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           unzip  [-Z] [-cflptTuvz[abjnoqsCDKLMUVWX$/:^]] file[.zip] [file(s) ...]
           [-x xfile(s) ...] [-d exdir]


           unzip will list, test, or extract files from a  ZIP  archive,  commonly
           found  on MS-DOS systems.  The default behavior (with no options) is to
           extract into the current directory (and subdirectories  below  it)  all
           files  from  the  specified ZIP archive.  A companion program, zip(1L),
           creates ZIP archives; both programs are compatible with  archives  cre-
           ated  by  PKWARE's  PKZIP and PKUNZIP for MS-DOS, but in many cases the
           program options or default behaviors differ.


                  Path of the ZIP archive(s).  If  the  file  specification  is  a
                  wildcard, each matching file is processed in an order determined
                  by the operating system (or file system).  Only the filename can
                  be a wildcard; the path itself cannot.  Wildcard expressions are
                  similar to those supported in commonly  used  Unix  shells  (sh,
                  ksh, csh) and may contain:
                  *      matches a sequence of 0 or more characters
                  ?      matches exactly 1 character
                  [...]  matches  any  single character found inside the brackets;
                         ranges are specified by a beginning character, a  hyphen,
                         and  an  ending  character.  If an exclamation point or a
                         caret ('!' or '^') follows the  left  bracket,  then  the
                         range  of  characters within the brackets is complemented
                         (that is,  anything  except  the  characters  inside  the
                         brackets  is  considered a match).  To specify a verbatim
                         left bracket, the three-character sequence ''[[]'' has to
                         be used.
                  (Be  sure  to quote any character that might otherwise be inter-
                  preted or modified by the operating system,  particularly  under
                  Unix  and  VMS.)   If no matches are found, the specification is
                  assumed to be a literal filename; and if that  also  fails,  the
                  suffix  .zip  is  appended.  Note that self-extracting ZIP files
                  are supported, as with any other ZIP archive; just  specify  the
                  .exe suffix (if any) explicitly.
                  An  optional  list of archive members to be processed, separated
                  by spaces.  (VMS versions  compiled  with  VMSCLI  defined  must
                  delimit  files  with  commas instead.  See -v in OPTIONS below.)
                  Regular expressions (wildcards) may be used  to  match  multiple
                  members;  see  above.   Again, be sure to quote expressions that
                  would otherwise be expanded or modified by the operating system.
                  (always  assuming one has permission to write to the directory).
                  This option need not appear at the end of the command  line;  it
                  is also accepted before the zipfile specification (with the nor-
                  mal options), immediately after the  zipfile  specification,  or
                  between the file(s) and the -x option.  The option and directory
                  may be concatenated without any white space  between  them,  but
                  note that this may cause normal shell behavior to be suppressed.
                  In particular, ''-d ~'' (tilde) is expanded  by  Unix  C  shells
                  into  the  name  of  the  user's  home directory, but ''-d~'' is
                  treated as a literal subdirectory ''~'' of  the  current  direc-


           Note  that,  in  order  to  support obsolescent hardware, unzip's usage
           screen is limited to 22 or 23 lines and should therefore be  considered
           only  a  reminder  of  the basic unzip syntax rather than an exhaustive
           list of all possible flags.  The exhaustive list follows:
           -Z     zipinfo(1L) mode.  If the first option on the  command  line  is
                  -Z,  the  remaining options are taken to be zipinfo(1L) options.
                  See the appropriate manual  page  for  a  description  of  these
           -A     [OS/2,  Unix  DLL] print extended help for the DLL's programming
                  interface (API).
           -c     extract files to stdout/screen (''CRT'').  This option is  simi-
                  lar  to  the  -p  option  except  that  the name of each file is
                  printed as it is extracted, the -a option is allowed, and ASCII-
                  EBCDIC  conversion  is  automatically  performed if appropriate.
                  This option is not listed in the unzip usage screen.
           -f     freshen existing files, i.e.,  extract  only  those  files  that
                  already  exist  on disk and that are newer than the disk copies.
