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         #include <sys/socket.h>
         #include <netinet/sctp.h>


         The SCTP protocol provides reliable, flow-controlled, two-way transmis-
         sion of data.  It is a message oriented protocol and can support the
         SOCK_STREAM and SOCK_SEQPACKET abstractions.  SCTP uses the standard
         Internet address format and, in addition, provides a per-host collection
         of "port addresses".  Thus, each address is composed of an Internet
         address specifying the host and network, with a specific SCTP port on the
         host identifying the peer entity.
         There are two models of programming in SCTP.  The first uses the
         SOCK_STREAM abstraction.  In this abstraction sockets utilizing the SCTP
         protocol are either "active" or "passive".  Active sockets initiate con-
         nections to passive sockets.  By default, SCTP sockets are created
         active; to create a passive socket, the listen(2) system call must be
         used after binding the socket with the bind(2) or sctp_bindx(3) system
         calls.  Only passive sockets may use the accept(2) call to accept incom-
         ing connections.  Only active sockets may use the connect(2) call to ini-
         tiate connections.
         The other abstraction SOCK_SEQPACKET provides a "connectionless" mode of
         operation in that the user may send to an address (using any of the valid
         send calls that carry a socket address) and an association will be setup
         implicitly by the underlying SCTP transport stack.  This abstraction is
         the only one capable of sending data on the third leg of the four-way
         handshake.  A user must still call listen(2) to allow the socket to
         accept connections.  Calling listen(2) however does not restrict the user
         from still initiating implicit connections to other peers.
         The SCTP protocol directly supports multi-homing.  So when binding a
         socket with the "wildcard" address INADDR_ANY, the SCTP stack will inform
         the peer about all of the local addresses that are deemed in scope of the
         peer.  The peer will then possibly have multiple paths to reach the local
         The SCTP transport protocol is also multi-streamed.  Multi-streaming
         refers to the ability to send sub-ordered flows of messages.  A user per-
         forms this by specifying a specific stream in one of the extended send
         calls such as the sctp_send(3) function call.  Sending messages on dif-
         ferent streams will allow parallel delivery of data i.e., a message loss
         in stream 1 will not block the delivery of messages sent in stream 2.
         The SCTP transport protocol also provides a unordered service as well.
         The unordered service allows a message to be sent and delivered with no
                 cific peer chunks (including data) to validate that the peer who
                 sent the message is in fact the peer who setup the association.
                 A shared key option is also provided for so that two stacks can
                 pre-share keys.
         packet drop Some routers support a special satellite protocol that will
                 report losses due to corruption.  This allows retransmissions
                 without subsequent loss in bandwidth utilization.
         stream reset This extension allows a user on either side to reset the
                 stream sequence numbers used by any or all streams.
         SCTP supports a number of socket options which can be set with
         setsockopt(2) and tested with getsockopt(2) or sctp_opt_info(3):
         SCTP_NODELAY                Under most circumstances, SCTP sends data
                                     when it is presented; when outstanding data
                                     has not yet been acknowledged, it gathers
                                     small amounts of output to be sent in a sin-
                                     gle packet once an acknowledgement is
                                     received.  For some clients, such as window
                                     systems that send a stream of mouse events
                                     which receive no replies, this packetization
                                     may cause significant delays.  The boolean
                                     option SCTP_NODELAY defeats this algorithm.
         SCTP_RTOINFO                This option returns specific information
                                     about an associations "Retransmission Time
                                     Out".  It can also be used to change the
                                     default values.
         SCTP_ASSOCINFO              This option returns specific information
                                     about the requested association.
         SCTP_INITMSG                This option allows you to get or set the
                                     default sending parameters when an associa-
                                     tion is implicitly setup.  It allows you to
                                     change such things as the maxium number of
                                     streams allowed inbound and the number of
                                     streams requested of the peer.
         SCTP_AUTOCLOSE              For the one-to-many model (SOCK_SEQPACKET)
                                     associations are setup implicitly.  This
                                     option allows the user to specify a default
                                     number of idle seconds to allow the associa-
                                     tion be maintained.  After the idle timer
                                     (where no user message have been sent or have
                                     been received from the peer) the association
                                     will be gracefully closed.  The default for
                                     this value is 0, or unlimited (i.e., no auto-
                                     matic close).
                                     that is to be made primary.
         SCTP_ADAPTATION_LAYER       The dynamic address extension also allows a
                                     user to pass a 32 bit opaque value upon asso-
                                     ciation setup.  This option allows a user to
                                     set or get this value.
         SCTP_DISABLE_FRAGMENTS      By default SCTP will fragment user messages
                                     into multiple pieces that will fit on the
                                     network and then later, upon reception,
                                     reassemble the pieces into a single user mes-
                                     sage.  If this option is enabled instead, any
                                     send that exceeds the path maximum transfer
                                     unit (P-MTU) will fail and the message will
                                     NOT be sent.
         SCTP_PEER_ADDR_PARAMS       This option will allow a user to set or get
                                     specific peer address parameters.
