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         setkey [-knrv] -c
         setkey [-krv] -f filename
         setkey [-aklPrv] -D
         setkey [-Pvp] -F
         setkey [-H] -x
         setkey [-?V]


         setkey adds, updates, dumps, or flushes Security Association Database
         (SAD) entries as well as Security Policy Database (SPD) entries in the
         setkey takes a series of operations from standard input (if invoked with
         -c) or the file named filename (if invoked with -f filename).
         (no flag)
                 Dump the SAD entries or SPD entries contained in the specified
         -?      Print short help.
         -a      setkey usually does not display dead SAD entries with -D.  If -a
                 is also specified, the dead SAD entries will be displayed as
                 well.  A dead SAD entry is one that has expired but remains in
                 the system because it is referenced by some SPD entries.
         -D      Dump the SAD entries.  If -P is also specified, the SPD entries
                 are dumped.  If -p is specified, the ports are displayed.
         -F      Flush the SAD entries.  If -P is also specified, the SPD entries
                 are flushed.
         -H      Add hexadecimal dump in -x mode.
         -h      On NetBSD, synonym for -H.  On other systems, synonym for -?.
         -k      Use semantics used in kernel.  Available only in Linux.  See also
         -l      Loop forever with short output on -D.
         -n      No action.  The program will check validity of the input, but no
                 changes to the SPD will be made.
         -r      Use semantics described in IPsec RFCs.  This mode is default.
                 For details see section RFC vs Linux kernel semantics.  Available
                 only in Linux.  See also -k.
         -x      Loop forever and dump all the messages transmitted to the PF_KEY
                 socket.  -xx prints the unformatted timestamps.
         -V      Print version string.
         get [-46n] src dst protocol spi ;
                 Show an SAD entry.
         delete [-46n] src dst protocol spi ;
                 Remove an SAD entry.
         deleteall [-46n] src dst protocol ;
                 Remove all SAD entries that match the specification.
         flush [protocol] ;
                 Clear all SAD entries matched by the options.  -F on the command
                 line achieves the same functionality.
         dump [protocol] ;
                 Dumps all SAD entries matched by the options.  -D on the command
                 line achieves the same functionality.
         spdadd [-46n] src_range dst_range upperspec label policy ;
                 Add an SPD entry.
         spdadd tagged tag policy ;
                 Add an SPD entry based on a PF tag.  tag must be a string sur-
                 rounded by double quotes.
         spdupdate [-46n] src_range dst_range upperspec label policy ;
                 Updates an SPD entry.
         spdupdate tagged tag policy ;
                 Update an SPD entry based on a PF tag.  tag must be a string sur-
                 rounded by double quotes.
         spddelete [-46n] src_range dst_range upperspec -P direction ;
                 Delete an SPD entry.
         spdflush ;
                 Clear all SPD entries.  -FP on the command line achieves the same
         spddump ;
                 Dumps all SPD entries.  -DP on the command line achieves the same
         Meta-arguments are as follows:
         dst     Source/destination of the secure communication is specified as an
                 IPv4/v6 address, and an optional port number between square
                 brackets.  setkey can resolve a FQDN into numeric addresses.  If
                 the FQDN resolves into multiple addresses, setkey will install
                 multiple SAD/SPD entries into the kernel by trying all possible
                 combinations.  -4, -6, and -n restrict the address resolution of
                 FQDN in certain ways.  -4 and -6 restrict results into IPv4/v6
                 be a decimal number, or a hexadecimal number with a "0x" prefix.
                 SPI values between 0 and 255 are reserved for future use by IANA
                 and cannot be used.  TCP-MD5 associations must use 0x1000 and
                 therefore only have per-host granularity at this time.
                 take some of the following:
                 -m mode     Specify a security protocol mode for use.  mode is
                             one of following: transport, tunnel, or any.  The
                             default value is any.
                 -r size     Specify window size of bytes for replay prevention.
                             size must be decimal number in 32-bit word.  If size
                             is zero or not specified, replay checks don't take
                 -u id       Specify the identifier of the policy entry in the
                             SPD.  See policy.
                 -f pad_option
                             defines the content of the ESP padding.  pad_option
                             is one of following:
                             zero-pad    All the paddings are zero.
                             random-pad  A series of randomized values are used.
                             seq-pad     A series of sequential increasing numbers
                                         started from 1 are used.
                 -f nocyclic-seq
                             Don't allow cyclic sequence numbers.
                 -lh time
                 -ls time    Specify hard/soft life time duration of the SA mea-
                             sured in seconds.
                 -bh bytes
                 -bs bytes   Specify hard/soft life time duration of the SA mea-
                             sured in bytes transported.
