilla's cookie file is also named cookies.txt, located
                   somewhere under ~/.mozilla, in the directory of your profile.
                   The full path usually ends up looking somewhat like
               Internet Explorer.
                   You can produce a cookie file Wget can use by using the File
                   menu, Import and Export, Export Cookies.  This has been tested
                   with Internet Explorer 5; it is not guaranteed to work with
                   earlier versions.
               Other browsers.
                   If you are using a different browser to create your cookies,
                   --load-cookies will only work if you can locate or produce a
                   cookie file in the Netscape format that Wget expects.
               If you cannot use --load-cookies, there might still be an
               When specified, causes --save-cookies to also save session cookies.
               Session cookies are normally not saved because they are meant to be
               kept in memory and forgotten when you exit the browser.  Saving
               them is useful on sites that require you to log in or to visit the
               home page before you can access some pages.  With this option,
               multiple Wget runs are considered a single browser session as far
               as the site is concerned.
               Since the cookie file format does not normally carry session
               cookies, Wget marks them with an expiry timestamp of 0.  Wget's
               --load-cookies recognizes those as session cookies, but it might
               confuse other browsers.  Also note that cookies so loaded will be
               treated as other session cookies, which means that if you want
               --save-cookies to preserve them again, you must use
               --keep-session-cookies again.
               Unfortunately, some HTTP servers (CGI programs, to be more precise)
               send out bogus "Content-Length" headers, which makes Wget go wild,
               as it thinks not all the document was retrieved.  You can spot this
               syndrome if Wget retries getting the same document again and again,
               each time claiming that the (otherwise normal) connection has
               closed on the very same byte.
               With this option, Wget will ignore the "Content-Length" header---as
               if it never existed.
               Send header-line along with the rest of the headers in each HTTP
               request.  The supplied header is sent as-is, which means it must
               contain name and value separated by colon, and must not contain
               You may define more than one additional header by specifying
               --header more than once.
                       wget --header='Accept-Charset: iso-8859-2' \
                            --header='Accept-Language: hr'        \
               Specification of an empty string as the header value will clear all
               previous user-defined headers.
               As of Wget 1.10, this option can be used to override headers
               otherwise generated automatically.  This example instructs Wget to
               connect to localhost, but to specify in the "Host" header:
                       wget --header="Host:" http://localhost/
               In versions of Wget prior to 1.10 such use of --header caused
               sending of duplicate headers.
               Include 'Referer: url' header in HTTP request.  Useful for
               retrieving documents with server-side processing that assume they
               are always being retrieved by interactive web browsers and only
               come out properly when Referer is set to one of the pages that
               point to them.
               Save the headers sent by the HTTP server to the file, preceding the
               actual contents, with an empty line as the separator.
           -U agent-string
               Identify as agent-string to the HTTP server.
               The HTTP protocol allows the clients to identify themselves using a
               "User-Agent" header field.  This enables distinguishing the WWW
               software, usually for statistical purposes or for tracing of
               protocol violations.  Wget normally identifies as Wget/version,
               version being the current version number of Wget.
               However, some sites have been known to impose the policy of
               tailoring the output according to the "User-Agent"-supplied
               information.  While this is not such a bad idea in theory, it has
               been abused by servers denying information to clients other than
               (historically) Netscape or, more frequently, Microsoft Internet
               Explorer.  This option allows you to change the "User-Agent" line
               issued by Wget.  Use of this option is discouraged, unless you
               really know what you are doing.
               Specifying empty user agent with --user-agent="" instructs Wget not
               to send the "User-Agent" header in HTTP requests.
               Use POST as the method for all HTTP requests and send the specified
               data in the request body.  --post-data sends string as data,
               whereas --post-file sends the contents of file.  Other than that,
               they work in exactly the same way. In particular, they both expect
               content of the form "key1=value1&key2=value2", with percent-
               encoding for special characters; the only difference is that one
               expects its content as a command-line paramter and the other
               accepts its content from a file. In particular, --post-file is not
               for transmitting files as form attachments: those must appear as
               "key=value" data (with appropriate percent-coding) just like
               everything else. Wget does not currently support
               "multipart/form-data" for transmitting POST data; only
               "application/x-www-form-urlencoded". Only one of --post-data and
               --post-file should be specified.
