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           This  manual  describes  SoX  supported  file  formats and audio device
           types; the SoX manual set starts with sox(1).
           Format types that can SoX can determine by  a  filename  extension  are
           listed  with  their  names  preceded  by  a dot.  Format types that are
           optionally built into SoX are marked '(optional)'.
           Format types that can be handled by an external library via an optional
           pseudo  file  type (currently sndfile or ffmpeg) are marked e.g. '(also
           with -t sndfile)'.  This might be  useful  if  you  have  a  file  that
           doesn't work with SoX's default format readers and writers, and there's
           an external reader or writer for that format.
           To see if SoX has support for an optional format or device,  enter  sox
           -h and look for its name under the list: 'AUDIO FILE FORMATS' or 'AUDIO
           DEVICE DRIVERS'.
           .raw (also with -t sndfile), .f32, .f64, .s8, .s16, .s24, .s32,
           .u8, .u16, .u24, .u32, .ul, .al, .lu, .la
                  Raw (headerless) audio files.  For raw, the sample rate and  the
                  data  encoding  must be given using command-line format options;
                  for the other listed types, the sample  rate  defaults  to  8kHz
                  (but may be overridden), and the data encoding is defined by the
                  given suffix.  Thus f32 and f64 indicate files encoded as 32 and
                  64-bit  (IEEE  single  and  double precision) floating point PCM
                  respectively; s8, s16, s24, and s32  indicate  8,  16,  24,  and
                  32-bit  signed  integer  PCM respectively; u8, u16, u24, and u32
                  indicate 8, 16, 24, and  32-bit  unsigned  integer  PCM  respec-
                  tively;  ul  indicates  '?-law'  (8-bit),  al  indicates 'A-law'
                  (8-bit), and lu and la are inverse bit order '?-law' and inverse
                  bit order 'A-law' respectively.  For all raw formats, the number
                  of channels defaults to 1 (but may be overridden).
                  Headerless audio files on a SPARC computer are likely to  be  of
                  format  ul;  on a Mac, they're likely to be u8 but with a sample
                  rate of 11025 or 22050 Hz.
                  See .ima and .vox for raw ADPCM formats, and .cdda  for  raw  CD
                  digital audio.
           .f4, .f8, .s1, .s2, .s3, .s4,
           .u1, .u2, .u3, .u4, .sb, .sw, .sl, .ub, .uw
                  Deprecated aliases for f32, f64, s8, s16, s24, s32,
                  u8, u16, u24, u32, s8, s16, s32, u8, and u16 respectively.
           .8svx (also with -t sndfile)
                  Amiga 8SVX musical instrument description format.
           .aiff, .aif (also with -t sndfile)
                  AIFF  files  as  used on old Apple Macs, Apple IIc/IIgs and SGI.
                  true  format.   The  sowt encoding is the only encoding that SoX
                  can handle with this format.
                  AIFF-C is defined in DAVIC 1.4 Part 9 Annex B.  This  format  is
                  referred from ARIB STD-B24, which is specified for Japanese data
                  broadcasting.  Any private chunks are not supported.
           alsa (optional)
                  Advanced Linux Sound Architecture device driver;  supports  both
                  playing  and  recording audio.  ALSA is only used in Linux-based
                  operating systems, though these often support OSS (see below) as
                  well.  Examples:
                       sox infile -t alsa
                       sox infile -t alsa default
                       sox infile -t alsa plughw:0,0
                       sox -2 -t alsa hw:1 outfile
                  See also play(1), rec(1), and sox(1) -d.
           .amb   Ambisonic  B-Format: a specialisation of .wav with between 3 and
                  16 channels of audio for use with  an  Ambisonic  decoder.   See
                  for details.  It is up to the user to get the channels  together
                  in the right order and at the correct amplitude.
           .amr-nb (optional)
                  Adaptive  Multi  Rate - Narrow Band speech codec; a lossy format
                  used in 3rd generation mobile telephony and defined in  3GPP  TS
                  26.071 et al.
                  AMR-NB  audio  has  a  fixed sampling rate of 8 kHz and supports
                  encoding to the following  bit-rates  (as  selected  by  the  -C
                  option):  0  = 4.75 kbit/s, 1 = 5.15 kbit/s, 2 = 5.9 kbit/s, 3 =
                  6.7 kbit/s, 4 = 7.4 kbit/s 5 = 7.95 kbit/s, 6 = 10.2 kbit/s, 7 =
                  12.2 kbit/s.