                 -ctx doi algorithm context-name
                             Specify an access control label.  The access control
                             label is interpreted by the LSM (e.g., SELinux).
                             Ultimately, it enables MAC on network communications.
                             doi         The domain of interpretation, which is
                                         used by the IKE daemon to identify the
                                         domain in which negotiation takes place.
                             algorithm   Indicates the LSM for which the label is
                                         generated (e.g., SELinux).
                                         The string representation of the label
                                         that is interpreted by the LSM.
                 -E ealgo key
                             Specify an encryption algorithm ealgo for ESP.
                 -E ealgo key -A aalgo key
                             Specify an encryption algorithm ealgo, as well as a
                             payload authentication algorithm aalgo, for ESP.
                 -A aalgo key
                             Specify an authentication algorithm for AH.
                 These select the communications that should be secured by IPsec.
                 They can be an IPv4/v6 address or an IPv4/v6 address range, and
                 may be accompanied by a TCP/UDP port specification.  This takes
                 the following form:
                 prefixlen and port must be decimal numbers.  The square brackets
                 around port are really necessary, they are not man page meta-
                 characters.  For FQDN resolution, the rules applicable to src and
                 dst apply here as well.
                 Upper-layer protocol to be used.  You can use one of the words in
                 /etc/protocols as upperspec, or icmp6, ip4, gre, or any.  any
                 stands for "any protocol".  You can also use the protocol number.
                 Additional specification can be placed after the protocol name
                 for some protocols.  You can specify a type and/or a code of ICMP
                 or ICMPv6.  The type is separated from a code by single comma and
                 the code must always be specified.  GRE key can be specified in
                 dotted-quad format or as plain number.  When a zero is specified,
                 the kernel deals with it as a wildcard.  Note that the kernel can
                 not distinguish a wildcard from an ICPMv6 type of zero.
                 For example, the following means that the policy doesn't require
                 IPsec for any inbound Neighbor Solicitation.
                       spdadd ::/0 ::/0 icmp6 135,0 -P in none;
                 A second example of requiring transport mode encryption of spe-
                 cific GRE tunnel:
                       spdadd gre 1234 ipsec
                 Note: upperspec does not work against forwarding case at this
                 moment, as it requires extra reassembly at the forwarding node
                 (not implemented at this moment).  There are many protocols in
                 /etc/protocols, but all protocols except of TCP, UDP, GRE, and
                 ICMP may not be suitable to use with IPsec.  You have to consider
                 carefully what to use.
         label   label is the access control label for the policy.  This label is
                 interpreted by the LSM (e.g., SELinux).  Ultimately, it enables
                 MAC on network communications.  When a policy contains an access
                 control label, SAs negotiated with this policy will contain the
                 label.  Its format:
                 -ctx doi algorithm context-name
                             doi         The domain of interpretation, which is
                 You must specify the direction of its policy as direction.
                 Either out, in, or fwd can be used.
                 priority specification is used to control the placement of the
                 policy within the SPD.  Policy position is determined by a signed
                 integer where higher priorities indicate the policy is placed
                 closer to the beginning of the list and lower priorities indicate
                 the policy is placed closer to the end of the list.  Policies
                 with equal priorities are added at the end of groups of such
                 Priority can only be specified when setkey has been compiled
                 against kernel headers that support policy priorities (Linux >=
                 2.6.6).  If the kernel does not support priorities, a warning
                 message will be printed the first time a priority specification
                 is used.  Policy priority takes one of the following formats:
                 {priority,prio} offset
                          offset is an integer in the range from -2147483647 to
                 {priority,prio} base {+,-} offset
                          base is either low (-1073741824), def (0), or high
                          offset is an unsigned integer.  It can be up to
                          1073741824 for positive offsets, and up to 1073741823
                          for negative offsets.
                 discard means the packet matching indexes will be discarded.
                 none means that IPsec operation will not take place onto the
                 packet.  ipsec means that IPsec operation will take place onto
                 the packet.
                 The protocol/mode/src-dst/level part specifies the rule how to
                 process the packet.  Either ah, esp, or ipcomp must be used as
                 protocol.  mode is either transport or tunnel.  If mode is
                 tunnel, you must specify the end-point addresses of the SA as src