               Please be aware that Wget needs to know the size of the POST data
               completely clear that this behavior is optimal; if it doesn't work
               out, it might be changed in the future.
               This example shows how to log to a server using POST and then
               proceed to download the desired pages, presumably only accessible
               to authorized users:
                       # Log in to the server.  This can be done only once.
                       wget --save-cookies cookies.txt \
                            --post-data 'user=foo&password=bar' \
                       # Now grab the page or pages we care about.
                       wget --load-cookies cookies.txt \
               If the server is using session cookies to track user
               authentication, the above will not work because --save-cookies will
               not save them (and neither will browsers) and the cookies.txt file
               will be empty.  In that case use --keep-session-cookies along with
               --save-cookies to force saving of session cookies.
               If this is set to on, experimental (not fully-functional) support
               for "Content-Disposition" headers is enabled. This can currently
               result in extra round-trips to the server for a "HEAD" request, and
               is known to suffer from a few bugs, which is why it is not
               currently enabled by default.
               This option is useful for some file-downloading CGI programs that
               use "Content-Disposition" headers to describe what the name of a
               downloaded file should be.
               If this is set to on, on a redirect the last component of the
               redirection URL will be used as the local file name.  By default
               the last component in the original URL is used.
               If this option is given, Wget will send Basic HTTP authentication
               information (plaintext username and password) for all requests,
               just like Wget 1.10.2 and prior did by default.
               Use of this option is not recommended, and is intended only to
               support some few obscure servers, which never send HTTP
               authentication challenges, but accept unsolicited auth info, say,
               in addition to form-based authentication.
       HTTPS (SSL/TLS) Options
           To support encrypted HTTP (HTTPS) downloads, Wget must be compiled with
           an external SSL library, currently OpenSSL.  If Wget is compiled
           without SSL support, none of these options are available.
               Don't check the server certificate against the available
               certificate authorities.  Also don't require the URL host name to
               match the common name presented by the certificate.
               As of Wget 1.10, the default is to verify the server's certificate
               against the recognized certificate authorities, breaking the SSL
               handshake and aborting the download if the verification fails.
               Although this provides more secure downloads, it does break
               interoperability with some sites that worked with previous Wget
               versions, particularly those using self-signed, expired, or
               otherwise invalid certificates.  This option forces an "insecure"
               mode of operation that turns the certificate verification errors
               into warnings and allows you to proceed.
               If you encounter "certificate verification" errors or ones saying
               that "common name doesn't match requested host name", you can use
               this option to bypass the verification and proceed with the
               download.  Only use this option if you are otherwise convinced of
               the site's authenticity, or if you really don't care about the
               validity of its certificate.  It is almost always a bad idea not to
               check the certificates when transmitting confidential or important
               Use the client certificate stored in file.  This is needed for
               servers that are configured to require certificates from the
               clients that connect to them.  Normally a certificate is not
               required and this switch is optional.
               Specify the type of the client certificate.  Legal values are PEM
               (assumed by default) and DER, also known as ASN1.
               Read the private key from file.  This allows you to provide the
               private key in a file separate from the certificate.
               Specify the type of the private key.  Accepted values are PEM (the
               default) and DER.
               Use file as the file with the bundle of certificate authorities
               ("CA") to verify the peers.  The certificates must be in PEM
               Without this option Wget looks for CA certificates at the system-
               specified locations, chosen at OpenSSL installation time.
               Specifies directory containing CA certificates in PEM format.  Each
               On such systems the SSL library needs an external source of
               randomness to initialize.  Randomness may be provided by EGD (see
               --egd-file below) or read from an external source specified by the
               user.  If this option is not specified, Wget looks for random data
               in $RANDFILE or, if that is unset, in $HOME/.rnd.  If none of those
               are available, it is likely that SSL encryption will not be usable.
               If you're getting the "Could not seed OpenSSL PRNG; disabling SSL."
               error, you should provide random data using some of the methods
               described above.
