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    Command:

    visudo

    
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

         visudo edits the sudoers file in a safe fashion, analogous to vipw(8).
         visudo locks the sudoers file against multiple simultaneous edits, pro-
         vides basic sanity checks, and checks for parse errors.  If the sudoers
         file is currently being edited you will receive a message to try again
         later.
    
         There is a hard-coded list of one or more editors that visudo will use
         set at compile-time that may be overridden via the editor sudoers Default
         variable.  This list defaults to /usr/local/bin/vi.  Normally, visudo
         does not honor the VISUAL or EDITOR environment variables unless they
         contain an editor in the aforementioned editors list.  However, if visudo
         is configured with the --with-env-editor option or the env_editor Default
         variable is set in sudoers, visudo will use any the editor defines by
         VISUAL or EDITOR.  Note that this can be a security hole since it allows
         the user to execute any program they wish simply by setting VISUAL or
         EDITOR.
    
         visudo parses the sudoers file after the edit and will not save the
         changes if there is a syntax error.  Upon finding an error, visudo will
         print a message stating the line number(s) where the error occurred and
         the user will receive the "What now?" prompt.  At this point the user may
         enter 'e' to re-edit the sudoers file, 'x' to exit without saving the
         changes, or 'Q' to quit and save changes.  The 'Q' option should be used
         with extreme care because if visudo believes there to be a parse error,
         so will sudo and no one will be able to sudo again until the error is
         fixed.  If 'e' is typed to edit the sudoers file after a parse error has
         been detected, the cursor will be placed on the line where the error
         occurred (if the editor supports this feature).
    
         The options are as follows:
    
         -c          Enable check-only mode.  The existing sudoers file will be
                     checked for syntax errors, owner and mode.  A message will be
                     printed to the standard output describing the status of
                     sudoers unless the -q option was specified.  If the check
                     completes successfully, visudo will exit with a value of 0.
                     If an error is encountered, visudo will exit with a value of
                     1.
    
         -f sudoers  Specify and alternate sudoers file location.  With this
                     option visudo will edit (or check) the sudoers file of your
                     choice, instead of the default, /etc/sudoers.  The lock file
                     used is the specified sudoers file with ".tmp" appended to
                     it.  In check-only mode only, the argument to -f may be '-',
                     indicating that sudoers will be read from the standard input.
    
         -h          The -h (help) option causes visudo to print a short help mes-
                     sage to the standard output and exit.
    
         -q          Enable quiet mode.  In this mode details about syntax errors
         The following environment variables may be consulted depending on the
         value of the editor and env_editor sudoers settings:
    
         VISUAL           Invoked by visudo as the editor to use
    
         EDITOR           Used by visudo if VISUAL is not set
    
    
    

    FILES

         /etc/sudoers              List of who can run what
    
         /etc/sudoers.tmp          Lock file for visudo
    
    
    

    DIAGNOSTICS

         sudoers file busy, try again later.
               Someone else is currently editing the sudoers file.
    
         /etc/sudoers.tmp: Permission denied
               You didn't run visudo as root.
    
         Can't find you in the passwd database
               Your user ID does not appear in the system passwd file.
    
         Warning: {User,Runas,Host,Cmnd}_Alias referenced but not defined
               Either you are trying to use an undeclared
               {User,Runas,Host,Cmnd}_Alias or you have a user or host name listed
               that consists solely of uppercase letters, digits, and the under-
               score ('_') character.  In the latter case, you can ignore the
               warnings (sudo will not complain).  In -s (strict) mode these are
               errors, not warnings.
    
         Warning: unused {User,Runas,Host,Cmnd}_Alias
               The specified {User,Runas,Host,Cmnd}_Alias was defined but never
               used.  You may wish to comment out or remove the unused alias.  In
               -s (strict) mode this is an error, not a warning.
    
         Warning: cycle in {User,Runas,Host,Cmnd}_Alias
               The specified {User,Runas,Host,Cmnd}_Alias includes a reference to
               itself, either directly or through an alias it includes.  This is
               only a warning by default as sudo will ignore cycles when parsing
               the sudoers file.
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

         vi(1), sudoers(5), sudo(8), vipw(8)
    
    
    

    AUTHORS

         Many people have worked on sudo over the years; this version consists of
         code written primarily by:
    
               Todd C. Miller
    
         See the CONTRIBUTORS file in the sudo distribution
         (http://www.sudo.ws/sudo/contributors.html) for an exhaustive list of
    
    
    

    DISCLAIMER

         visudo is provided "AS IS" and any express or implied warranties, includ-
         ing, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and
         fitness for a particular purpose are disclaimed.  See the LICENSE file
         distributed with sudo or http://www.sudo.ws/sudo/license.html for com-
         plete details.
    
    
    

    Sudo 1.8.6p3 July 12, 2012 Sudo 1.8.6p3

    
    
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