           .amr-wb (optional)
                  Adaptive  Multi  Rate  -  Wide Band speech codec; a lossy format
                  used in 3rd generation mobile telephony and defined in  3GPP  TS
                  26.171 et al.
                  AMR-WB  audio  has  a fixed sampling rate of 16 kHz and supports
                  encoding to the following  bit-rates  (as  selected  by  the  -C
                  option):  0 = 6.6 kbit/s, 1 = 8.85 kbit/s, 2 = 12.65 kbit/s, 3 =
                  14.25 kbit/s, 4 = 15.85 kbit/s 5  =  18.25  kbit/s,  6  =  19.85
                  kbit/s, 7 = 23.05 kbit/s, 8 = 23.85 kbit/s.
           ao (optional)
        's  Audio  Output  device driver; works only for playing
                  audio.  It supports a wide range of devices and sound systems  -
                  see  its  documentation  for the full range.  For the most part,
           .au, .snd (also with -t sndfile)
                  Sun Microsystems AU files.  There are many types of AU file; DEC
                  has invented its own with a  different  magic  number  and  byte
                  order.   To  write a DEC file, use the -L option with the output
                  file options.
                  Some .au files are known to have invalid AU headers;  these  are
                  probably  original Sun ?-law 8000 Hz files and can be dealt with
                  using the .ul format (see below).
                  It is possible to override AU file header information  with  the
                  -r  and  -c  options,  in which case SoX will issue a warning to
                  that effect.
           .avr   Audio Visual Research format; used by  a  number  of  commercial
                  packages on the Mac.
           .caf (optional)
                  Apple's Core Audio File format.
           .cdda, .cdr
                  'Red Book' Compact Disc Digital Audio (raw audio).  CDDA has two
                  audio  channels  formatted  as  16-bit  signed   integers   (big
                  endian)at  a  sample  rate  of 44.1 kHz.  The number of (stereo)
                  samples in each CDDA track is always a multiple of 588.
           coreaudio (optional)
                  Mac OSX CoreAudio  device  driver:  supports  both  playing  and
                  recording  audio.   If a filename is not specific or if the name
                  is "default" then the default audio  device  is  selected.   Any
                  other  name will be used to select a specific device.  The valid
                  names can be seen in the System Preferences->Sound menu and then
                  under the Output and Input tabs.
                       sox infile -t coreaudio
                       sox infile -t coreaudio default
                       sox infile -t coreaudio "Internal Speakers"
                  See also play(1), rec(1), and sox(1) -d.
           .cvsd, .cvs
                  Continuously Variable Slope Delta modulation.  A headerless for-
                  mat used to compress speech audio for applications such as voice
                  mail.  This format is sometimes used with bit-reversed samples -
                  the -X format option can be used to set the bit-order.
           .cvu   Continuously Variable Slope Delta modulation (unfiltered).  This
                  is an alternative handler for CVSD that is unfiltered but can be
                  used with any bit-rate.  E.g.
           .dvms, .vms
                  Used in Germany to compress speech  audio  for  voice  mail.   A
                  self-describing variant of cvsd.
           .fap (optional)
                  See .paf.
           ffmpeg (optional)
                  This  is a pseudo-type that forces ffmpeg to be used. The actual
                  file type is deduced from the file name (it cannot  be  used  on
                  stdio).   It  can  read  a wide range of audio files, not all of
                  which are documented here, and also  the  audio  track  of  many
                  video  files  (including AVI, WMV and MPEG). At present only the
                  first audio track of a file can be read.
           .flac (optional; also with -t sndfile)
        's Free Lossless Audio CODEC compressed audio.  FLAC  is
                  an  open,  patent-free CODEC designed for compressing music.  It
                  is similar to MP3 and Ogg Vorbis,  but  lossless,  meaning  that
                  audio is compressed in FLAC without any loss in quality.
                  SoX  can  read  native FLAC files (.flac) but not Ogg FLAC files
                  (.ogg).  [But see .ogg below for information relating to support
                  for Ogg Vorbis files.]
                  SoX  can write native FLAC files according to a given or default
                  compression level.  8 is the default compression level and gives
                  the  best  (but  slowest)  compression;  0  gives the least (but
                  fastest) compression.  The compression level is  selected  using
                  the -C option [see sox(1)] with a whole number from 0 to 8.
           .fssd  An alias for the .u8 format.