               Use file as the EGD socket.  EGD stands for Entropy Gathering
               Daemon, a user-space program that collects data from various
               unpredictable system sources and makes it available to other
               programs that might need it.  Encryption software, such as the SSL
               library, needs sources of non-repeating randomness to seed the
               random number generator used to produce cryptographically strong
               OpenSSL allows the user to specify his own source of entropy using
               the "RAND_FILE" environment variable.  If this variable is unset,
               or if the specified file does not produce enough randomness,
               OpenSSL will read random data from EGD socket specified using this
               If this option is not specified (and the equivalent startup command
               is not used), EGD is never contacted.  EGD is not needed on modern
               Unix systems that support /dev/random.
       FTP Options
               Specify the username user and password password on an FTP server.
               Without this, or the corresponding startup option, the password
               defaults to -wget@, normally used for anonymous FTP.
               Another way to specify username and password is in the URL itself.
               Either method reveals your password to anyone who bothers to run
               "ps".  To prevent the passwords from being seen, store them in
               .wgetrc or .netrc, and make sure to protect those files from other
               users with "chmod".  If the passwords are really important, do not
               leave them lying in those files either---edit the files and delete
               them after Wget has started the download.
               Don't remove the temporary .listing files generated by FTP
               retrievals.  Normally, these files contain the raw directory
               listings received from FTP servers.  Not removing them can be
               useful for debugging purposes, or when you want to be able to
               easily check on the contents of remote server directories (e.g. to
               verify that a mirror you're running is complete).
               Turn off FTP globbing.  Globbing refers to the use of shell-like
               special characters (wildcards), like *, ?, [ and ] to retrieve more
               than one file from the same directory at once, like:
               By default, globbing will be turned on if the URL contains a
               globbing character.  This option may be used to turn globbing on or
               off permanently.
               You may have to quote the URL to protect it from being expanded by
               your shell.  Globbing makes Wget look for a directory listing,
               which is system-specific.  This is why it currently works only with
               Unix FTP servers (and the ones emulating Unix "ls" output).
               Disable the use of the passive FTP transfer mode.  Passive FTP
               mandates that the client connect to the server to establish the
               data connection rather than the other way around.
               If the machine is connected to the Internet directly, both passive
               and active FTP should work equally well.  Behind most firewall and
               NAT configurations passive FTP has a better chance of working.
               However, in some rare firewall configurations, active FTP actually
               works when passive FTP doesn't.  If you suspect this to be the
               case, use this option, or set "passive_ftp=off" in your init file.
               By default, when retrieving FTP directories recursively and a
               symbolic link is encountered, the symbolic link is traversed and
               the pointed-to files are retrieved.  Currently, Wget does not
               traverse symbolic links to directories to download them
               recursively, though this feature may be added in the future.
               When --retr-symlinks=no is specified, the linked-to file is not
               downloaded.  Instead, a matching symbolic link is created on the
               local filesystem.  The pointed-to file will not be retrieved unless
               this recursive retrieval would have encountered it separately and
               downloaded it anyway.  This option poses a security risk where a
               malicious FTP Server may cause Wget to write to files outside of
               the intended directories through a specially crafted .LISTING file.
               Note that when retrieving a file (not a directory) because it was
               specified on the command-line, rather than because it was recursed
               to, this option has no effect.  Symbolic links are always traversed
               in this case.
       Recursive Retrieval Options
               The -r option is to retrieve recursively, and -nd to not create
               Note that --delete-after deletes files on the local machine.  It
               does not issue the DELE command to remote FTP sites, for instance.
               Also note that when --delete-after is specified, --convert-links is
               ignored, so .orig files are simply not created in the first place.
               After the download is complete, convert the links in the document
               to make them suitable for local viewing.  This affects not only the
               visible hyperlinks, but any part of the document that links to
               external content, such as embedded images, links to style sheets,
               hyperlinks to non-HTML content, etc.
               Each link will be changed in one of the two ways:
               ?   The links to files that have been downloaded by Wget will be
                   changed to refer to the file they point to as a relative link.
