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           time [options] command [arguments...]


           The  time  command  runs  the  specified program command with the given
           arguments.  When command finishes, time writes a  message  to  standard
           error  giving  timing statistics about this program run.  These statis-
           tics consist of (i) the elapsed real time between invocation and termi-
           nation, (ii) the user CPU time (the sum of the tms_utime and tms_cutime
           values in a struct tms as returned by times(2)), and (iii)  the  system
           CPU  time  (the  sum of the tms_stime and tms_cstime values in a struct
           tms as returned by times(2)).
           Note: some shells (e.g., bash(1)) have a  built-in  time  command  that
           provides less functionality than the command described here.  To access
           the real command, you may need to specify its pathname (something  like


           -p     When in the POSIX locale, use the precise traditional format
                      "real %f\nuser %f\nsys %f\n"
                  (with  numbers  in  seconds) where the number of decimals in the
                  output for %f is unspecified but is sufficient  to  express  the
                  clock tick accuracy, and at least one.


           If  command was invoked, the exit status is that of command.  Otherwise
           it is 127 if command could not be found, 126 if it could be  found  but
           could not be invoked, and some other nonzero value (1-125) if something
           else went wrong.


           and  PATH are used.  The last one to search for command.  The remaining
           ones for the text and formatting of the output.


           Below a description of the GNU 1.7 version of time.   Disregarding  the
           name  of  the  utility, GNU makes it output lots of useful information,
           not only about time used, but also on other resources like memory,  I/O
           and  IPC calls (where available).  The output is formatted using a for-
           mat string that can be specified using the -f option or the TIME  envi-
           ronment variable.
           The default format string is:
               %Uuser %Ssystem %Eelapsed %PCPU (%Xtext+%Ddata %Mmax)k
               %Iinputs+%Ooutputs (%Fmajor+%Rminor)pagefaults %Wswaps
           When the -p option is given the (portable) output format
           %E     Elapsed real time (in [hours:]minutes:seconds).
           %e     (Not in tcsh.) Elapsed real time (in seconds).
           %S     Total number of CPU-seconds that the  process  spent  in  kernel
           %U     Total number of CPU-seconds that the process spent in user mode.
           %P     Percentage of the CPU that this job got, computed as (%U + %S) /
           %M     Maximum resident set size of the process during its lifetime, in
           %t     (Not in tcsh.) Average resident set  size  of  the  process,  in
           %K     Average  total  (data+stack+text)  memory use of the process, in
           %D     Average size of the process's unshared data area, in Kbytes.
           %p     (Not in tcsh.) Average size  of  the  process's  unshared  stack
                  space, in Kbytes.
           %X     Average size of the process's shared text space, in Kbytes.
           %Z     (Not in tcsh.) System's page size, in bytes.  This is a per-sys-
                  tem constant, but varies between systems.
           %F     Number of major page faults that occurred while the process  was
                  running.  These are faults where the page has to be read in from
           %R     Number of minor, or recoverable, page faults.  These are  faults
                  for pages that are not valid but which have not yet been claimed
                  by other virtual pages.  Thus the data  in  the  page  is  still
                  valid but the system tables must be updated.
           %W     Number of times the process was swapped out of main memory.
           %c     Number  of  times the process was context-switched involuntarily
                  (because the time slice expired).
           %w     Number of waits: times that  the  program  was  context-switched
                  voluntarily,  for instance while waiting for an I/O operation to
           %C     (Not in tcsh.) Name and command-line arguments  of  the  command
                  being timed.
           %x     (Not in tcsh.) Exit status of the command.
       GNU options
           -f FORMAT, --format=FORMAT
                  Specify  output format, possibly overriding the format specified
                  in the environment variable TIME.
           -p, --portability
                  Use the portable output format.
           -o FILE, --output=FILE
                  Do not send the results to stderr, but overwrite  the  specified
           -a, --append
                  (Used together with -o.) Do not overwrite but append.
           -v, --verbose
                  Give very verbose output about all the program knows about.
       GNU standard options
           --help Print  a usage message on standard output and exit successfully.
           -V, --version
                  Print version information on standard output, then exit success-
           --     Terminate option list.


           Not  all resources are measured by all versions of UNIX, so some of the
           values might be reported as zero.  The  present  selection  was  mostly
           inspired by the data provided by 4.2 or 4.3BSD.
           GNU time version 1.7 is not yet localized.  Thus, it does not implement
           the POSIX requirements.
           The environment variable TIME was badly chosen.  It is not unusual  for
           systems  like  autoconf(1) or make(1) to use environment variables with
           the name of a utility to override the utility to be  used.   Uses  like
           MORE  or  TIME  for  options to programs (instead of program pathnames)
           tend to lead to difficulties.
           It seems unfortunate that -o overwrites instead of appends.  (That  is,
           the -a option should be the default.)
           Mail suggestions and bug reports for GNU time to
           Please include the version of time, which you can get by running

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