                  By default unzip queries before overwriting, but the  -o  option
                  may be used to suppress the queries.  Note that under many oper-
                  ating systems, the TZ (timezone) environment  variable  must  be
                  set  correctly  in  order  for -f and -u to work properly (under
                  Unix the variable is usually set  automatically).   The  reasons
                  for this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences
                  between DOS-format file times (always local time) and  Unix-for-
                  mat  times  (always in GMT/UTC) and the necessity to compare the
                  two.  A typical TZ value is ''PST8PDT'' (US  Pacific  time  with
                  automatic  adjustment  for  Daylight  Savings  Time  or ''summer
           -l     list archive files (short format).  The names, uncompressed file
                  sizes  and  modification  dates and times of the specified files
                  are printed, along with totals  for  all  files  specified.   If
                  UnZip  was  compiled  with  OS2_EAS  defined, the -l option also
                  lists columns for the sizes of stored OS/2  extended  attributes
                  (EAs)  and  OS/2  access control lists (ACLs).  In addition, the
           -T     [most  OSes]  set the timestamp on the archive(s) to that of the
                  newest file in each one.  This corresponds to zip's  -go  option
                  except  that  it can be used on wildcard zipfiles (e.g., ''unzip
                  -T \*.zip'') and is much faster.
           -u     update existing files and  create  new  ones  if  needed.   This
                  option  performs  the same function as the -f option, extracting
                  (with query) files that are newer than those with the same  name
                  on  disk,  and  in  addition it extracts those files that do not
                  already exist on disk.  See -f above for information on  setting
                  the timezone properly.
           -v     list  archive  files (verbose format) or show diagnostic version
                  info.  This option has evolved and now behaves as both an option
                  and  a modifier.  As an option it has two purposes:  when a zip-
                  file is specified with no other options, -v lists archive  files
                  verbosely,  adding  to the basic -l info the compression method,
                  compressed size, compression ratio and 32-bit CRC.  In  contrast
                  to  most  of the competing utilities, unzip removes the 12 addi-
                  tional header bytes of encrypted  entries  from  the  compressed
                  size  numbers.  Therefore, compressed size and compression ratio
                  figures are independent of the  entry's  encryption  status  and
                  show the correct compression performance.  (The complete size of
                  the encrypted compressed data  stream  for  zipfile  entries  is
                  reported  by the more verbose zipinfo(1L) reports, see the sepa-
                  rate manual.)  When no zipfile is specified (that is,  the  com-
                  plete  command  is  simply ''unzip -v''), a diagnostic screen is
                  printed.  In addition to the normal header with release date and
                  version,  unzip  lists  the  home Info-ZIP ftp site and where to
                  find a list of other ftp and non-ftp sites; the target operating
                  system  for  which  it  was  compiled, as well as (possibly) the
                  hardware on which it was  compiled,  the  compiler  and  version
                  used,  and the compilation date; any special compilation options
                  that might affect the program's operation (see  also  DECRYPTION
                  below);  and  any  options  stored in environment variables that
                  might do the same (see ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS below).  As  a  modi-
                  fier  it  works  in conjunction with other options (e.g., -t) to
                  produce more verbose or debugging output; this is not yet  fully
                  implemented but will be in future releases.
           -z     display only the archive comment.


           -a     convert  text files.  Ordinarily all files are extracted exactly
                  as they are stored (as ''binary'' files).  The -a option  causes
                  files  identified by zip as text files (those with the 't' label
                  in zipinfo  listings,  rather  than  'b')  to  be  automatically
                  extracted  as such, converting line endings, end-of-file charac-
                  ters and the character set itself as necessary.   (For  example,
                  Unix  files  use line feeds (LFs) for end-of-line (EOL) and have
                  no end-of-file (EOF) marker; Macintoshes  use  carriage  returns
           -b     [Tandem]  force  the creation files with filecode type 180 ('C')
                  when extracting Zip entries marked as "text". (On Tandem, -a  is
                  enabled by default, see above).
           -b     [VMS]  auto-convert binary files (see -a above) to fixed-length,
                  512-byte record format.  Doubling the option  (-bb)  forces  all
                  files  to  be extracted in this format. When extracting to stan-
                  dard output (-c or -p option in effect), the default  conversion
                  of  text record delimiters is disabled for binary (-b) resp. all
                  (-bb) files.
           -B     [when compiled with UNIXBACKUP defined] save a  backup  copy  of
                  each  overwritten  file. The backup file is gets the name of the
                  target file with a tilde and optionally a unique sequence number
                  (up to 5 digits) appended.  The sequence number is applied when-
                  ever another file with the  original  name  plus  tilde  already
                  exists.   When used together with the "overwrite all" option -o,
                  numbered backup files are  never  created.  In  this  case,  all
                  backup  files  are  named  as the original file with an appended
                  tilde, existing backup files are deleted without  notice.   This
                  feature  works  similarly to the default behavior of emacs(1) in
                  many locations.
                  Example: the old copy of ''foo'' is renamed to ''foo~''.
