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    Command:

    tex2lyx

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           The  simplest way to use tex2lyx is via the File->Import->LaTeX (plain)
           menu item in LyX. That runs tex2lyx on the given  file  and  loads  the
           resulting  file  into  LyX. You should try that first, and call it from
           the command line only if you need to use more complicated options.
    
           tex2lyx [ -userdir userdir ] [ -systemdir systemdir  ]  [  -n  ]  [  -c
           textclass ] [ -s sfile1[,sfile2...]] [ -roundtrip ] inputfile [ output-
           file ]
    
    
    

    OPTIONS

           -c     Class. By default, when tex2lyx sees a \documentclass{foo}  com-
                  mand,  it  creates  a  file of textclass "foo" and reads the LyX
                  layout    file    for     that     class     (something     like
                  /usr/local/share/lyx/layouts/foo.layout     OR    HOME/.lyx/lay-
                  outs/foo.layout).  Use -c to declare a different textclass  (and
                  read a different layout file).
    
           -f     Force.  tex2lyx  will not run if the .lyx file it would generate
                  already exists.  Use the -f option (carefully)  to  clobber  any
                  existing files.
    
           -n     Noweb.  Translate  a noweb (aka literate programming) file. This
                  should be (almost?) equivalent  to  running  "noweb2lyx  foo.tex
                  foo.lyx". This option requires the -c option.
    
           -s     Syntax files. Input (one or more quoted, comma-separated) syntax
                  files to read in addition to the default. (see  the  section  on
                  Syntax Files for details).
    
           -sysdir
                  Specify  a  system directory. Normally, you shouldn't need this.
                  Your LyX system directory is chosen. Cf. the section  FILES  for
                  details.
    
           -userdir
                  Specify  a  user  directory.  Normally, you shouldn't need this.
                  Your LyX user directory is chosen. Cf.  the  section  FILES  for
                  details.
    
           -roundtrip
                  Call LyX to re-export the created output file to LaTeX. The out-
                  put file name is always determined automatically to avoid  over-
                  writing  the  input file by accident: If the input file is named
                  foo.tex the output file will be named foo.lyx.lyx, and  the  re-
                  exported file will be named foo.lyx.tex.
    
           -help  Help. Print out usage information and quit.
    
           -version
                  Print out the version number and build information and quit.
    
           tex2lyx lacks a few features. However, its main goals are:
    
           ?   Get through a well-behaved LaTeX2e file without crashing
    
           ?   Translate a lot of that file.
    
           ?   Localize  the  parts  that can't be translated and copy them in TeX
               mode
    
           It achieves these main goals pretty well on most files.
    
       Usage
           Here's a more lengthy description of what you should do to translate  a
           LaTeX document into LyX.
    
           ?   Run tex2lyx.
    
               tex2lyx  will  inform  you of its progress and give any warnings to
               stderr, so if you don't want  any  output  at  all,  try  (in  csh)
               'tex2lyx  foo.tex  >& /dev/null'.  You should NOT redirect standard
               output to foo.lyx.
    
           ?   Run LyX (version 1.6 or later) on the resulting .lyx file.
    
               In theory, most of the file will have been translated, and anything
               that's  untranslatable will be transferred to TeX code (ERT in LyX-
               speak). In theory, LyX will be able to read in  the  file,  and  to
               create printed documents from it, because all that untranslated ERT
               stuff will be passed directly back to LaTeX, which LyX  uses  as  a
               backend.  Unfortunately,  reality doesn't always reflect theory. If
               tex2lyx crashes, or LyX cannot read the generated LyX file, see the
               BUGS section below.
    
           ?   Transform  things  have  been  inserted as TeX code manually to LyX
               features, if possible.
    
               As mentioned above, you should be able to print out  the  LyX  file
               even without doing this. However, changing a command in TeX code to
               the corresponding LyX object will allow you to  take  advantage  of
               LyX's WYSIWYM editing.
    
               tex2lyx  is  not  guaranteed  to  create a LyX file which generates
               exactly the same output as the LaTeX file, although its goal is  to
               achieve this. tex2lyx will generally err on the side of translating
               less to ensure that the resulting output files are  accurate,  even
               though this leads to more TeX code and less WYSIWYM.
    
           ?   PROOFREAD THE DOCUMENT!!
    
               I'm  sure you were planning on doing this anyway, but it's particu-
               larly important after translating a LaTeX document. tex2lyx is bet-
               ter  at  "macro-translating"  (translating the whole document) than
               tion*)
    
           ?   Environments:  quote, quotation, and verse; center, flushright, and
               flushleft
    
           ?   itemize, enumerate, and description environments, and  their  \item
               commands.  Also, well-behaved nested lists
    
           ?   cross-referencing commands: \ref, \pageref, \label, and \cite
    
           ?   \footnote and \margin
    
           ?   font-changing  commands  including  \em, \emph, \textit, and corre-
               sponding commands to change family, size, series, and shape
    
           ?   \input{foo} (or  \input{foo.blah})  and  \include{foo}.  Plain  TeX
               \input command "\input foo.tex" is also supported.
    
