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    Command:

    vrfy

    
    
    

    SYNTAX

           vrfy [options] [-v] address [host]
           vrfy [options] [-v] -f [file] [host]
           vrfy [options] [-v] -p domain
           vrfy [options] [-v] -T domain [name]
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           vrfy  is a tool to verify electronic mail addresses.  The only required
           parameter is the address to be verified.  The actual verification  will
           be  carried  out  at the remote machine where mail to the given address
           would normally be delivered.  This may be a mail exchange host and  not
           the final destination host.  If an explicit host is given as the second
           argument on the command line, the specified address is verified at that
           machine.
    
           The  output of the program shows whether or not the address can be han-
           dled at the contacted host. Error  messages  will  be  printed  if  the
           address  is invalid. If the address is recognized, the output shows the
           remote host's notion of the (possibly translated) address. If it repre-
           sents  a local user at that host, additional information about the user
           may be displayed.
    
           Note that if the address is accepted by the contacted host, but this is
           not  the  final  destination  host,  one  still cannot be sure that the
           address represents a valid recipient.
    
           It is a handy tool to verify local mail addresses.
           If you have set up a .forward file, you can verify your own address  to
           check that the forwarding is done properly.
           If  you  specify an arbitrary name, you can check whether this resolves
           to any valid recipients.
    
    
    

    SPECIAL OPERATION MODES

           Some flags put the program in a special operation mode.
    
       FILE MODE
           If the -f option is specified, the program enters a special file  mode.
           The  (optional)  parameter  is the name of a file containing electronic
           mail addresses, such as used for mailing lists.   Verification  of  all
           addresses  present  in the file is attempted.  If no filename is speci-
           fied, vrfy acts as a filter and the addresses to be verified  are  read
           from standard input.
    
       PING MODE
           If  the -p option is specified, the program enters a special ping mode.
           The required parameter is an electronic mail domain for which  it  will
           be  verified  whether  the  corresponding mail exchangers are currently
           responding to SMTP requests.
    
       ETRN MODE
           If the -T option is specified, the program enters a special etrn  mode.
           The  required  parameter  is  an electronic mail domain.  An ESMTP ETRN
           the  request  is  retried  at  its  domain  itself, unless this was the
           machine we just queried, or it is not an internet domain host.
    
           The option -R is equivalent to ''-L 17''.   This  is  the  maximum  hop
           count  normally  used  during  actual  mail  relaying. This option also
           implies ''-s''.
    
    
    

    OPTIONS

           -v      Sets verbose mode. Prints the action the program  is  going  to
                   take.
                   If  specified as -vv, very verbose output is printed.  The SMTP
                   transactions with the remote host are shown in detail.
                   If the verbose mode level is set to 3 with  -vvv,  the  actions
                   taken  by  the remote host are shown, such as alias and forward
                   expansions. This can be quite amusing.  The  remote  host  must
                   support the SMTP VERB command for this to work.
                   In ping mode, the verbose mode level 3 will cause an extra SMTP
                   command HELO to be generated.
    
           -d      Prints debugging output showing the various phases of the  SMTP
                   connection  with  the  remote host. This is normally not of any
                   interest. Also prints various messages that are otherwise shown
                   in very verbose mode.
                   If  specified as -dd, in addition all nameserver query transac-
                   tions are shown in detail.
                   A level 3 debug mode -ddd will not make any SMTP connections at
                   all.
    
           -a      If  multiple  mail  exchange hosts were found, this option will
                   cause the operation to be carried out at each of  these  hosts.
                   Normally only the primary mail exchanger is contacted.
    
           -l      Sets  local mode for error handling. Address syntax and parsing
                   errors are handled entirely by the program. The default  is  to
                   pass  faulty  addresses  to  the local host to get the official
                   error messages.
    
           -s      Strips all  comments  from  full  address  specifications,  and
                   presents  only the plain address to the remote host to be veri-
                   fied.  Some hosts may get confused when  a  multiple  bracketed
                   address  is presented. This option is implied when -R is given.
    
           -e      Uses the EXPN command instead of the VRFY command. Some systems
                   may have different treatment for these commands, so this option
                   may be a possible alternative.  By sendmail V5 they are usually
                   treated the same, but not by the sendmail V8 versions.  In case
                   treatment is different, the VRFY command will just show whether
                   the  presented  address  is  valid or not, but the EXPN command
                   will return alias expansions,  if  appropriate.   Some  systems
                   allow VRFY, but disallow EXPN for privacy reasons.
    