                  Warning: Users should be aware that the -B option does not  pre-
                  vent  loss  of existing data under all circumstances.  For exam-
                  ple, when unzip  is  run  in  overwrite-all  mode,  an  existing
                  ''foo~'' file is deleted before unzip attempts to rename ''foo''
                  to ''foo~''.  When this rename attempt fails (because of a  file
                  locks,  insufficient  privileges,  or  ...),  the  extraction of
                  ''foo~'' gets cancelled, but the  old  backup  file  is  already
                  lost.   A  similar scenario takes place when the sequence number
                  range for numbered backup files gets exhausted (99999, or  65535
                  for  16-bit  systems).   In  this case, the backup file with the
                  maximum sequence number is  deleted  and  replaced  by  the  new
                  backup version without notice.
           -C     use  case-insensitive  matching  for  the  selection  of archive
                  entries from the command-line list  of  extract  selection  pat-
                  terns.  unzip's philosophy is ''you get what you ask for'' (this
                  is also responsible for  the  -L/-U  change;  see  the  relevant
                  options below).  Because some file systems are fully case-sensi-
                  tive (notably those under the Unix operating system) and because
                  both  ZIP  archives  and  unzip itself are portable across plat-
                  forms, unzip's default behavior is to match  both  wildcard  and
                  literal filenames case-sensitively.  That is, specifying ''make-
                  file'' on the command line will only match ''makefile''  in  the
                  archive,  not  ''Makefile''  or  ''MAKEFILE'' (and similarly for
                  wildcard specifications).  Since this does not correspond to the
                  behavior of many other operating/file systems (for example, OS/2
                  HPFS, which preserves mixed case but is not  sensitive  to  it),
                  that  are supplied in the Zip archive (and do not require privi-
                  leges or impose a security risk).  By specifying  -D,  unzip  is
                  told  to  suppress  restoration  of  timestamps  for directories
                  explicitly created from Zip archive entries.  This  option  only
                  applies to ports that support setting timestamps for directories
                  (currently ATheOS, BeOS, MacOS,  OS/2,  Unix,  VMS,  Win32,  for
                  other unzip ports, -D has no effect).  The duplicated option -DD
                  forces suppression of timestamp restoration  for  all  extracted
                  entries (files and directories).  This option results in setting
                  the timestamps for all extracted entries to the current time.
                  On VMS, the default setting for this option is  -D  for  consis-
                  tency   with  the  behaviour  of  BACKUP:  file  timestamps  are
                  restored, timestamps of extracted directories are  left  at  the
                  current  time.   To  enable restoration of directory timestamps,
                  the negated option --D should be specified.  On VMS, the  option
                  -D  disables timestamp restoration for all extracted Zip archive
                  items.  (Here, a single -D on the command line combines with the
                  default -D to do what an explicit -DD does on other systems.)
           -E     [MacOS  only]  display  contents  of  MacOS  extra  field during
                  restore operation.
           -F     [Acorn only] suppress removal of  NFS  filetype  extension  from
                  stored filenames.
           -F     [non-Acorn  systems supporting long filenames with embedded com-
                  mas, and only if compiled with ACORN_FTYPE_NFS  defined]  trans-
                  late  filetype information from ACORN RISC OS extra field blocks
                  into a NFS filetype extension and append it to the names of  the
                  extracted  files.   (When the stored filename appears to already
                  have an appended NFS filetype extension, it is replaced  by  the
                  info from the extra field.)
           -i     [MacOS  only]  ignore  filenames  stored  in MacOS extra fields.
                  Instead, the most compatible filename stored in the generic part
                  of the entry's header is used.
           -j     junk paths.  The archive's directory structure is not recreated;
                  all files are deposited in the extraction directory (by default,
                  the current one).
           -J     [BeOS   only]  junk  file  attributes.   The  file's  BeOS  file
                  attributes are not restored, just the file's data.
           -J     [MacOS only] ignore MacOS extra fields.  All Macintosh  specific
                  info  is  skipped.  Data-fork  and resource-fork are restored as
                  separate files.
           -K     [AtheOS,  BeOS,   Unix   only]   retain   SUID/SGID/Tacky   file
                  attributes.  Without this flag, these attribute bits are cleared
                  for security reasons.
                  converted  to  lowercase.   The  -LL option forces conversion of
                  every filename to lowercase, regardless of the originating  file
           -M     pipe  all  output  through an internal pager similar to the Unix
                  more(1) command.  At the end of a  screenful  of  output,  unzip
                  pauses  with  a  ''--More--''  prompt; the next screenful may be
                  viewed by pressing the Enter (Return)  key  or  the  space  bar.
                  unzip  can  be terminated by pressing the ''q'' key and, on some
                  systems, the Enter/Return key.  Unlike Unix more(1), there is no
                  forward-searching  or  editing  capability.  Also, unzip doesn't
                  notice if long lines wrap at the edge of the screen, effectively
                  resulting  in  the printing of two or more lines and the likeli-
                  hood that some text will scroll off the top of the screen before
                  being  viewed.  On some systems the number of available lines on
                  the screen is not detected, in  which  case  unzip  assumes  the
                  height is 24 lines.
