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           screen [ -options ] [ cmd [ args ] ]
           screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
           screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]


           Screen is a full-screen window manager that multiplexes a physical ter-
           minal between several processes (typically interactive  shells).   Each
           virtual terminal provides the functions of a DEC VT100 terminal and, in
           addition, several control functions from the ISO 6429  (ECMA  48,  ANSI
           X3.64)  and ISO 2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and support for
           multiple character sets).  There is a  scrollback  history  buffer  for
           each virtual terminal and a copy-and-paste mechanism that allows moving
           text regions between windows.
           When screen is called, it creates a single window with a  shell  in  it
           (or  the  specified  command) and then gets out of your way so that you
           can use the program as you normally would.  Then, at any time, you  can
           create new (full-screen) windows with other programs in them (including
           more shells), kill existing windows, view a list of windows, turn  out-
           put  logging  on and off, copy-and-paste text between windows, view the
           scrollback history, switch between windows in whatever manner you wish,
           etc.  All  windows  run  their  programs completely independent of each
           other. Programs continue to run when their window is currently not vis-
           ible and even when the whole screen session is detached from the user's
           terminal.  When a program terminates, screen (per  default)  kills  the
           window  that  contained  it.  If this window was in the foreground, the
           display switches to the previous  window;  if  none  are  left,  screen
           Everything  you type is sent to the program running in the current win-
           dow.  The only exception to this is the one keystroke that is  used  to
           initiate  a  command  to  the window manager.  By default, each command
           begins with a control-a (abbreviated C-a from now on), and is  followed
           by one other keystroke.  The command character and all the key bindings
           can be fully customized to be anything you like, though they are always
           two characters in length.
           Screen does not understand the prefix "C-" to mean control.  Please use
           the caret notation ("^A" instead of "C-a") as  arguments  to  e.g.  the
           escape  command  or  the -e option.  Screen will also print out control
           characters in caret notation.
           The standard way to create a new window is to type "C-a c".  This  cre-
           ates  a  new window running a shell and switches to that window immedi-
           ately, regardless of the state of the process running  in  the  current
           window.   Similarly,  you can create a new window with a custom command
           in it by first binding the command to a keystroke  (in  your  .screenrc
           written  to  this  file for each window, and removed when the window is
           terminated.  This is useful for working with "talk",  "script",  "shut-
           down",  "rsend",  "sccs"  and  other similar programs that use the utmp
           file to determine who you are. As long as screen is active on your ter-
           minal,  the  terminal's  own  record is removed from the utmp file. See
           also "C-a L".


           Before you begin to use screen you'll need to make sure you  have  cor-
           rectly  selected  your  terminal  type, just as you would for any other
           termcap/terminfo program.  (You can do this by using tset for example.)
           If  you're  impatient  and want to get started without doing a lot more
           reading, you should remember this one command:  "C-a ?".  Typing  these
           two characters will display a list of the available screen commands and
           their bindings. Each keystroke is discussed in the section "DEFAULT KEY
           BINDINGS".  The  manual section "CUSTOMIZATION" deals with the contents
           of your .screenrc.
           If your terminal is a "true" auto-margin terminal (it doesn't allow the
           last position on the screen to be updated without scrolling the screen)
           consider using a version of your terminal's termcap that has  automatic
           margins  turned off. This will ensure an accurate and optimal update of
           the screen in all circumstances. Most terminals nowadays  have  "magic"
           margins  (automatic margins plus usable last column). This is the VT100
           style type and perfectly suited for screen.  If all  you've  got  is  a
           "true"  auto-margin  terminal  screen  will  be  content to use it, but
           updating a character put into the last position on the screen  may  not
           be  possible  until the screen scrolls or the character is moved into a
           safe position in some other way. This delay can be shortened by using a
           terminal with insert-character capability.