           ?   tabular  environment,  and  commands that go inside it like \hline,
               \cline, and \multicolumn (but see below)
    
           ?   float environments table and table*, as well as  \caption  commands
               within them
    
           ?   float  environments  figure and figure*, as well as graphics inclu-
               sion commands  \epsf,  \epsffile,  \epsfbox,  \epsfxsize,  \epsfig,
               \psfig, and \includegraphics.  Both the graphics and graphicx forms
               of \includegraphics are supported.
    
           ?   thebibliography environment and \bibitem command, as well  as  Bib-
               TeX's \bibliography and \bibliographystyle commands
    
           ?   miscellaneous commands: \hfill, \\, \noindent, \ldots...
    
           ?   documentclass-specific  environments  (and some commands) which can
               be translated to LyX layouts
    
           ?   arguments to certain untranslatable commands (e.g. \mbox)
    
           Some of this support may not be 100% yet. See below for details
    
           tex2lyx copies math (almost) verbatim from your  LaTeX  file.  Luckily,
           LyX reads in LaTeX math, so (almost) any math which is supported by LyX
           should work just fine.
    
           tex2lyx  will  copy  any  preamble  commands  (i.e.,  anything   before
           \begin{document})  verbatim.  Fancy  stuff  you've got in your preamble
           should thus be conserved in printed documents, although it will not  of
           course  show  up  in  the  LyX  window. Check Document->Settings->LaTeX
           Preamble to see the result.
    
       What tex2lyx Can't Handle --- But it's OK
           \end{foo} (unless you use the -r option). Most of  these  unknown  com-
           mands  won't  cause  tex2lyx to break; they'll merely require you to do
           some editing once you've loaded the file up in  LyX.   That  should  be
           less painful than editing either the .tex or the .lyx file using a text
           editor.
    
       What tex2lyx Handles Badly --- aka BUGS
           Since tex2lyx is relatively new, it's got a number of problems.  As  it
           matures, these bugs will be squished.
    
           ?   "Exact"  copying  of  unknown environments and commands isn't quite
               exact.  This will yield ugly LyX, but in almost all cases the  out-
               put  will  be  the  same.   However, most parts of the file will be
               copied perfectly, including whitespace and comments. This includes:
               the  LaTeX  preamble,  verbatim  environments as well as \verb com-
               mands, and skip blocks.
    
           ?   tex2lyx translates only a subset of the document class  options  to
               native  features.   Other options are placed in the "options" field
               in the Document->Settings popup.
    
               More importantly, tex2lyx doesn't translate  \newcommands,  unknown
               \usepackage  commands  and  other  unknown code in the preamble. It
               simply copies that into the LaTeX preamble. If you use special com-
               mands,  e.g.  to  specify the text layout in a way that that is not
               understood by LyX, tex2lyx won't recognize it. Note that these set-
               tings  will  be  overwritten if you modify the text layout in LyX's
               document settings. Better remove these  special  options  from  the
               LaTeX  preamble  (Document->Settings->LaTeX  Preamble)  and use the
               corresponding LyX document settings, if possible.
    
           ?   The foil document class has a couple of bugs. tex2lyx may do  weird
               things  with optional arguments to \foilhead commands. Also, it may
               handle \begin{dinglist} incorrectly  (although  the  stuff  in  the
               environment should translate normally).
    
           All     known     bugs     of     tex2lyx     can     be    found    on
           http://www.lyx.org/trac/wiki/BugTrackerHome.
    
           tex2lyx is rather robust. As mentioned above, it may not translate your
           file perfectly, but the result should be usable and it shouldn't crash.
           If you encounter problems---and the problem is not one  of  those  men-
           tioned above or on http://www.lyx.org/trac/wiki/BugTrackerHome---please
           report the issue as described in the section on Bug Reports.
    
       What LyX Can't Handle
           LyX itself is missing a couple of features, such that even  if  tex2lyx
           translates  things perfectly, LyX may still have trouble reading it. If
           you really need these features, you can export your final  document  as
           LaTeX, and put them back in. See BUGS for more details on these bugs.
    
           ?   For  a  number  of  commands (such as \\), LyX does not support the
    
    
    

    EXAMPLES

           tex2lyx -f -r "myenv" foo.tex
    
           The above will create a file foo.lyx from foo.tex, overwriting if  nec-
           essary.   When  it finds a \begin{myenv} ... \end{myenv} block, it will
           translate the stuff within the block, but copy the \begin and \end com-
           mands in TeX mode.
    
           tex2lyx -n -c "literate-article" foo.tex
    
           The above will change a noweb document into a LyX literate-article doc-
           ument. A user would do this if the  noweb  document  had  documentclass
           article.
    
    
    

    NOTES

       Bug Reports
           Bugs    should    be    reported    to   the   LyX   bug   tracker   at
           http://www.lyx.org/trac/wiki/BugTrackerHome. Additionally, you can post
           a message to the LyX developers' mailing list. Its address is currently
           lyx-devel@lists.lyx.org. If your message bounces, you can check the LyX
           home  page,  http://www.lyx.org/.  If you are running tex2lyx on a huge
           file, please do not send all of the output in  your  bug  report.  Just
           include the last ten or twenty lines of output, along with the piece of
           the LaTeX file it crashed on.  Or, even better, attach a small but com-
           plete file which causes the same problem as your original file.
    
