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    standards

    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           The  CONFORMING TO section that appears in many manual pages identifies
           various standards to which the documented interface conforms.  The fol-
           lowing list briefly describes these standards.
    
           V7     Version  7  (also  known  as  Seventh Edition) UNIX, released by
                  AT&T/Bell Labs in 1979.  After this point, UNIX systems diverged
                  into two main dialects: BSD and System V.
    
           4.2BSD This is an implementation standard defined by the 4.2 release of
                  the Berkeley Software Distribution, released by  the  University
                  of  California at Berkeley.  This was the first Berkeley release
                  that contained a TCP/IP stack and the sockets API.   4.2BSD  was
                  released in 1983.
    
                  Earlier  major  BSD  releases included 3BSD (1980), 4BSD (1980),
                  and 4.1BSD (1981).
    
           4.3BSD The successor to 4.2BSD, released in 1986.
    
           4.4BSD The successor to 4.3BSD, released in 1993.  This  was  the  last
                  major Berkeley release.
    
           System V
                  This  is  an implementation standard defined by AT&T's milestone
                  1983 release of its commercial System  V  (five)  release.   The
                  previous major AT&T release was System III, released in 1981.
    
           System V release 2 (SVr2)
                  This  was the next System V release, made in 1985.  The SVr2 was
                  formally described in the System V Interface Definition  version
                  1 (SVID 1) published in 1985.
    
           System V release 3 (SVr3)
                  This  was the successor to SVr2, released in 1986.  This release
                  was formally described in the System V Interface Definition ver-
                  sion 2 (SVID 2).
    
           System V release 4 (SVr4)
                  This  was the successor to SVr3, released in 1989.  This version
                  of System V is described in the "Programmer's Reference  Manual:
                  Operating  System  API  (Intel processors)" (Prentice-Hall 1992,
                  ISBN 0-13-951294-2) This release was formally described  in  the
                  System V Interface Definition version 3 (SVID 3), and is consid-
                  ered the definitive System V release.
    
           SVID 4 System V Interface Definition version 4, issued in 1995.  Avail-
                  able online at
    
           C89    This was the first C language standard, ratified by ANSI (Ameri-
                  can National Standards Institute) in 1989 (X3.159-1989).   Some-
                  times  this  is  known  as ANSI C, but since C99 is also an ANSI
                  (ISO/IEC  9945-1:1990).   The term "POSIX" was coined by Richard
                  Stallman.
    
           POSIX.2
                  IEEE Std 1003.2-1992, describing commands and  utilities,  rati-
                  fied by ISO in 1993 (ISO/IEC 9945-2:1993).
    
           POSIX.1b (formerly known as POSIX.4)
                  IEEE  Std  1003.1b-1993,  describing  real-time  facilities  for
                  portable operating systems, ratified by  ISO  in  1996  (ISO/IEC
                  9945-1:1996).
    
           POSIX.1c
                  IEEE  Std 1003.1c-1995, which describes the POSIX threads inter-
                  faces.
    
           POSIX.1d
                  IEEE Std  1003.1c-1999,  which  describes  additional  real-time
                  extensions.
    
           POSIX.1g
                  IEEE  Std 1003.1g-2000, which describes networking APIs (includ-
                  ing sockets).
    
           POSIX.1j
                  IEEE Std 1003.1j-2000, which describes advanced real-time exten-
                  sions.
    
           POSIX.1-1996
                  A  1996  revision  of  POSIX.1  which  incorporated POSIX.1b and
                  POSIX.1c.
    
           XPG3   Released in 1989, this was the first significant release of  the
                  X/Open Portability Guide, produced by the X/Open Company, a mul-
                  tivendor consortium.  This multivolume guide was  based  on  the
                  POSIX standards.
    
           XPG4   A revision of the X/Open Portability Guide, released in 1992.
    
           XPG4v2 A 1994 revision of XPG4.  This is also referred to as Spec 1170,
                  where 1170 referred to the number of interfaces defined by  this
                  standard.
    
           SUS (SUSv1)
                  Single UNIX Specification.  This was a repackaging of XPG4v2 and
                  other X/Open standards (X/Open Curses Issue 4 version 2,  X/Open
                  Networking  Service  (XNS) Issue 4).  Systems conforming to this
                  standard can be branded UNIX 95.
    
           SUSv2  Single UNIX Specification version 2.  Sometimes also referred to
                  as XPG5.  This standard appeared in 1997.  Systems conforming to
                  this standard can be branded UNIX 98.  See also
                  branded UNIX 03.  (XSI conformance constitutes the  Single  UNIX
                  Specification version 3 (SUSv3).)
    
                  The POSIX.1-2001 document is broken into four parts:
    
                  XBD:  Definitions,  terms  and  concepts, header file specifica-
                  tions.
    
                  XSH: Specifications of functions (i.e., system calls and library
                  functions in actual implementations).
    
                  XCU:  Specifications  of  commands and utilities (i.e., the area
                  formerly described by POSIX.2).
    
                  XRAT: Informative text on the other parts of the standard.
    
                  POSIX.1-2001 is aligned with C99, so that  all  of  the  library
                  functions   standardized   in   C99  are  also  standardized  in
                  POSIX.1-2001.
    
                  Two Technical Corrigenda (minor fixes and improvements)  of  the
                  original  2001  standard have occurred: TC1 in 2003 (referred to
                  as POSIX.1-2003), and TC2 in 2004 (referred to as POSIX.1-2004).
    
           POSIX.1-2008, SUSv4
                  Work on the next revision of POSIX.1/SUS was completed and rati-
                  fied in 2008.
    
                  The changes in this revision are not  as  large  as  those  that
                  occurred  for POSIX.1-2001/SUSv3, but a number of new interfaces
                  are added and various details  of  existing  specifications  are
                  modified.    Many  of  the  interfaces  that  were  optional  in
                  POSIX.1-2001 become mandatory in the 2008 revision of the  stan-
                  dard.   A  few  interfaces  that are present in POSIX.1-2001 are
                  marked as obsolete in POSIX.1-2008, or removed from the standard
                  altogether.
    
                  The  revised  standard  is  broken  into  the same four parts as
                  POSIX.1-2001, and again there are two levels of conformance: the
                  baseline  POSIX Conformance, and XSI Conformance, which mandates
                  an additional set of interfaces beyond those in the base  speci-
                  fication.
    
                  In  general,  where  the  CONFORMING TO section of a manual page
                  lists POSIX.1-2001, it can be assumed that  the  interface  also
                  conforms to POSIX.1-2008, unless otherwise noted.
    
                  Technical  Corrigendum  1 (minor fixes and improvements) of this
                  standard was released in 2013 (referred to as POSIX.1-2013).
    
                  Further information can be found on the Austin group web site,
    
    
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