           -n     never  overwrite existing files.  If a file already exists, skip
                  the extraction of that file without prompting.  By default unzip
                  queries before extracting any file that already exists; the user
                  may choose to overwrite only the  current  file,  overwrite  all
                  files,  skip  extraction of the current file, skip extraction of
                  all existing files, or rename the current file.
           -N     [Amiga] extract file comments as Amiga filenotes.  File comments
                  are created with the -c option of zip(1L), or with the -N option
                  of the Amiga port of zip(1L), which  stores  filenotes  as  com-
           -o     overwrite existing files without prompting.  This is a dangerous
                  option, so use it with care.  (It is often used  with  -f,  how-
                  ever,  and  is  the  only  way  to overwrite directory EAs under
           -P password
                  use password to decrypt  encrypted  zipfile  entries  (if  any).
                  THIS  IS  INSECURE!   Many  multi-user operating systems provide
                  ways for any user to see the current command line of  any  other
                  user;  even on stand-alone systems there is always the threat of
                  over-the-shoulder peeking.  Storing the  plaintext  password  as
                  part  of  a  command  line in an automated script is even worse.
                  Whenever possible, use the non-echoing,  interactive  prompt  to
                  enter  passwords.   (And  where security is truly important, use
                  strong encryption such as Pretty Good  Privacy  instead  of  the
                  relatively  weak  encryption provided by standard zipfile utili-
           -q     perform operations quietly (-qq  =  even  quieter).   Ordinarily
                  unzip  prints the names of the files it's extracting or testing,
                  the extraction methods, any file or zipfile comments that may be
                  stored in the archive, and possibly a summary when finished with
                  applied unless conversion (-a, -aa and/or -b, -bb) is  requested
                  or a VMS-specific entry is processed.)
           -U     [UNICODE_SUPPORT  only]  modify or disable UTF-8 handling.  When
                  UNICODE_SUPPORT is available, the  option  -U  forces  unzip  to
                  escape  all  non-ASCII  characters from UTF-8 coded filenames as
                  ''#Uxxxx'' (for UCS-2 characters, or  ''#Lxxxxxx''  for  unicode
                  codepoints  needing  3  octets).  This option is mainly provided
                  for debugging purpose when the fairly new UTF-8 support is  sus-
                  pected to mangle up extracted filenames.
                  The  option  -UU  allows  to entirely disable the recognition of
                  UTF-8 encoded  filenames.   The  handling  of  filename  codings
                  within unzip falls back to the behaviour of previous versions.
                  [old, obsolete usage] leave filenames uppercase if created under
                  MS-DOS, VMS, etc.  See -L above.
           -V     retain (VMS) file version numbers.  VMS files can be stored with
                  a  version  number,  in  the format file.ext;##.  By default the
                  '';##'' version numbers are stripped,  but  this  option  allows
                  them  to  be retained.  (On file systems that limit filenames to
                  particularly short lengths, the version numbers may be truncated
                  or stripped regardless of this option.)
           -W     [only  when  WILD_STOP_AT_DIR compile-time option enabled] modi-
                  fies the pattern matching routine so that both '?'  (single-char
                  wildcard)  and '*' (multi-char wildcard) do not match the direc-
                  tory  separator  character  '/'.   (The  two-character  sequence
                  ''**'' acts as a multi-char wildcard that includes the directory
                  separator in its matched characters.)  Examples:
                   "*.c" matches "foo.c" but not "mydir/foo.c"
                   "**.c" matches both "foo.c" and "mydir/foo.c"
                   "*/*.c" matches "bar/foo.c" but not "baz/bar/foo.c"
                   "??*/*" matches "ab/foo" and "abc/foo"
                           but not "a/foo" or "a/b/foo"
                  This modified behaviour is equivalent to  the  pattern  matching
                  style used by the shells of some of UnZip's supported target OSs
                  (one example is Acorn RISC OS).  This option may not  be  avail-
                  able on systems where the Zip archive's internal directory sepa-
                  rator character '/' is allowed as regular  character  in  native
                  operating  system  filenames.   (Currently,  UnZip uses the same
                  pattern matching rules for both wildcard zipfile  specifications
                  and  zip  entry  selection  patterns in most ports.  For systems
                  allowing '/' as regular filename character, the -W option  would
                  not work as expected on a wildcard zipfile specification.)