       Layout Files
           tex2lyx  reads  a  LyX layout file to know how to handle LaTeX environ-
           ments and commands which get translated to LyX layouts. This file  will
           include  all  "normal" non-math environments (i.e., including quote and
           itemize, but not tabular, minipage, and some other fancy environments),
           and  commands  like \section and \title. If you want to tex2lyx a class
           that doesn't have an existing layout file, then you'll have to create a
           layout  file. But you have to do this anyway, in order to LyX the file,
           since LyX depends on layout files to know how to  display  and  process
           its  files.  Check the LyX documentation for help with this task (which
           can be hard or easy, depending on the class you want to create a layout
           file  for.) If your class is quite similar to a class that has a layout
           file, then consider using the -c option.
    
       Syntax Files
           tex2lyx always reads at least one syntax file, called the default  syn-
           tax  file.   tex2lyx  will read your personal syntax file if it exists;
           otherwise it will read the system-wide file. tex2lyx  will  read  addi-
           tional  syntax  files  if  you  specify them with the -s option. (These
           extra files should have the same format as the default file,  but  will
           tend  to be shorter, since they only have to specify extra commands not
           found in the default file.) A syntax file tells tex2lyx a few things.
    
           First, it describes the syntax of  each  command,  that  is,  how  many
           required  arguments  and how many optional arguments the command takes.
           Knowing this makes it easier for tex2lyx to copy (in TeX mode) commands
           into  an  argument  of  an (untranslatable) command in the syntax file,
           then tex2lyx will translate that argument instead of copying it  verba-
           tim.   So,   for   example,   the   default  syntax  file  has  \raise-
           box{}[][]{translate}. This means that the  \raisebox  command  and  the
           first argument (and optional arguments if they exist) are copied in TeX
           mode, but the last argument (which may contain math, complicated LaTeX,
           other  untranslatable  commands, etc.) will be translated into LyX. You
           can't use "translate" on optional arguments.
    
           User-defined syntax files are allowed to define new commands and  their
           syntax,  or override the number of arguments for a command given in the
           default syntax file. (E.g., if you're using a style that gives an extra
           argument to some command...) However, this will only be useful for com-
           mands copied in TeX mode. Commands which  are  actually  translated  by
           tex2lyx  (like  \item) have their argument syntax hard-coded. The hard-
           coded commands are identified in the default syntax file.
    
           Second, the syntax file describes any "regular environments".  Usually,
           an entire unknown environment will be copied in TeX mode. If you define
           a regular environment "foo", though,  then  only  the  \begin{foo}  and
           \end{foo}  commands  will  be  copied  in TeX mode; the text within the
           environment will be treated (i.e., translated) by  tex2lyx  as  regular
           LaTeX,  rather  than  being  copied into TeX mode. Don't try to declare
           "tabbing" and "picture" as regular environments,  as  the  text  within
           those  environments  will  confuse tex2lyx; use this capability for new
           environments you create that have plain text or math or simple commands
           in  them.  You also can't declare unknown math environments (like equa-
           tion*) as regular environments, either, since the LyX math editor won't
           understand  them. The names of regular environments appear, whitespace-
           separated, between \begin{tex2lyxre} and \end{tex2lyxre} statements  in
           the syntax file. (If you have a regular environment which you won't use
           very often, you can use the -r option  rather  than  writing  a  syntax
           file.)
    
    
    

    WARNINGS

           Always  keep a copy of your original LaTeX files either under a differ-
           ent name or in a different directory. There are a couple ways in  which
           using LyX could lead to overwriting the original LaTeX file.
    
           If  you import foo.tex to create foo.lyx, then edit foo.lyx and want to
           re-export it, note that it will overwrite the  original  foo.tex.  (LyX
           will ask you if you want to overwrite it.)
    
    
    

    ENVIRONMENT

           LYX_DIR_20x
                 can be used to specify which system directory to use.
    
           The  system  directory is determined by searching for the file "chkcon-
           fig.ltx". Directories are searched in this order:
           1) -sysdir command line parameter
           2) LYX_DIR_20x environment variable
           3) Maybe <path of binary>/TOP_SRCDIR/lib
    
           MY_LYXDIR/layouts/*.layout
               User's personal layout files for document classes
    
           MY_LYXDIR/syntax.default
               User's personal syntax file
    
           LIBDIR/layouts/*.layout
               System-wide layout files for document classes
    
           LIBDIR/lib/syntax.default
               System-wide LaTeX syntax file
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           lyx(1), latex(1)
    
    
    

    AUTHORS

           tex2lyx   is   Copyright   (c)   2003ff.   by   the   LyX   Team  (lyx-
           devel@lists.lyx.org)
    
    
    

    Version 2.0.2 2011-11-26 TEX2LYX(1)

    
    
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