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    Command:

    strtoq

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           #include <stdlib.h>
    
           long int strtol(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);
    
           long long int strtoll(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);
    
       Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):
    
           strtoll():
               _XOPEN_SOURCE >= 600 || _BSD_SOURCE || _SVID_SOURCE ||
               _ISOC99_SOURCE || _POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 200112L;
               or cc -std=c99
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           The strtol() function converts the initial part of the string  in  nptr
           to  a  long  integer  value  according to the given base, which must be
           between 2 and 36 inclusive, or be the special value 0.
    
           The string may begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as deter-
           mined by isspace(3)) followed by a single optional '+' or '-' sign.  If
           base is zero or 16, the string may then include a "0x" prefix, and  the
           number  will  be read in base 16; otherwise, a zero base is taken as 10
           (decimal) unless the next character is '0', in which case it  is  taken
           as 8 (octal).
    
           The  remainder  of  the  string is converted to a long int value in the
           obvious manner, stopping at the first character which is  not  a  valid
           digit  in the given base.  (In bases above 10, the letter 'A' in either
           uppercase or lowercase represents 10, 'B' represents 11, and so  forth,
           with 'Z' representing 35.)
    
           If endptr is not NULL, strtol() stores the address of the first invalid
           character in *endptr.  If there were no digits at all, strtol()  stores
           the  original value of nptr in *endptr (and returns 0).  In particular,
           if *nptr is not '\0' but **endptr is '\0' on return, the entire  string
           is valid.
    
           The  strtoll()  function  works  just  like  the  strtol() function but
           returns a long long integer value.
    
    
    

    RETURN VALUE

           The strtol() function returns the result of the conversion, unless  the
           value  would  underflow  or overflow.  If an underflow occurs, strtol()
           returns LONG_MIN.  If an overflow occurs,  strtol()  returns  LONG_MAX.
           In  both  cases,  errno is set to ERANGE.  Precisely the same holds for
           strtoll()  (with  LLONG_MIN  and  LLONG_MAX  instead  of  LONG_MIN  and
           LONG_MAX).
    
    
    

    ERRORS

           EINVAL (not in C99) The given base contains an unsupported value.
    
           toll() to C99 and POSIX.1-2001.
    
    
    

    NOTES

           Since  strtol()  can  legitimately  return  0,  LONG_MAX,  or  LONG_MIN
           (LLONG_MAX or LLONG_MIN for strtoll()) on both success and failure, the
           calling program should set errno to 0 before the call, and then  deter-
           mine if an error occurred by checking whether errno has a nonzero value
           after the call.
    
           According to POSIX.1-2001, in locales other than the "C"  and  "POSIX",
           these   functions  may  accept  other,  implementation-defined  numeric
           strings.
    
           BSD also has
    
               quad_t strtoq(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);
    
           with completely analogous definition.  Depending on the wordsize of the
           current  architecture,  this  may be equivalent to strtoll() or to str-
           tol().
    
    
    

    EXAMPLE

           The program shown below demonstrates the use of  strtol().   The  first
           command-line  argument  specifies  a  string from which strtol() should
           parse a number.  The second (optional) argument specifies the  base  to
           be  used  for  the  conversion.  (This argument is converted to numeric
           form using atoi(3), a function that performs no error checking and  has
           a  simpler interface than strtol().)  Some examples of the results pro-
           duced by this program are the following:
    
               $ ./a.out 123
               strtol() returned 123
               $ ./a.out '    123'
               strtol() returned 123
               $ ./a.out 123abc
               strtol() returned 123
               Further characters after number: abc
               $ ./a.out 123abc 55
               strtol: Invalid argument
               $ ./a.out ''
               No digits were found
               $ ./a.out 4000000000
               strtol: Numerical result out of range
    
       Program source
    
           #include <stdlib.h>
           #include <limits.h>
           #include <stdio.h>
           #include <errno.h>
    
           int
               errno = 0;    /* To distinguish success/failure after call */
               val = strtol(str, &endptr, base);
    
               /* Check for various possible errors */
    
               if ((errno == ERANGE && (val == LONG_MAX || val == LONG_MIN))
                       || (errno != 0 && val == 0)) {
                   perror("strtol");
                   exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
               }
    
               if (endptr == str) {
                   fprintf(stderr, "No digits were found\n");
                   exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
               }
    
               /* If we got here, strtol() successfully parsed a number */
    
               printf("strtol() returned %ld\n", val);
    
               if (*endptr != '\0')        /* Not necessarily an error... */
                   printf("Further characters after number: %s\n", endptr);
    
               exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
           }
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           atof(3), atoi(3), atol(3), strtod(3), strtoul(3)
    
    
    

    GNU 2014-03-18 STRTOL(3)

    
    
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