         SCTP_DEFAULT_SEND_PARAM     When a user does not use one of the extended
                                     send calls (e.g., sctp_sendmsg(3)) a set of
                                     default values apply to each send.  These
                                     values include things like the stream number
                                     to send to as well as the per-protocol id.
                                     This option lets a caller both get and set
                                     these values.  If the user changes these
                                     default values, then these new values will be
                                     used as the default whenever no information
                                     is provided by the sender (i.e., the non-
                                     extended API is used).
         SCTP_EVENTS                 SCTP has non-data events that it can communi-
                                     cate to its application.  By default these
                                     are all disabled since they arrive in the
                                     data path with a special flag
                                     MSG_NOTIFICATION set upon the received mes-
                                     sage.  This option lets a caller both get
                                     what events are current being received as
                                     well as set different events that they may be
                                     interested in receiving.
         SCTP_I_WANT_MAPPED_V4_ADDR  SCTP supports both IPV4 and IPV6.  An associ-
                                     ation may span both IPV4 and IPV6 addresses
                                     since SCTP is multi-homed.  By default, when
                                     opening an IPV6 socket, when data arrives on
                                     the socket from a peer's V4 address the V4
                                     address  will be presented with an address
                                     family of AF_INET.  If this is undesireable,
                                     then this option can be enabled which will
                                     then convert all V4 addresses into mapped V6
                                     SCTP at times may need to start delivery of a
                                     very large message before the entire message
                                     has arrived.  By default SCTP waits until the
                                     incoming message is larger than one fourth of
                                     the receive buffer.  This option allows the
                                     stacks value to be overridden with a smaller
         SCTP_FRAGMENT_INTERLEAVE    SCTP at times will start partial delivery (as
                                     mentioned above).  In the normal case succes-
                                     sive reads will continue to return the rest
                                     of the message, blocking if needed, until all
                                     of that message is read.  However this means
                                     other messages may have arrived and be ready
                                     for delivery and be blocked behind the mes-
                                     sage being partially delivered.  If this
                                     option is enabled, when a partial delivery
                                     message has no more data to be received, then
                                     a subsequent read may return a different mes-
                                     sage that is ready for delivery.  By default
                                     this option is off since the user must be
                                     using the extended API's to be able to tell
                                     the difference between messages (via the
                                     stream and stream sequence number).
         SCTP_AUTH_CHUNK             By default only the dynamic addressing chunks
                                     are authenticated.  This option lets a user
                                     request an additional chunk be authenticated
                                     as well.  Note that successive calls to this
                                     option will work and continue to add more
                                     chunks that require authentication.  Note
                                     that this option only effects future associa-
                                     tions and not existing ones.
         SCTP_AUTH_KEY               This option allows a user to specify a shared
                                     key that can be later used to authenticate a
         SCTP_HMAC_IDENT             This option will let you get or set the list
                                     of HMAC algorithms used to authenticate
                                     peers.  Note that the HMAC values are in pri-
                                     ority order where the first HMAC identifier
                                     is the most prefered and the last is the
                                     least prefered.
         SCTP_AUTH_ACTIVE_KEY        This option allows you to make a key active
                                     for the generation of authentication informa-
                                     tion.  Note that the peer must have the same
                                     key or else the data will be discarded.
         SCTP_AUTH_DELETE_KEY        This option allows you to delete an old key.
                                     matically generate address changes into add
                                     and delete requests to any peers by setting
                                     this option to true.  This option allows an
                                     endpoint to disable that behavior.
         SCTP_MAXBURST               By default SCTP implements micro-burst con-
                                     trol so that as the congestion window opens
                                     up no large burst of packets can be gener-
                                     ated.  The default burst limit is four.  This
                                     option lets the user change this value.
         SCTP_CONTEXT                Many sctp extended calls have a context
                                     field.  The context field is a 32 bit opaque
                                     value that will be returned in send failures.
                                     This option lets the caller set the default
                                     context value to use when none is provided by
                                     the user.
         SCTP_EXPLICIT_EOR           By default, a single send is a complete mes-
                                     sage.  SCTP generates an implied record
                                     boundary.  If this option is enabled, then
                                     all sends are part of the same message until
                                     the user indicates an end of record with the
                                     special flag SCTP_EOR passed in the
                                     sctp_sndrcvinfo flags field.  This effec-
                                     tively makes all sends part of the same mes-
                                     sage until the user specifices differently.
                                     This means that a caller must NOT change the
                                     stream number until after the SCTP_EOR is
                                     passed to SCTP else an error will be
         SCTP_STATUS                 This option is a read only option that
                                     returns various status information about the
                                     specified association.
         SCTP_GET_PEER_ADDR_INFO     This read only option returns information
                                     about a peer address.
         SCTP_PEER_AUTH_CHUNKS       This read only option returns a list of the
                                     chunks the peer requires to be authenticated.
         SCTP_LOCAL_AUTH_CHUNKS      This read only option returns a list of the
                                     locally required chunks that must be authen-
         SCTP_RESET_STREAMS          This socket option is used to cause a stream
                                     sequence number or all stream sequence num-
                                     bers to be reset.  Note that the peer SCTP
                                     endpoint must also support the stream reset
                                     extension as well.

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