           -X     [VMS,  Unix,  OS/2,  NT,  Tandem]  restore owner/protection info
                  (UICs and ACL  entries)  under  VMS,  or  user  and  group  info
                  (UID/GID)  under Unix, or access control lists (ACLs) under cer-
           -Y     [VMS]  treat  archived  file  name  endings  of  ''.nnn'' (where
                  ''nnn'' is a decimal  number) as if they were VMS  version  num-
                  bers  ('';nnn'').  (The default is to treat them as file types.)
                           "a.b.3" -> "a.b;3".
           -$     [MS-DOS, OS/2, NT] restore the volume label  if  the  extraction
                  medium  is  removable  (e.g.,  a diskette).  Doubling the option
                  (-$$) allows fixed media (hard disks) to be  labelled  as  well.
                  By default, volume labels are ignored.
           -/ extensions
                  [Acorn  only] overrides the extension list supplied by Unzip$Ext
                  environment variable.  During  extraction,  filename  extensions
                  that  match  one of the items in this extension list are swapped
                  in front of the base name of the extracted file.
           -:     [all but Acorn, VM/CMS, MVS, Tandem] allows to  extract  archive
                  members into locations outside of the current '' extraction root
                  folder''. For security reasons, unzip normally removes  ''parent
                  dir''  path  components  (''../'')  from  the names of extracted
                  file.  This safety feature (new for version 5.50) prevents unzip
                  from  accidentally  writing files to ''sensitive'' areas outside
                  the active extraction folder tree  head.   The  -:  option  lets
                  unzip  switch  back  to its previous, more liberal behaviour, to
                  allow exact extraction of (older)  archives  that  used  ''../''
                  components  to  create  multiple directory trees at the level of
                  the current extraction folder.   This  option  does  not  enable
                  writing  explicitly  to  the root directory (''/'').  To achieve
                  this, it is necessary to set the  extraction  target  folder  to
                  root (e.g. -d / ).  However, when the -: option is specified, it
                  is still possible to implicitly write to the root  directory  by
                  specifying   enough  ''../''  path  components  within  the  zip
                  archive.  Use this option with extreme caution.
           -^     [Unix only] allow control characters in names of  extracted  ZIP
                  archive  entries.   On Unix, a file name may contain any (8-bit)
                  character code with the two exception '/' (directory  delimiter)
                  and  NUL  (0x00, the C string termination indicator), unless the
                  specific file system has more restrictive  conventions.   Gener-
                  ally,  this  allows  to  embed ASCII control characters (or even
                  sophisticated control sequences) in  file  names,  at  least  on
                  'native'  Unix  file  systems.  However, it may be highly suspi-
                  cious to make use of  this  Unix  "feature".   Embedded  control
                  characters in file names might have nasty side effects when dis-
                  played on screen by some listing code without sufficient filter-
                  ing.   And,  for  ordinary  users, it may be difficult to handle
                  such file names (e.g. when trying to specify it for open,  copy,
                  move,  or delete operations).  Therefore, unzip applies a filter
                  by default that removes potentially dangerous control characters
                  from  the extracted file names. The -^ option allows to override
           auto-convert  text  files  by  default,  make it convert filenames from
           uppercase systems to lowercase, make it match names case-insensitively,
           make  it  quieter, or make it always overwrite or never overwrite files
           as it extracts them.  For example, to make unzip act as quietly as pos-
           sible,  only  reporting errors, one would use one of the following com-
             Unix Bourne shell:
                  UNZIP=-qq; export UNZIP
             Unix C shell:
                  setenv UNZIP -qq
             OS/2 or MS-DOS:
                  set UNZIP=-qq
             VMS (quotes for lowercase):
                  define UNZIP_OPTS "-qq"
           Environment options are, in effect, considered  to  be  just  like  any
           other  command-line options, except that they are effectively the first
           options on the command line.  To override an  environment  option,  one
           may use the ''minus operator'' to remove it.  For instance, to override
           one of the quiet-flags in the example above, use the command
               unzip --q[other options] zipfile
           The first hyphen is the normal switch character, and the  second  is  a
           minus  sign, acting on the q option.  Thus the effect here is to cancel
           one quantum of quietness.  To cancel both quiet flags,  two  (or  more)
           minuses may be used:
               unzip -t--q zipfile
               unzip ---qt zipfile
           (the  two  are equivalent).  This may seem awkward or confusing, but it
           is reasonably intuitive:  just ignore the  first  hyphen  and  go  from
           there.  It is also consistent with the behavior of Unix nice(1).
