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    Command:

    verify

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           openssl verify [-CApath directory] [-CAfile file] [-trusted_first]
           [-purpose purpose] [-policy arg] [-ignore_critical] [-crl_check]
           [-crl_check_all] [-policy_check] [-explicit_policy] [-inhibit_any]
           [-inhibit_map] [-x509_strict] [-extended_crl] [-use_deltas]
           [-policy_print] [-untrusted file] [-help] [-issuer_checks] [-attime
           timestamp] [-verbose] [-] [certificates]
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           The verify command verifies certificate chains.
    
    
    

    COMMAND OPTIONS

           -CApath directory
               A directory of trusted certificates. The certificates should have
               names of the form: hash.0 or have symbolic links to them of this
               form ("hash" is the hashed certificate subject name: see the -hash
               option of the x509 utility). Under Unix the c_rehash script will
               automatically create symbolic links to a directory of certificates.
    
           -CAfile file
               A file of trusted certificates. The file should contain multiple
               certificates in PEM format concatenated together.
    
           -untrusted file
               A file of untrusted certificates. The file should contain multiple
               certificates in PEM format concatenated together.
    
           -trusted_first
               Use certificates in CA file or CA directory before the certificates
               in the untrusted file when building the trust chain to verify
               certificates.  This is mainly useful in environments with Bridge CA
               or Cross-Certified CAs.
    
           -purpose purpose
               The intended use for the certificate. If this option is not
               specified, verify will not consider certificate purpose during
               chain verification.  Currently accepted uses are sslclient,
               sslserver, nssslserver, smimesign, smimeencrypt. See the VERIFY
               OPERATION section for more information.
    
           -help
               Print out a usage message.
    
           -verbose
               Print extra information about the operations being performed.
    
           -issuer_checks
               Print out diagnostics relating to searches for the issuer
               certificate of the current certificate. This shows why each
               candidate issuer certificate was rejected. The presence of
               rejection messages does not itself imply that anything is wrong;
               during the normal verification process, several rejections may take
    
           -explicit_policy
               Set policy variable require-explicit-policy (see RFC5280).
    
           -inhibit_any
               Set policy variable inhibit-any-policy (see RFC5280).
    
           -inhibit_map
               Set policy variable inhibit-policy-mapping (see RFC5280).
    
           -policy_print
               Print out diagnostics related to policy processing.
    
           -crl_check
               Checks end entity certificate validity by attempting to look up a
               valid CRL.  If a valid CRL cannot be found an error occurs.
    
           -crl_check_all
               Checks the validity of all certificates in the chain by attempting
               to look up valid CRLs.
    
           -ignore_critical
               Normally if an unhandled critical extension is present which is not
               supported by OpenSSL the certificate is rejected (as required by
               RFC5280).  If this option is set critical extensions are ignored.
    
           -x509_strict
               For strict X.509 compliance, disable non-compliant workarounds for
               broken certificates.
    
           -extended_crl
               Enable extended CRL features such as indirect CRLs and alternate
               CRL signing keys.
    
           -use_deltas
               Enable support for delta CRLs.
    
           -check_ss_sig
               Verify the signature on the self-signed root CA. This is disabled
               by default because it doesn't add any security.
    
           -   Indicates the last option. All arguments following this are assumed
               to be certificate files. This is useful if the first certificate
               filename begins with a -.
    
           certificates
               One or more certificates to verify. If no certificates are given,
               verify will attempt to read a certificate from standard input.
               Certificates must be in PEM format.
    
    
    

    VERIFY OPERATION

           The verify program uses the same functions as the internal SSL and
           issuers certificate of the current certificate. If a certificate is
           found which is its own issuer it is assumed to be the root CA.
    
           The process of 'looking up the issuers certificate' itself involves a
           number of steps. In versions of OpenSSL before 0.9.5a the first
           certificate whose subject name matched the issuer of the current
           certificate was assumed to be the issuers certificate. In OpenSSL 0.9.6
           and later all certificates whose subject name matches the issuer name
           of the current certificate are subject to further tests. The relevant
           authority key identifier components of the current certificate (if
           present) must match the subject key identifier (if present) and issuer
           and serial number of the candidate issuer, in addition the keyUsage
           extension of the candidate issuer (if present) must permit certificate
           signing.
    
           The lookup first looks in the list of untrusted certificates and if no
           match is found the remaining lookups are from the trusted certificates.
           The root CA is always looked up in the trusted certificate list: if the
           certificate to verify is a root certificate then an exact match must be
           found in the trusted list.
    
           The second operation is to check every untrusted certificate's
           extensions for consistency with the supplied purpose. If the -purpose
           option is not included then no checks are done. The supplied or "leaf"
           certificate must have extensions compatible with the supplied purpose
           and all other certificates must also be valid CA certificates. The
           precise extensions required are described in more detail in the
           CERTIFICATE EXTENSIONS section of the x509 utility.
    
           The third operation is to check the trust settings on the root CA. The
           root CA should be trusted for the supplied purpose. For compatibility
           with previous versions of SSLeay and OpenSSL a certificate with no
           trust settings is considered to be valid for all purposes.
    
           The final operation is to check the validity of the certificate chain.
           The validity period is checked against the current system time and the
           notBefore and notAfter dates in the certificate. The certificate
           signatures are also checked at this point.
    