                   Example: if the downloaded file /foo/doc.html links to
                   /bar/img.gif, also downloaded, then the link in doc.html will
                   be modified to point to ../bar/img.gif.  This kind of
                   transformation works reliably for arbitrary combinations of
               ?   The links to files that have not been downloaded by Wget will
                   be changed to include host name and absolute path of the
                   location they point to.
                   Example: if the downloaded file /foo/doc.html links to
                   /bar/img.gif (or to ../bar/img.gif), then the link in doc.html
                   will be modified to point to http://hostname/bar/img.gif.
               Because of this, local browsing works reliably: if a linked file
               was downloaded, the link will refer to its local name; if it was
               not downloaded, the link will refer to its full Internet address
               rather than presenting a broken link.  The fact that the former
               links are converted to relative links ensures that you can move the
               downloaded hierarchy to another directory.
               Note that only at the end of the download can Wget know which links
               have been downloaded.  Because of that, the work done by -k will be
               performed at the end of all the downloads.
               When converting a file, back up the original version with a .orig
               suffix.  Affects the behavior of -N.
               downloaded.  Using -r together with -l can help, but since Wget
               does not ordinarily distinguish between external and inlined
               documents, one is generally left with "leaf documents" that are
               missing their requisites.
               For instance, say document 1.html contains an "<IMG>" tag
               referencing 1.gif and an "<A>" tag pointing to external document
               2.html.  Say that 2.html is similar but that its image is 2.gif and
               it links to 3.html.  Say this continues up to some arbitrarily high
               If one executes the command:
                       wget -r -l 2 http://<site>/1.html
               then 1.html, 1.gif, 2.html, 2.gif, and 3.html will be downloaded.
               As you can see, 3.html is without its requisite 3.gif because Wget
               is simply counting the number of hops (up to 2) away from 1.html in
               order to determine where to stop the recursion.  However, with this
                       wget -r -l 2 -p http://<site>/1.html
               all the above files and 3.html's requisite 3.gif will be
               downloaded.  Similarly,
                       wget -r -l 1 -p http://<site>/1.html
               will cause 1.html, 1.gif, 2.html, and 2.gif to be downloaded.  One
               might think that:
                       wget -r -l 0 -p http://<site>/1.html
               would download just 1.html and 1.gif, but unfortunately this is not
               the case, because -l 0 is equivalent to -l inf---that is, infinite
               recursion.  To download a single HTML page (or a handful of them,
               all specified on the command-line or in a -i URL input file) and
               its (or their) requisites, simply leave off -r and -l:
                       wget -p http://<site>/1.html
               Note that Wget will behave as if -r had been specified, but only
               that single page and its requisites will be downloaded.  Links from
               that page to external documents will not be followed.  Actually, to
               download a single page and all its requisites (even if they exist
               on separate websites), and make sure the lot displays properly
               locally, this author likes to use a few options in addition to -p:
                       wget -E -H -k -K -p http://<site>/<document>
               To finish off this topic, it's worth knowing that Wget's idea of an
               external document link is any URL specified in an "<A>" tag, an
               On the other hand, most HTML writers don't perceive comments as
               anything other than text delimited with <!-- and -->, which is not
               quite the same.  For example, something like <!------------> works
               as a valid comment as long as the number of dashes is a multiple of
               four (!).  If not, the comment technically lasts until the next --,
               which may be at the other end of the document.  Because of this,
               many popular browsers completely ignore the specification and
               implement what users have come to expect: comments delimited with
               <!-- and -->.
               Until version 1.9, Wget interpreted comments strictly, which
               resulted in missing links in many web pages that displayed fine in
               browsers, but had the misfortune of containing non-compliant
               comments.  Beginning with version 1.9, Wget has joined the ranks of
               clients that implements "naive" comments, terminating each comment
               at the first occurrence of -->.
               If, for whatever reason, you want strict comment parsing, use this
               option to turn it on.
       Recursive Accept/Reject Options
           -A acclist --accept acclist
           -R rejlist --reject rejlist
               Specify comma-separated lists of file name suffixes or patterns to
               accept or reject. Note that if any of the wildcard characters, *,
               ?, [ or ], appear in an element of acclist or rejlist, it will be
               treated as a pattern, rather than a suffix.