           As  suggested  by  the  examples  above, the default variable names are
           UNZIP_OPTS for VMS (where the symbol used to install unzip as a foreign
           command would otherwise be confused with the environment variable), and
           UNZIP for all other operating systems.  For compatibility with zip(1L),
           UNZIPOPT  is also accepted (don't ask).  If both UNZIP and UNZIPOPT are
           defined, however, UNZIP takes precedence.   unzip's  diagnostic  option
           (-v  with  no zipfile name) can be used to check the values of all four
           possible unzip and zipinfo environment variables.
           The timezone variable (TZ) should be set according to the  local  time-
           zone in order for the -f and -u to operate correctly.  See the descrip-
           tion of -f above for details.  This variable may also be  necessary  to
           get  timestamps  of  extracted  files  to  be set correctly.  The WIN32
           version  for  crypt  support,  either  attempt  to  test  or extract an
           encrypted archive, or else check unzip's diagnostic screen (see the  -v
           option  above)  for  ''[decryption]'' as one of the special compilation
           As noted above, the -P option may be used to supply a password  on  the
           command  line,  but  at  a  cost in security.  The preferred decryption
           method is simply to extract normally; if a zipfile member is encrypted,
           unzip  will  prompt  for  the  password  without echoing what is typed.
           unzip continues to use the same password as long as it  appears  to  be
           valid,  by testing a 12-byte header on each file.  The correct password
           will always check out against the  header,  but  there  is  a  1-in-256
           chance  that  an  incorrect password will as well.  (This is a security
           feature of the PKWARE zipfile  format;  it  helps  prevent  brute-force
           attacks  that  might  otherwise gain a large speed advantage by testing
           only the header.)  In the case that an incorrect password is given  but
           it  passes the header test anyway, either an incorrect CRC will be gen-
           erated for the extracted data  or  else  unzip  will  fail  during  the
           extraction  because  the  ''decrypted'' bytes do not constitute a valid
           compressed data stream.
           If the first password fails the header check on some file,  unzip  will
           prompt  for  another password, and so on until all files are extracted.
           If a password is not known, entering a null password (that is,  just  a
           carriage  return or ''Enter'') is taken as a signal to skip all further
           prompting.  Only unencrypted files in the archive(s) will thereafter be
           extracted.   (In fact, that's not quite true; older versions of zip(1L)
           and zipcloak(1L) allowed null passwords, so unzip checks each encrypted
           file  to  see  if  the null password works.  This may result in ''false
           positives'' and extraction errors, as noted above.)
           Archives encrypted with 8-bit passwords (for  example,  passwords  with
           accented European characters) may not be portable across systems and/or
           other archivers.  This problem stems from the use of multiple  encoding
           methods  for  such  characters,  including Latin-1 (ISO 8859-1) and OEM
           code page 850.  DOS PKZIP 2.04g uses the OEM code page;  Windows  PKZIP
           2.50 uses Latin-1 (and is therefore incompatible with DOS PKZIP); Info-
           ZIP uses the OEM code page on DOS, OS/2 and Win3.x ports but ISO coding
           (Latin-1  etc.)  everywhere  else;  and  Nico Mak's WinZip 6.x does not
           allow 8-bit passwords at all.  UnZip 5.3 (or newer) attempts to use the
           default  character set first (e.g., Latin-1), followed by the alternate
           one (e.g., OEM code page) to test passwords.   On  EBCDIC  systems,  if
           both  of  these  fail, EBCDIC encoding will be tested as a last resort.
           (EBCDIC is not tested on non-EBCDIC systems, because there are no known
           archivers that encrypt using EBCDIC encoding.)  ISO character encodings
           other than Latin-1 are not supported.  The new addition of  (partially)
           Unicode (resp.  UTF-8) support in UnZip 6.0 has not yet been adapted to
           the encryption password handling in unzip.  On systems that  use  UTF-8
           as  native  character  encoding, unzip simply tries decryption with the
           native UTF-8 encoded password; the built-in attempts to check the pass-
           word in translated encoding have not yet been adapted for UTF-8 support
           and will consequently fail.