           If all operations complete successfully then certificate is considered
           valid. If any operation fails then the certificate is not valid.
    
    
    

    DIAGNOSTICS

           When a verify operation fails the output messages can be somewhat
           cryptic. The general form of the error message is:
    
            server.pem: /C=AU/ST=Queensland/O=CryptSoft Pty Ltd/CN=Test CA (1024 bit)
            error 24 at 1 depth lookup:invalid CA certificate
    
           The first line contains the name of the certificate being verified
           followed by the subject name of the certificate. The second line
           contains the error number and the depth. The depth is number of the
           certificate
               the issuer certificate of a looked up certificate could not be
               found. This normally means the list of trusted certificates is not
               complete.
    
           3 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_CRL: unable to get certificate CRL
               the CRL of a certificate could not be found.
    
           4 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CERT_SIGNATURE: unable to decrypt
           certificate's signature
               the certificate signature could not be decrypted. This means that
               the actual signature value could not be determined rather than it
               not matching the expected value, this is only meaningful for RSA
               keys.
    
           5 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CRL_SIGNATURE: unable to decrypt CRL's
           signature
               the CRL signature could not be decrypted: this means that the
               actual signature value could not be determined rather than it not
               matching the expected value. Unused.
    
           6 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECODE_ISSUER_PUBLIC_KEY: unable to decode
           issuer public key
               the public key in the certificate SubjectPublicKeyInfo could not be
               read.
    
           7 X509_V_ERR_CERT_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: certificate signature failure
               the signature of the certificate is invalid.
    
           8 X509_V_ERR_CRL_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: CRL signature failure
               the signature of the certificate is invalid.
    
           9 X509_V_ERR_CERT_NOT_YET_VALID: certificate is not yet valid
               the certificate is not yet valid: the notBefore date is after the
               current time.
    
           10 X509_V_ERR_CERT_HAS_EXPIRED: certificate has expired
               the certificate has expired: that is the notAfter date is before
               the current time.
    
           11 X509_V_ERR_CRL_NOT_YET_VALID: CRL is not yet valid
               the CRL is not yet valid.
    
           12 X509_V_ERR_CRL_HAS_EXPIRED: CRL has expired
               the CRL has expired.
    
           13 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_BEFORE_FIELD: format error in
           certificate's notBefore field
               the certificate notBefore field contains an invalid time.
    
           14 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_AFTER_FIELD: format error in
           certificate's notAfter field
           18 X509_V_ERR_DEPTH_ZERO_SELF_SIGNED_CERT: self signed certificate
               the passed certificate is self signed and the same certificate
               cannot be found in the list of trusted certificates.
    
           19 X509_V_ERR_SELF_SIGNED_CERT_IN_CHAIN: self signed certificate in
           certificate chain
               the certificate chain could be built up using the untrusted
               certificates but the root could not be found locally.
    
           20 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT_LOCALLY: unable to get local
           issuer certificate
               the issuer certificate could not be found: this occurs if the
               issuer certificate of an untrusted certificate cannot be found.
    
           21 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_VERIFY_LEAF_SIGNATURE: unable to verify the
           first certificate
               no signatures could be verified because the chain contains only one
               certificate and it is not self signed.
    
           22 X509_V_ERR_CERT_CHAIN_TOO_LONG: certificate chain too long
               the certificate chain length is greater than the supplied maximum
               depth. Unused.
    
           23 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REVOKED: certificate revoked
               the certificate has been revoked.
    
           24 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_CA: invalid CA certificate
               a CA certificate is invalid. Either it is not a CA or its
               extensions are not consistent with the supplied purpose.
    
           25 X509_V_ERR_PATH_LENGTH_EXCEEDED: path length constraint exceeded
               the basicConstraints pathlength parameter has been exceeded.
    
           26 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_PURPOSE: unsupported certificate purpose
               the supplied certificate cannot be used for the specified purpose.
    
           27 X509_V_ERR_CERT_UNTRUSTED: certificate not trusted
               the root CA is not marked as trusted for the specified purpose.
    
           28 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REJECTED: certificate rejected
               the root CA is marked to reject the specified purpose.
    
           29 X509_V_ERR_SUBJECT_ISSUER_MISMATCH: subject issuer mismatch
               the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its
               subject name did not match the issuer name of the current
               certificate. Only displayed when the -issuer_checks option is set.
    
           30 X509_V_ERR_AKID_SKID_MISMATCH: authority and subject key identifier
           mismatch
               the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its
               subject key identifier was present and did not match the authority
               key identifier current certificate. Only displayed when the
    
           50 X509_V_ERR_APPLICATION_VERIFICATION: application verification
           failure
               an application specific error. Unused.
    
    
    

    BUGS

           Although the issuer checks are a considerably improvement over the old
           technique they still suffer from limitations in the underlying
           X509_LOOKUP API. One consequence of this is that trusted certificates
           with matching subject name must either appear in a file (as specified
           by the -CAfile option) or a directory (as specified by -CApath. If they
           occur in both then only the certificates in the file will be
           recognised.
    
           Previous versions of OpenSSL assume certificates with matching subject
           name are identical and mishandled them.
    
           Previous versions of this documentation swapped the meaning of the
           X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT and 20
           X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT_LOCALLY error codes.
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           x509(1)
    
    
    

    1.0.1e 2016-01-07 VERIFY(1)

    
    
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