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           services  is  a  plain  ASCII  file  providing a mapping between human-
           friendly textual names for  internet  services,  and  their  underlying
           assigned  port  numbers  and  protocol types.  Every networking program
           should look into this file to get the port number  (and  protocol)  for
           its  service.   The C library routines getservent(3), getservbyname(3),
           getservbyport(3), setservent(3),  and  endservent(3)  support  querying
           this file from programs.
           Port  numbers  are  assigned  by  the  IANA  (Internet Assigned Numbers
           Authority), and their current policy is to assign both TCP and UDP pro-
           tocols when assigning a port number.  Therefore, most entries will have
           two entries, even for TCP-only services.
           Port numbers below 1024 (so-called "low numbered" ports) can  be  bound
           to  only by root (see bind(2), tcp(7), and udp(7)).  This is so clients
           connecting to low numbered ports can trust that the service running  on
           the port is the standard implementation, and not a rogue service run by
           a user of the machine.  Well-known port numbers specified by  the  IANA
           are normally located in this root-only space.
           The  presence  of  an entry for a service in the services file does not
           necessarily mean that the service is currently running on the  machine.
           See  inetd.conf(5)  for the configuration of Internet services offered.
           Note that not all networking services are started by inetd(8),  and  so
           won't  appear  in  inetd.conf(5).   In particular, news (NNTP) and mail
           (SMTP) servers are often initialized from the system boot scripts.
           The location of the services  file  is  defined  by  _PATH_SERVICES  in
           <netdb.h>.  This is usually set to /etc/services.
           Each line describes one service, and is of the form:
                  service-name   port/protocol   [aliases ...]
                     is  the  friendly  name the service is known by and looked up
                     under.  It is case sensitive.  Often, the client  program  is
                     named after the service-name.
           port      is the port number (in decimal) to use for this service.
           protocol  is  the type of protocol to be used.  This field should match
                     an entry in the protocols(5) file.   Typical  values  include
                     tcp and udp.
           aliases   is an optional space or tab separated list of other names for
                     this service.  Again, the names are case sensitive.
           Either spaces or tabs may be used to separate the fields.
           This file might be distributed over a network using a network-wide nam-
           ing service like Yellow Pages/NIS or BIND/Hesiod.
           A sample services file might look like this:
                  netstat         15/tcp
                  qotd            17/tcp          quote
                  msp             18/tcp          # message send protocol
                  msp             18/udp          # message send protocol
                  chargen         19/tcp          ttytst source
                  chargen         19/udp          ttytst source
                  ftp             21/tcp
                  # 22 - unassigned
                  telnet          23/tcp


                  The Internet network services list
                  Definition of _PATH_SERVICES


           listen(2),  endservent(3),  getservbyname(3), getservbyport(3), getser-
           vent(3), setservent(3), inetd.conf(5), protocols(5), inetd(8)
           Assigned Numbers RFC, most recently RFC 1700, (AKA STD0002).

    Linux 2010-05-22 SERVICES(5)


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