               unzip -tq letters
           To  test  all zipfiles in the current directory, printing only the sum-
               unzip -tq \*.zip
           (The backslash before the  asterisk  is  only  required  if  the  shell
           expands  wildcards,  as  in  Unix;  double  quotes could have been used
           instead, as in the source examples below.)  To extract to standard out-
           put all members of whose names end in .tex, auto-converting
           to the local end-of-line convention and piping the output into more(1):
               unzip -ca letters \*.tex | more
           To extract the binary file paper1.dvi to standard output and pipe it to
           a printing program:
               unzip -p articles paper1.dvi | dvips
           To extract all FORTRAN and C source files--*.f,  *.c,  *.h,  and  Make-
           file--into the /tmp directory:
               unzip "*.[fch]" Makefile -d /tmp
           (the  double  quotes are necessary only in Unix and only if globbing is
           turned on).  To extract all FORTRAN and C source files,  regardless  of
           case  (e.g.,  both *.c and *.C, and any makefile, Makefile, MAKEFILE or
               unzip -C "*.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp
           To extract any such files but convert any uppercase MS-DOS or VMS names
           to  lowercase  and  convert the line-endings of all of the files to the
           local standard (without respect to  any  files  that  might  be  marked
               unzip -aaCL "*.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp
           To  extract  only  newer  versions  of the files already in the current
           directory, without querying (NOTE:  be  careful  of  unzipping  in  one
           timezone  a  zipfile  created in another--ZIP archives other than those
           created by Zip 2.1 or later contain  no  timezone  information,  and  a
           ''newer'' file from an eastern timezone may, in fact, be older):
               unzip -fo sources
           To extract newer versions of the files already in the current directory
           and to create any files not already  there  (same  caveat  as  previous
               unzip -ql
           (Note that the ''.zip'' is generally not necessary.)  To do a  standard
               unzip --ql
               unzip -l-q
               unzip -l--q
           (Extra minuses in options don't hurt.)


           The  current  maintainer,  being  a  lazy sort, finds it very useful to
           define a pair of aliases:  tt for ''unzip -tq'' and ii for ''unzip -Z''
           (or  ''zipinfo'').   One may then simply type ''tt zipfile'' to test an
           archive, something that is worth making a habit of  doing.   With  luck
           unzip  will  report  ''No  errors  detected  in compressed data of zip-
 ,'' after which one may breathe a sigh of relief.
           The maintainer also finds it useful to set the UNZIP environment  vari-
           able  to  ''-aL''  and  is  tempted to add ''-C'' as well.  His ZIPINFO
           variable is set to ''-z''.


           The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by
           PKWARE and takes on the following values, except under VMS:
                  0      normal; no errors or warnings detected.
                  1      one or more warning errors were encountered, but process-
                         ing completed successfully anyway.   This  includes  zip-
                         files  where  one or more files was skipped due to unsup-
                         ported compression method or encryption with  an  unknown
                  2      a generic error in the zipfile format was detected.  Pro-
                         cessing may have completed successfully anyway; some bro-
                         ken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple work-
                  3      a severe error in the zipfile format was detected.   Pro-
                         cessing probably failed immediately.
                  4      unzip  was  unable  to  allocate  memory  for one or more
                         buffers during program initialization.
                  5      unzip was unable to allocate memory or unable to obtain a
                         tty to read the decryption password(s).
                  6      unzip  was unable to allocate memory during decompression
                  51     the end of the ZIP archive was encountered prematurely.
                  80     the  user  aborted  unzip  prematurely with control-C (or
                  81     testing or extraction of one or more files failed due  to
                         unsupported  compression  methods  or unsupported decryp-
                  82     no files were found due to  bad  decryption  password(s).
                         (If even one file is successfully processed, however, the
                         exit status is 1.)
           VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as  other,  scarier-
           looking things, so unzip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes.
           The current mapping is as  follows:    1  (success)  for  normal  exit,
           0x7fff0001    for   warning   errors,   and   (0x7fff000?   +   16*nor-
           mal_unzip_exit_status) for all other errors, where the '?' is 2 (error)
           for unzip values 2, 9-11 and 80-82, and 4 (fatal error) for the remain-
           ing ones (3-8, 50, 51).  In addition, there is a compilation option  to
           expand  upon  this behavior:  defining RETURN_CODES results in a human-
           readable explanation of what the error status means.


           Multi-part archives are not yet supported, except in  conjunction  with
           zip.  (All parts must be concatenated together in order, and then ''zip
           -F'' (for zip 2.x) or ''zip -FF'' (for zip 3.x) must  be  performed  on
           the  concatenated  archive  in  order to ''fix'' it.  Also, zip 3.0 and
           later can combine multi-part (split) archives into a  combined  single-
           file  archive using ''zip -s- inarchive -O outarchive''.  See the zip 3
           manual page for more information.)  This will definitely  be  corrected
           in the next major release.