           -D domain-list
               Set domains to be followed.  domain-list is a comma-separated list
               of domains.  Note that it does not turn on -H.
           --exclude-domains domain-list
               Specify the domains that are not to be followed..
               Follow FTP links from HTML documents.  Without this option, Wget
               will ignore all the FTP links.
               Wget has an internal table of HTML tag / attribute pairs that it
               considers when looking for linked documents during a recursive
               retrieval.  If a user wants only a subset of those tags to be
               considered, however, he or she should be specify such tags in a
               comma-separated list with this option.
               This is the opposite of the --follow-tags option.  To skip certain
               HTML tags when recursively looking for documents to download,
               specify them in a comma-separated list.
               Ignore case when matching files and directories.  This influences
               the behavior of -R, -A, -I, and -X options, as well as globbing
               implemented when downloading from FTP sites.  For example, with
               this option, -A *.txt will match file1.txt, but also file2.TXT,
               file3.TxT, and so on.
               Enable spanning across hosts when doing recursive retrieving.
               Follow relative links only.  Useful for retrieving a specific home
               page without any distractions, not even those from the same hosts.
           -I list
               Specify a comma-separated list of directories you wish to follow
               when downloading.  Elements of list may contain wildcards.
           -X list
               Specify a comma-separated list of directories you wish to exclude
               from download.  Elements of list may contain wildcards.
               Do not ever ascend to the parent directory when retrieving
               recursively.  This is a useful option, since it guarantees that
               only the files below a certain hierarchy will be downloaded.


           Wget may return one of several error codes if it encounters problems.
           0   No problems occurred.
           1   Generic error code.
           2   Parse error---for instance, when parsing command-line options, the
               .wgetrc or .netrc...
           3   File I/O error.
           4   Network failure.
           5   SSL verification failure.
           6   Username/password authentication failure.
           7   Protocol errors.
           8   Server issued an error response.
               User startup file.


           You are welcome to submit bug reports via the GNU Wget bug tracker (see
           Before actually submitting a bug report, please try to follow a few
           simple guidelines.
           1.  Please try to ascertain that the behavior you see really is a bug.
               If Wget crashes, it's a bug.  If Wget does not behave as
               documented, it's a bug.  If things work strange, but you are not
               sure about the way they are supposed to work, it might well be a
               bug, but you might want to double-check the documentation and the
               mailing lists.
           2.  Try to repeat the bug in as simple circumstances as possible.  E.g.
               if Wget crashes while downloading wget -rl0 -kKE -t5 --no-proxy
      -o /tmp/log, you should try to see if the crash
               is repeatable, and if will occur with a simpler set of options.
               You might even try to start the download at the page where the
               crash occurred to see if that page somehow triggered the crash.
               Also, while I will probably be interested to know the contents of
               your .wgetrc file, just dumping it into the debug message is
               probably a bad idea.  Instead, you should first try to see if the
               bug repeats with .wgetrc moved out of the way.  Only if it turns
               out that .wgetrc settings affect the bug, mail me the relevant
               parts of the file.
           3.  Please start Wget with -d option and send us the resulting output
               (or relevant parts thereof).  If Wget was compiled without debug
               support, recompile it---it is much easier to trace bugs with debug
               support on.
               Note: please make sure to remove any potentially sensitive
               information from the debug log before sending it to the bug
               address.  The "-d" won't go out of its way to collect sensitive
               information, but the log will contain a fairly complete transcript
               of Wget's communication with the server, which may include
               passwords and pieces of downloaded data.  Since the bug address is
               publically archived, you may assume that all bug reports are
               visible to the public.
           4.  If Wget has crashed, try to run it in a debugger, e.g. "gdb `which
               wget` core" and type "where" to get the backtrace.  This may not
               work if the system administrator has disabled core files, but it is
               safe to try.


           under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or
           any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
           Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.  A
           copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free
           Documentation License".

    GNU Wget 1.12 2014-10-30 WGET(1)


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