           -h      This  option  causes  an  SMTP HELO command to be issued to the
                   protocol suite with the regular HELO, MAIL, RCPT and RSET  com-
                   mands.  This gives only a global indication whether the recipi-
                   ent is valid. Recursive mode is not possible, and will be  dis-
                   abled.
    
           -S sender
                   Defines  an  explicit envelope sender address to be used in the
                   MAIL command during the alternative protocol suite, to overrule
                   the  default  empty sender address ''<>''.  This option implies
                   ''-n''.
    
           -c secs Sets a connect timeout value to override the default timeout of
                   6  seconds. This may be necessary if it takes considerable time
                   to connect to the remote host.
    
           -t secs Sets a read timeout value to override the default timeout of 60
                   seconds.  This  may  be necessary if it takes considerable time
                   for the remote host to assemble all addresses in  long  mailing
                   lists.
    
    
    

    DEFAULT OPTIONS

           Default options and parameters can be preset in an environment variable
           VRFY_DEFAULTS using the same syntax as on the command line.  They  will
           be evaluated before the command line arguments.
    
    
    

    DIAGNOSTICS

           vrfy  sets up an SMTP connection with the remote host where the verify-
           ing is to be carried out.  SMTP is the TCP/IP protocol  for  electronic
           mail exchange.
    
           If  the  given  host does not speak SMTP, the error message "Connection
           refused" is printed.
    
           If the SMTP protocol is blocked, a "Host  is  unreachable"  message  is
           printed.
    
           If  the remote host doesn't respond in time, you will get a "Connection
           timed out" message.
    
           The remote host must support the SMTP VRFY command for doing the  veri-
           fication. If not, a "Command not implemented" is printed.
    
    
    

    STRATEGY

           The  following strategy is used to find the remote host where the veri-
           fication is to be carried out.
    
           a.  If an explicit verification host is specified, that  host  is  con-
               tacted unconditionally.
    
           b.  If the address to be verified has no domain part after an '@' sign,
               it is supposed to be a local recipient and will be verified at  the
               local host.
    
           g.  If no mail exchangers were found for an  unqualified  single  host-
               name, the local host is contacted by default. The actual meaning of
               such addresses depend on your local strategy.
    
    
    

    ENVIRONMENT

           Environment variables can  be  used  to  overrule  several  compiled-in
           defaults.
    
       VRFY_LOCALHOST
           This is your nearest host running the sendmail daemon.  It is contacted
           in case local addresses without a domain are given.  Also  (unless  the
           -l is given) when domain parsing errors were encountered, assuming that
           this host can give a more appropriate error message.  The default value
           is localhost.
    
       VRFY_UUCPRELAY
           This host is contacted when a .uucp address is specified.  You probably
           won't get much useful information.  The default value is localhost.
    
       VRFY_BITNETRELAY
           This host is contacted when a .bitnet or .earn  address  is  specified.
           You  probably  won't get much useful information.  The default value is
           localhost.
    
       VRFY_SINGLERELAY
           This host is contacted when a single unqualified host name could not be
           resolved  to a fully qualified MX domain host.  It is assumed that sin-
           gle hosts in your own domain can be resolved,  i.e.  they  have  an  MX
           record.   It  depends on your local strategy for unqualified hosts what
           they mean: a .uucp host, a .bitnet host, or just a local  host  without
           MX.  The default value is localhost.
    
    
    

    LIMITATIONS

           Some  hosts  have  a  lousy VRFY handling. Sometimes the command is not
           implemented at all. Other hosts are willing to verify only local recip-
           ients. The "-n" option may be necessary.
    
           Other servers may refuse the VRFY command for privacy reasons.
    
           If the verification is not performed at the final destination host, one
           cannot be sure that the given address is valid.
    
    
    

    MAILING LISTS

           Note the following subtle differences if you want to check an  existing
           mailing  list  list.  Suppose that ''list-users'' is the local alias to
           include the actual file ''/mail/lists/list-users'' with recipients.
    
           The command ''vrfy list-users'' will verify the proper expansion of the
           mailing list at the local host. No remote hosts are contacted to verify
           addresses.
    
    
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