           .gsrt  Grandstream  ring-tone  files.  Whilst this file format can con-
                  tain A-Law, ?-law, GSM, G.722,  G.723,  G.726,  G.728,  or  iLBC
                  encoded  audio,  SoX supports reading and writing only A-Law and
                  ?-law.  E.g.
                     sox music.wav -t gsrt ring.bin
                     play ring.bin
           .gsm (optional; also with -t sndfile)
                  GSM 06.10 Lossy Speech Compression.  A  lossy  format  for  com-
                  pressing  speech which is used in the Global Standard for Mobile
                  telecommunications (GSM).  It's good for its purpose,  shrinking
                  audio  data  size,  but  it  will introduce lots of noise when a
                  given audio signal is encoded and decoded multiple times.   This
                  format  is  used  by some voice mail applications.  It is rather
                  CPU intensive.
           .lpc, .lpc10
                  LPC-10 is a compression  scheme  for  speech  developed  in  the
                  United   States.   See  for
                  details. There is no associated file format, so SoX's  implemen-
                  tation is headerless.
           .mat, .mat4, .mat5 (optional)
                  Matlab 4.2/5.0 (respectively GNU Octave 2.0/2.1) format (.mat is
                  the same as .mat4).
           .m3u   A playlist format; contains a list  of  audio  files.   SoX  can
                  read,  but  not  write this file format.  See [1] for details of
                  this format.
           .maud  An IFF-conforming audio file type, registered by MS  MacroSystem
                  Computer  GmbH, published along with the 'Toccata' sound-card on
                  the Amiga.  Allows 8bit linear, 16bit linear,  A-Law,  ?-law  in
                  mono and stereo.
           .mp3, .mp2 (optional read, optional write)
                  MP3  compressed  audio;  MP3  (MPEG  Layer  3)  is a part of the
                  patent-encumbered MPEG standards for audio  and  video  compres-
                  sion.   It is a lossy compression format that achieves good com-
                  pression rates with little quality loss.
                  Because MP3 is patented, SoX cannot be distributed with MP3 sup-
                  port  without  incurring  the  patent  holder's fees.  Users who
                  require SoX with MP3 support must currently  compile  and  build
                  SoX with the MP3 libraries (LAME & MAD) from source code, or, in
                  some cases, obtain pre-built dynamically loadable libraries.
                  When reading MP3 files, up to 28 bits  of  precision  is  stored
                  although  only  16  bits  is reported to user.  This is to allow
                  default behavior of writing 16 bit output  files.   A  user  can
                  specify  a higher precision for the output file to prevent loss-
                  ing this extra information.  MP3 output files will use up to  24
                  bits of precision while encoding.
                  MP3 compression parameters can be selected using SoX's -C option
                  as follows (note that the current syntax is subject to change):
                  The primary parameter to the LAME encoder is the  bit  rate.  If
                  the  value  of the -C value is a positive integer, it's taken as
                  the bitrate in kbps (e.g. if you specify 128, it uses 128 kbps).
                  The  second  most  important  parameter  is  probably  "quality"
                  (really performance), which allows balancing encoding speed  vs.
                  quality.  In LAME, 0 specifies highest quality but is very slow,
                  while 9 selects poor quality, but is fast. (5 is the default and
                  2  is recommended as a good trade-off for high quality encodes.)
                  Because the -C value is a float, the fractional part is used  to
                  default  VBR encoding (size) with high quality (speed). One spe-
                  cial case is 0, which is a valid VBR encoding parameter but  not
                  a  valid bitrate.  Compression value of 0 is always treated as a
                  high quality vbr, as a result both -0.2 and 0.2 are  treated  as
                  highest quality VBR (size) and high quality (speed).
                  See also Ogg Vorbis for a similar format.
           .mp4, .m4a (optional)
                  MP4  compressed  audio.   MP3 (MPEG 4) is part of the MPEG stan-
                  dards for audio and video compression.  See mp3 for more  infor-
           .nist (also with -t sndfile)
                  See .sph.
           .ogg, .vorbis (optional)
        's  Ogg  Vorbis  compressed  audio; an open, patent-free
                  CODEC designed for music and streaming audio.   It  is  a  lossy
                  compression  format  (similar  to  MP3, VQF & AAC) that achieves
                  good compression rates with a minimum amount of quality loss.
