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           upsmon -h
           upsmon -c command
           upsmon [-D] [-p] [-u user]


           upsmon is the client process that is responsible for the most important
           part of UPS monitoring--shutting down the system when the power goes
           out. It can call out to other helper programs for notification purposes
           during power events.
           upsmon can monitor multiple systems using a single process. Every UPS
           that is defined in the upsmon.conf(5) configuration file is assigned a
           power value and a type (slave or master).


               Display the help message.
           -c command
               Send the command command to the existing upsmon process. Valid
               commands are:
                   shutdown all master UPSes (use with caution)
                   stop monitoring and exit
                   reread upsmon.conf(5) configuration file. See "reloading
                   nuances" below if this doesn't work.
               Raise the debugging level. upsmon will run in the foreground and
               prints information on stdout about the monitoring process. Use this
               multiple times for more details.
               Test for the shutdown flag. If it exists and contains the magic
               string from upsmon, then upsmon will exit with EXIT_SUCCESS. Any
               other condition will make upsmon exit with EXIT_FAILURE.
               You can test for a successful exit from upsmon -K in your shutdown
               scripts to know when to call upsdrvctl(8) to shut down the UPS.
               Run privileged all the time. Normally upsmon will split into two
               processes. The majority of the code runs as an unprivileged user,
               and only a tiny stub runs as root. This switch will disable that
               You can also set this in the upsmon.conf(5) file with the
               RUN_AS_USER directive.


           In the upsmon.conf(5), you must specify at least one UPS that will be
           monitored. Use the MONITOR directive.
               MONITOR 'system' 'powervalue' 'username' 'password' 'type'
           The system refers to a upsd(8) server, in the form
           upsname[@hostname[:port]]. The default hostname is "localhost". Some
           examples follow:
           ?   "su700@mybox" means a UPS called "su700" on a system called
               "mybox". This is the normal form.
           ?   "fenton@bigbox:5678" is a UPS called "fenton" on a system called
               "bigbox" which runs upsd(8) on port "5678".
           The powervalue refers to how many power supplies on this system are
           being driven this UPS. This is typically set to 1, but see the section
           on power values below.
           The username is a section in your upsd.users(5) file. Whatever password
           you set in that section must match the password set in this file.
           The type set in that section must also match the type here-- master or
           slave. In general, a master process is one running on the system with
           the UPS actually plugged into a serial port, and a slave is drawing
           power from the UPS but can't talk to it directly. See the section on
           UPS types for more.


           upsmon senses several events as it monitors each UPS. They are called
           notify events as they can be used to tell the users and admins about
           the change in status. See the additional NOTIFY-related sections below
           for information on customizing the delivery of these messages.
               The UPS is back on line.
               The UPS is on battery.
               The UPS battery is low (as determined by the driver).
               The UPS has been commanded into the "forced shutdown" mode.
               Communication with the UPS has been established.
           In upsmon.conf(5), you can configure a program called the NOTIFYCMD
           that will handle events that occur.
           NOTIFYCMD "path to program"
           NOTIFYCMD "/usr/local/bin/notifyme"
           Remember to wrap the path in "quotes" if it contains any spaces.
           The program you run as your NOTIFYCMD can use the environment variables
           NOTIFYTYPE and UPSNAME to know what has happened and on which UPS. It
           also receives the notification message (see below) as the first (and
           only) argument, so you can deliver a preformatted message too.
           Note that the NOTIFYCMD will only be called for a given event when you
           set the EXEC flag by using the notify flags, below:


           By default, all notify events (see above) generate a global message
           (wall) to all users, plus they are logged via the syslog. You can
           change this with the NOTIFYFLAG directive in the configuration file:
           NOTIFYFLAG notifytype flags
           The flags that can be set on a given notify event are:
               Write this message to the syslog.
               Send this message to all users on the system via wall(1).
               Execute the NOTIFYCMD.
               Don't do anything. If you use this, don't use any of the other
           You can mix these flags. "SYSLOG+WALL+EXEC" does all three for a given