                 and dst with '-' between these addresses, which is used to spec-
                 ify the SA to use.  If mode is transport, both src and dst can be
                 omitted.  level is to be one of the following: default, use,
                 require, or unique.  If the SA is not available in every level,
                 the kernel will ask the key exchange daemon to establish a suit-
                 able SA.  default means the kernel consults the system wide
                 default for the protocol you specified, e.g. the esp_trans_deflev
                 sysctl variable, when the kernel processes the packet.  use means
                 that the kernel uses an SA if it's available, otherwise the ker-
                 nel keeps normal operation.  require means SA is required when-
                 ever the kernel sends a packet matched with the policy.  unique
                 is the same as require; in addition, it allows the policy to
                 match the unique out-bound SA.  You just specify the policy level
                 unique, racoon(8) will configure the SA for the policy.  If you
                 cannot support multiple endpoints behind the same NAT).  When
                 using ESP over UDP, you can specify port numbers in the endpoint
                 addresses to get the correct matching.  Here is an example:
                 spdadd[any][any] any -P out ipsec
                     esp/tunnel/[4500]-[30000]/require ;
                 These ports must be left unspecified (which defaults to 0) for
                 anything other than ESP over UDP.  They can be displayed in SPD
                 dump using setkey -DPp.
                 Note that "discard" and "none" are not in the syntax described in
                 ipsec_set_policy(3).  There are a few differences in the syntax.
                 See ipsec_set_policy(3) for detail.
         The following list shows the supported algorithms.  protocol and
         algorithm are almost orthogonal.  These authentication algorithms can be
         used as aalgo in -A aalgo of the protocol parameter:
               algorithm       keylen (bits)
               hmac-md5        128             ah: rfc2403
                               128             ah-old: rfc2085
               hmac-sha1       160             ah: rfc2404
                               160             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
               keyed-md5       128             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                               128             ah-old: rfc1828
               keyed-sha1      160             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                               160             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
               null            0 to 2048       for debugging
               hmac-sha256     256             ah: 96bit ICV
                               256             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
               hmac-sha384     384             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                               384             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
               hmac-sha512     512             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                               512             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
               hmac-ripemd160  160             ah: 96bit ICV (RFC2857)
                                               ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
               aes-xcbc-mac    128             ah: 96bit ICV (RFC3566)
                               128             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
               tcp-md5         8 to 640        tcp: rfc2385 (tcp-md5 support only on BSD)
         These encryption algorithms can be used as ealgo in -E ealgo of the
         protocol parameter:
               algorithm       keylen (bits)
               des-cbc         64              esp-old: rfc1829, esp: rfc2405
               3des-cbc        192             rfc2451
               null            0 to 2048       rfc2410
               blowfish-cbc    40 to 448       rfc2451
               cast128-cbc     40 to 128       rfc2451
               deflate         rfc2394
       RFC vs Linux kernel semantics
         The Linux kernel uses the fwd policy instead of the in policy for packets
         what are forwarded through that particular box.
         In kernel mode, setkey manages and shows policies and SAs exactly as they
         are stored in the kernel.
         In RFC mode, setkey
         creates fwd policies for every in policy inserted
         (not implemented yet) filters out all fwd policies


         The command exits with 0 on success, and non-zero on errors.


         add 3ffe:501:4819::1 3ffe:501:481d::1 esp 123457
                 -E des-cbc 0x3ffe05014819ffff ;
         add -6 ah 123456
                 -A hmac-sha1 "AH SA configuration!" ;
         add esp 0x10001
                 -E des-cbc 0x3ffe05014819ffff
                 -A hmac-md5 "authentication!!" ;
         get 3ffe:501:4819::1 3ffe:501:481d::1 ah 123456 ;
         flush ;
         dump esp ;
         spdadd[21][any] any
                 -P out ipsec esp/tunnel/ ;
         add tcp 0x1000 -A tcp-md5 "TCP-MD5 BGP secret" ;
         add esp 0x10001
                 -ctx 1 1 "system_u:system_r:unconfined_t:SystemLow-SystemHigh"
                 -E des-cbc 0x3ffe05014819ffff;
         spdadd any
                 -ctx 1 1 "system_u:system_r:unconfined_t:SystemLow-SystemHigh"
                 -P out ipsec esp/transport//require ;


         ipsec_set_policy(3), racoon(8), sysctl(8)
         Changed manual key configuration for IPsec, October 1999.

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