                  SoX can decode all types of Ogg Vorbis files, and can encode  at
                  different compression levels/qualities given as a number from -1
                  (highest compression/lowest quality) to 10 (lowest  compression,
                  highest  quality).   By  default the encoding quality level is 3
                  (which gives an encoded rate of approx. 112kbps), but  this  can
                  be changed using the -C option (see above) with a number from -1
                  to 10; fractional numbers (e.g.  3.6) are also allowed.   Decod-
                  ing  is  somewhat  CPU intensive and encoding is very CPU inten-
                  See also .mp3 for a similar format.
           oss (optional)
                  Open Sound System /dev/dsp device driver; supports both  playing
                  and  recording  audio.   OSS  support  is available in Unix-like
                  operating systems, sometimes  together  with  alternative  sound
                  systems (such as ALSA).  Examples:
                       sox infile -t oss
                       sox infile -t oss /dev/dsp
                       sox -2 -t oss /dev/dsp outfile
                  See also play(1), rec(1), and sox(1) -d.
           .paf, .fap (optional)
                  Ensoniq  PARIS file format (big and little-endian respectively).
           .pls   A playlist format; contains a list  of  audio  files.   SoX  can
                  read,  but  not  write this file format.  See [2] for details of
                  this format.
                  The  sound  quality is poor because Psion Record seems to insist
                  on frames of 800 samples or fewer, so that the ADPCM  CODEC  has
                  to  be  reset  at  every  800  frames, which causes the sound to
                  glitch every tenth of a second.
           pulseaudio (optional)
                  PulseAudio driver; supports both playing and recording of audio.
                  PulseAudio  is  a  cross  platform networked sound server.  If a
                  file name is specified with this driver, it is  ignored.   Exam-
                       sox infile -t pulseaudio
                       sox infile -t pulseaudio default
                  See also play(1), rec(1), and sox(1) -d.
           .pvf (optional)
                  Portable Voice Format.
           .sd2 (optional)
                  Sound Designer 2 format.
           .sds (optional)
                  MIDI Sample Dump Standard.
           .sf (also with -t sndfile)
                  IRCAM   SDIF  (Institut  de  Recherche  et  Coordination  Acous-
                  tique/Musique Sound Description  Interchange  Format).  Used  by
                  academic  music  software  such  as  the CSound package, and the
                  MixView sound sample editor.
           .sph, .nist (also with -t sndfile)
                  SPHERE (SPeech HEader Resources) is a  file  format  defined  by
                  NIST  (National  Institute  of  Standards and Technology) and is
                  used with speech audio.  SoX can read these files when they con-
                  tain  ?-law and PCM data.  It will ignore any header information
                  that says the data is compressed using shorten  compression  and
                  will treat the data as either ?-law or PCM.  This will allow SoX
                  and the command line shorten program to be  run  together  using
                  pipes  to  encompasses  the data and then pass the result to SoX
                  for processing.
           .smp   Turtle Beach SampleVision files.  SMP files are for use with the
                  PC-DOS  package  SampleVision  by  Turtle Beach Softworks.  This
                  package is for communication to several MIDI samplers.  All sam-
                  ple  rates  are  supported  by the package, although not all are
                  supported by the samplers themselves.  Currently loop points are
           .snd   See .au, .sndr and .sndt.
           sndfile (optional)
           .sndt  SoundTool  files.  An MS-DOS/Windows format from the early '90s.
                  SoundTool files usually have the extension '.SND'.
           .sou   An alias for the .u8 raw format.
           .sox   SoX's native uncompressed PCM format, intended for  storing  (or
                  piping)  audio  at  intermediate processing points (i.e. between
                  SoX invocations).  It has much in common with the  popular  WAV,
                  AIFF,  and  AU  uncompressed  PCM formats, but has the following
                  specific characteristics: the PCM samples are always  stored  as
                  32  bit  signed integers, the samples are stored (by default) as
                  'native endian', and the  number  of  samples  in  the  file  is
                  recorded as a 64-bit integer.  Comments are also supported.
                  See 'Special Filenames' in sox(1) for examples of using the .sox
                  format with 'pipes'.
           sunau (optional)
                  Sun /dev/audio device driver; supports both playing and  record-
                  ing audio.  For example:
                       sox infile -t sunau /dev/audio
                       sox infile -t sunau -U -c 1 /dev/audio
                  for older sun equipment.
                  See also play(1), rec(1), and sox(1) -d.