           Archives  read  from  standard input are not yet supported, except with
           funzip  (and  then  only  the  first  member  of  the  archive  can  be
           Archives  encrypted with 8-bit passwords (e.g., passwords with accented
           European characters) may not be portable across  systems  and/or  other
           archivers.  See the discussion in DECRYPTION above.
           unzip's -M (''more'') option tries to take into account automatic wrap-
           ping of long lines. However, the code may fail to  detect  the  correct
           wrapping   locations.   First,  TAB  characters  (and  similar  control
           sequences) are not taken into account, they  are  handled  as  ordinary
           printable  characters.   Second,  depending  on  the actual system / OS
           port, unzip may not detect the true screen geometry but rather rely  on
           "commonly used" default dimensions.  The correct handling of tabs would
           require the implementation of a query for the actual tabulator setup on
           the output console.
           Unix (OSF/1), this may not be an issue anymore.
           [Unix]  Unix  special  files  such as FIFO buffers (named pipes), block
           devices and character devices are not restored even if they are somehow
           represented  in the zipfile, nor are hard-linked files relinked.  Basi-
           cally the only file types restored by unzip are regular files, directo-
           ries and symbolic (soft) links.
           [OS/2] Extended attributes for existing directories are only updated if
           the -o (''overwrite all'') option is given.  This is  a  limitation  of
           the  operating  system;  because  directories only have a creation time
           associated with them, unzip has no way to determine whether the  stored
           attributes are newer or older than those on disk.  In practice this may
           mean a two-pass approach is required:  first unpack  the  archive  nor-
           mally  (with  or  without  freshening/updating  existing  files),  then
           overwrite just the directory entries (e.g., ''unzip -o foo */'').
           [VMS] When extracting to another directory, only the [.foo]  syntax  is
           accepted  for  the  -d  option;  the simple Unix foo syntax is silently
           ignored (as is the less common VMS foo.dir syntax).
           [VMS] When the file being extracted already exists, unzip's query  only
           allows  skipping, overwriting or renaming; there should additionally be
           a choice for creating a new version of the file.  In fact, the  ''over-
           write''  choice does create a new version; the old version is not over-
           written or deleted.


           funzip(1L),  zip(1L),  zipcloak(1L),  zipgrep(1L),  zipinfo(1L),   zip-
           note(1L), zipsplit(1L)


           The Info-ZIP home page is currently at


           The  primary  Info-ZIP authors (current semi-active members of the Zip-
           Bugs workgroup) are:  Ed Gordon (Zip, general maintenance, shared code,
           Zip64,  Win32,  Unix,  Unicode);  Christian  Spieler (UnZip maintenance
           coordination, VMS, MS-DOS, Win32, shared code, general  Zip  and  UnZip
           integration  and  optimization);  Onno van der Linden (Zip); Mike White
           (Win32, Windows GUI, Windows  DLLs);  Kai  Uwe  Rommel  (OS/2,  Win32);
           Steven  M.  Schweda  (VMS, Unix, support of new features); Paul Kienitz
           (Amiga, Win32, Unicode); Chris Herborth (BeOS,  QNX,  Atari);  Jonathan
           Hudson (SMS/QDOS); Sergio Monesi (Acorn RISC OS); Harald Denker (Atari,
           MVS); John Bush (Solaris, Amiga); Hunter Goatley  (VMS,  Info-ZIP  Site
           maintenance);  Steve  Salisbury (Win32); Steve Miller (Windows CE GUI),
           Johnny Lee (MS-DOS, Win32, Zip64); and Dave Smith (Tandem NSK).
           The following people were former members of  the  Info-ZIP  development
           v1.2   15 Mar 89   Samuel H. Smith
           v2.0    9 Sep 89   Samuel H. Smith
           v2.x   fall 1989   many Usenet contributors
           v3.0    1 May 90   Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
           v3.1   15 Aug 90   Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
           v4.0    1 Dec 90   Info-ZIP (GRR, maintainer)
           v4.1   12 May 91   Info-ZIP
           v4.2   20 Mar 92   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
           v5.0   21 Aug 92   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
           v5.01  15 Jan 93   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
           v5.1    7 Feb 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
           v5.11   2 Aug 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
           v5.12  28 Aug 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
           v5.2   30 Apr 96   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
           v5.3   22 Apr 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
           v5.31  31 May 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
           v5.32   3 Nov 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
           v5.4   28 Nov 98   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
           v5.41  16 Apr 00   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
           v5.42  14 Jan 01   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
           v5.5   17 Feb 02   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
           v5.51  22 May 04   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
           v5.52  28 Feb 05   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
           v6.0   20 Apr 09   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)

    Info-ZIP 20 April 2009 (v6.0) UNZIP(1L)


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