           upsmon comes with default messages for each of the NOTIFY events. These


           The "current overall power value" is the sum of all UPSes that are
           currently able to supply power to the system hosting upsmon. Any UPS
           that is either on line or just on battery contributes to this number.
           If a UPS is critical (on battery and low battery) or has been put into
           "forced shutdown" mode, it no longer contributes.
           A "power value" on a MONITOR line in the config file is the number of
           power supplies that the UPS runs on the current system.
           MONITOR upsname powervalue username password type
           Normally, you only have one power supply, so it will be set to 1.
           MONITOR myups@myhost 1 username mypassword master
           On a large server with redundant power supplies, the power value for a
           UPS may be greater than 1. You may also have more than one of them
           MONITOR ups-alpha@myhost 2 username mypassword master
           MONITOR ups-beta@myhost 2 username mypassword master
           You can also set the power value for a UPS to 0 if it does not supply
           any power to that system. This is generally used when you want to use
           the upsmon notification features for a UPS even though it's not
           actually running the system that hosts upsmon. Don't set this to
           "master" unless you really want to power this UPS off when this
           instance of upsmon needs to shut down for its own reasons.
           MONITOR faraway@anotherbox 0 username mypassword slave
           The "minimum power value" is the number of power supplies that must be
           receiving power in order to keep the computer running.
           MINSUPPLIES value
           Typical PCs only have 1, so most users will leave this at the default.
           MINSUPPLIES 1
           If you have a server or similar system with redundant power, then this
           value will usually be set higher. One that requires three power
           supplies to be running at all times would simply set it to 3.
           MINSUPPLIES 3
           When the current overall power value drops below the minimum power
           value, upsmon starts the shutdown sequence. This design allows you to
           lose some of your power supplies in a redundant power environment
           without bringing down the entire system while still working properly
           command. This needs to happen quickly. Once it disconnects from the
           distant upsd(8) server, the master upsmon will start its own shutdown
           process. Your slaves must all shut down before the master turns off the
           power or filesystem damage may result.
           upsmon deals with slaves that get wedged, hang, or otherwise fail to
           disconnect from upsd(8) in a timely manner with the HOSTSYNC timer.
           During a shutdown situation, the master upsmon will give up after this
           interval and it will shut down anyway. This keeps the master from
           sitting there forever (which would endanger that host) if a slave
           should break somehow. This defaults to 15 seconds.
           If your master system is shutting down too quickly, set the FINALDELAY
           interval to something greater than the default 15 seconds. Don't set
           this too high, or your UPS battery may run out of power before the
           master upsmon process shuts down that system.


           For those rare situations where the shutdown process can't be completed
           between the time that low battery is signalled and the UPS actually
           powers off the load, use the upssched(8) helper program. You can use it
           along with upsmon to schedule a shutdown based on the "on battery"
           event. upssched can then come back to upsmon to initiate the shutdown
           once it has run on battery too long.
           This can be complicated and messy, so stick to the default critical UPS
           handling if you can.


           If you have more than one power supply for redundant power, you may
           also have more than one UPS feeding your computer. upsmon can handle
           this. Be sure to set the UPS power values appropriately and the
           MINSUPPLIES value high enough so that it keeps running until it really
           does need to shut down.
           For example, the HP NetServer LH4 by default has 3 power supplies
           installed, with one bay empty. It has two power cords, one per side of
           the box. This means that one power cord powers two power supply bays,
           and that you can only have two UPSes supplying power.
           Connect UPS "alpha" to the cord feeding two power supplies, and UPS
           "beta" to the cord that feeds the third and the empty slot. Define
           alpha as a powervalue of 2, and beta as a powervalue of 1. Set the
           MINSUPPLIES to 2.
           When alpha goes on battery, your current overall power value will stay
           at 3, as it's still supplying power. However, once it goes critical (on
           battery and low battery), it will stop contributing to the current
           overall power value. That means the value will be 1 (beta alone), which
           is less than 2. That is insufficient to run the system, and upsmon will
           invoke the shutdown sequence.
           system nearby.
           This is also complicated, especially when it comes time to power down a
           UPS that has gone critical but doesn't supply the local system. You can
           do this with some scripting magic in your notify command script, but
           it's beyond the scope of this manual.


           When upsmon is forced to bring down the local system, it sets the "FSD"
           (forced shutdown) flag on any UPSes that it is running in master mode.
           This is used to synchronize slaves in the event that a master UPS that
           is otherwise OK needs to be brought down due to some pressing event on
           the master.
           You can manually invoke this mode on the master upsmon by starting
           another copy with -c fsd. This is useful when you want to initiate a
           shutdown before the critical stage through some external means, such as


           In the event that upsmon can't reach upsd(8), it declares that UPS
           "dead" after some interval controlled by DEADTIME in the
           upsmon.conf(5). If this happens while that UPS was last known to be on
           battery, it is assumed to have gone critical and no longer contributes
           to the overall power value.
           upsmon will alert you to a UPS that can't be contacted for monitoring
           with a "NOCOMM" notifier by default every 300 seconds. This can be
           changed with the NOCOMMWARNTIME setting.


           upsmon usually gives up root powers for the process that does most of
           the work, including handling signals like SIGHUP to reload the
           configuration file. This means your upsmon.conf(8) file must be
           readable by the non-root account that upsmon switches to.
           If you want reloads to work, upsmon must run as some user that has
           permissions to read the configuration file. I recommend making a new
           user just for this purpose, as making the file readable by "nobody"
           (the default user) would be a bad idea.
           See the RUN_AS_USER section in upsmon.conf(8) for more on this topic.
           Additionally, you can't change the SHUTDOWNCMD or POWERDOWNFLAG
           definitions with a reload due to the split-process model. If you change
           those values, you must stop upsmon and start it back up. upsmon will
           warn you in the syslog if you make changes to either of those values
           during a reload.


           To test a synchronized shutdown without pulling the plug on your
           UPS(es), you need only set the forced shutdown (FSD) flag on them. You
           upsc(8), upscmd(8), upsrw(8), upsmon(8)
       CGI programs:
           upsset.cgi(8), upsstats.cgi(8), upsimage.cgi(8)
       Internet resources:
           The NUT (Network UPS Tools) home page:

    Network UPS Tools 10/09/2011 UPSMON(8)


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