           .txw   Yamaha  TX-16W  sampler.   A  file format from a Yamaha sampling
                  keyboard which wrote IBM-PC format 3.5" floppies.  Handles read-
                  ing  of files which do not have the sample rate field set to one
                  of  the  expected  by  looking  at  some  other  bytes  in   the
                  attack/loop  length fields, and defaulting to 33 kHz if the sam-
                  ple rate is still unknown.
           .vms   See .dvms.
           .voc (also with -t sndfile)
                  Sound Blaster VOC files.  VOC files are multi-part  and  contain
                  silence parts, looping, and different sample rates for different
                  chunks.  On input, the silence parts are filled out,  loops  are
                  rejected,  and  sample  data with a new sample rate is rejected.
                  Silence with a different sample rate is generated appropriately.
                  On  output,  silence  is not detected, nor are impossible sample
                  rates.  SoX supports reading (but not writing)  VOC  files  with
                  multiple   blocks,   and  files  containing  ?-law,  A-law,  and
                  2/3/4-bit ADPCM samples.
                       sox input.vox output.wav highpass 10
           .w64 (optional)
                  Sonic Foundry's 64-bit RIFF/WAV format.
           .wav (also with -t sndfile)
                  Microsoft .WAV RIFF files.  This is the native audio file format
                  of Windows, and widely used for uncompressed audio.
                  Normally .wav files have all  formatting  information  in  their
                  headers,  and so do not need any format options specified for an
                  input file.  If any are, they will override the file header, and
                  you will be warned to this effect.  You had better know what you
                  are doing! Output format options will cause a format conversion,
                  and the .wav will written appropriately.
                  SoX  can  read and write linear PCM, ?-law, A-law, MS ADPCM, and
                  IMA (or DVI) ADPCM.  WAV files can also contain audio encoded in
                  many  other ways (not currently supported with SoX) e.g. MP3; in
                  some cases such a file can still be read by  SoX  by  overriding
                  the file type, e.g.
                     play -t mp3 mp3-encoded.wav
                  Big  endian  versions  of RIFF files, called RIFX, are also sup-
                  ported.  To write a RIFX file, use the -B option with the output
                  file options.
           waveaudio (optional)
                  MS-Windows native audio device driver.  Examples:
                       sox infile -t waveaudio
                       sox infile -t waveaudio default
                       sox infile -t waveaudio 1
                       sox infile -t waveaudio "High Definition Audio Device ("
                  If  the device name is omitted, -1, or default, then you get the
                  'Microsoft Wave Mapper' device.  Wave Mapper means 'use the sys-
                  tem  default  audio  devices'.   You  can control what 'default'
                  means via the OS Control Panel.
                  If the device name given is some  other  number,  you  get  that
                  audio device by index; so recording with device name 0 would get
                  the first input device (perhaps the microphone), 1 would get the
                  second  (perhaps  line  in), etc.  Playback using 0 will get the
                  first output device (usually the only audio device).
                  If the device name given is something other than a  number,  SoX
                  tries  to  match it (maximum 31 characters) against the names of
                  the available devices.
                  The most common use of this file-type is likely to be along  the
                  following lines:
                       sox infile.any -t wavpcm -s outfile.wav
           .wv (optional)
                  WavPack  lossless audio compression.  Note that, when converting
                  .wav to this format and back again, the RIFF header is not  nec-
                  essarily preserved losslessly (though the audio is).
           .wve (also with -t sndfile)
                  Psion  8-bit A-law.  Used on Psion SIBO PDAs (Series 3 and simi-
                  lar).  This format is deprecated in SoX, but will continue to be
                  used in libsndfile.
           .xa    Maxis  XA  files.   These  are  16-bit ADPCM audio files used by
                  Maxis games.  Writing .xa  files  is  currently  not  supported,
                  although adding write support should not be very difficult.
           .xi (optional)
                  Fasttracker 2 Extended Instrument format.


           sox(1), soxi(1), libsox(3), octave(1), wget(1)
           The SoX web page at
           SoX scripting examples at
           [1]    Wikipedia, M3U,
           [2]    Wikipedia, PLS,


           Copyright 1998-2011 Chris Bagwell and SoX Contributors.
           Copyright 1991 Lance Norskog and Sundry Contributors.


           Chris Bagwell (  Other authors and con-
           tributors are listed in the ChangeLog file that is distributed with the
           source code.

    soxformat February 19, 2011 SoX(7)


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