           Screen has the following command-line options:
           -a   include all capabilities (with some minor exceptions) in each win-
                dow's termcap, even if screen must redraw parts of the display  in
                order to implement a function.
           -A   Adapt  the  sizes of all windows to the size of the current termi-
                nal.  By default, screen tries to restore  its  old  window  sizes
                when  attaching  to  resizable  terminals  (those with "WS" in its
                description, e.g. suncmd or some xterm).
           -c file
                override the default configuration file from "$HOME/.screenrc"  to
                   the first session if more than one session is available.
           -D -r   Reattach a session. If necessary  detach  and  logout  remotely
           -D -R   Attach here and now. In detail this means: If a session is run-
                   ning, then reattach. If necessary detach  and  logout  remotely
                   first.   If  it  was not running create it and notify the user.
                   This is the author's favorite.
           -D -RR  Attach here and now. Whatever that means, just do it.
                Note: It is always a good idea to check the status  of  your  ses-
                sions by means of "screen -list".
           -e xy
                specifies the command character to be x and the character generat-
                ing a literal command character to y (when typed after the command
                character).   The default is "C-a" and 'a', which can be specified
                as "-e^Aa".  When creating a screen session, this option sets  the
                default  command character. In a multiuser session all users added
                will start off with this command character. But when attaching  to
                an  already  running session, this option changes only the command
                character of the attaching user.  This  option  is  equivalent  to
                either the commands "defescape" or "escape" respectively.
           -f, -fn, and -fa
                turns  flow-control  on, off, or "automatic switching mode".  This
                can also be defined through the "defflow" .screenrc command.
           -h num
                Specifies the history scrollback buffer to be num lines high.
           -i   will cause the interrupt key (usually C-c) to interrupt  the  dis-
                play  immediately  when  flow-control  is  on.   See the "defflow"
                .screenrc command for details.  The use of this option is discour-
           -l and -ln
                turns  login  mode  on  or off (for /etc/utmp updating).  This can
                also be defined through the "deflogin" .screenrc command.
           -ls and -list
                does not start screen, but prints a list of  strings
                identifying  your screen sessions.  Sessions marked 'detached' can
                be resumed with "screen -r". Those marked 'attached'  are  running
                and  have a controlling terminal. If the session runs in multiuser
                mode, it is  marked  'multi'.  Sessions  marked  as  'unreachable'
                either  live  on  a  different host or are 'dead'.  An unreachable
                session is considered dead, when its name matches either the  name
                of the local host, or the specified parameter, if any.  See the -r
                flag for a description how to construct matches.  Sessions  marked
           -D -m   This also starts screen in "detached" mode, but doesn't fork  a
                   new process. The command exits if the session terminates.
           -O   selects  a  more optimal output mode for your terminal rather than
                true VT100 emulation (only affects auto-margin  terminals  without
                'LP').   This can also be set in your .screenrc by specifying 'OP'
                in a "termcap" command.
           -p number_or_name
                Preselect a window. This is usefull when you want to reattach to a
                specific  windor or you want to send a command via the "-X" option
                to a specific window. As with screen's select commant, "-" selects
                the  blank  window.  As a special case for reattach, "=" brings up
                the windowlist on the blank window.
           -q   Suppress printing of error messages. In combination with "-ls" the
                exit  value  is  as  follows: 9 indicates a directory without ses-
                sions. 10 indicates a directory with running  but  not  attachable
                sessions.  11 (or more) indicates 1 (or more) usable sessions.  In
                combination with "-r" the exit value is as follows:  10  indicates
                that  there  is  no session to resume. 12 (or more) indicates that
                there are 2 (or more) sessions to resume and  you  should  specify
                which one to choose.  In all other cases "-q" has no effect.
           -r []
           -r sessionowner/[]
                resumes  a detached screen session.  No other options (except com-
                binations with -d/-D) may be specified, though an optional  prefix
                of  [pid.]  may  be needed to distinguish between multiple
                detached screen sessions.  The second form is used to  connect  to
                another  user's  screen session which runs in multiuser mode. This
                indicates that screen should look for sessions in  another  user's
                directory. This requires setuid-root.
           -R   attempts to resume the first detached screen session it finds.  If
                successful, all other command-line options  are  ignored.   If  no
                detached  session exists, starts a new session using the specified
                options, just as if -R had not been specified. The option  is  set
                by default if screen is run as a login-shell (actually screen uses
                "-xRR" in that case).  For combinations with the -d/-D option  see
           -s   sets  the  default  shell to the program specified, instead of the
                value in the environment variable  $SHELL  (or  "/bin/sh"  if  not
                defined).   This can also be defined through the "shell" .screenrc
           -S sessionname
                When creating a new session, this option can be used to specify  a
                meaningful  name for the session. This name identifies the session
                does the same as "screen  -ls",  but  removes  destroyed  sessions
                instead of marking them as 'dead'.  An unreachable session is con-
                sidered dead, when its name matches either the name of  the  local
                host,  or the explicitly given parameter, if any.  See the -r flag
                for a description how to construct matches.
           -x   Attach to a not detached screen session. (Multi display mode).
           -X   Send the specified command to a running screen  session.  You  can
                use  the  -d or -r option to tell screen to look only for attached
                or detached screen sessions. Note that this command  doesn't  work
                if the session is password protected.


           As  mentioned,  each screen command consists of a "C-a" followed by one
           other character.  For your convenience, all commands that are bound  to
           lower-case  letters  are also bound to their control character counter-
           parts (with the exception of "C-a a"; see below), thus, "C-a c" as well
           as  "C-a  C-c"  can be used to create a window. See section "CUSTOMIZA-
           TION" for a description of the command.
           The following table shows the default key bindings:
           C-a '       (select)      Prompt for a window name or number to  switch
           C-a "       (windowlist -b)
                                     Present  a list of all windows for selection.
           C-a 0       (select 0)
            ...           ...
           C-a 9       (select 9)
           C-a -       (select -)    Switch to window number 0  -  9,  or  to  the
                                     blank window.
           C-a tab     (focus)       Switch the input focus to the next region.
           C-a C-a     (other)       Toggle  to  the  window displayed previously.
                                     Note that this binding defaults to  the  com-
                                     mand  character  typed twice, unless overrid-
                                     den.  For instance, if  you  use  the  option
                                     "-e]x", this command becomes "]]".
           C-a a       (meta)        Send  the  command character (C-a) to window.
                                     See escape command.
           C-a A       (title)       Allow the user to enter a name for  the  cur-
                                     rent window.
           C-a D D     (pow_detach)  Detach and logout.
           C-a f
           C-a C-f     (flow)        Toggle flow on, off or auto.
           C-a F       (fit)         Resize the window to the current region size.
           C-a C-g     (vbell)       Toggles screen's visual bell mode.
           C-a h       (hardcopy)    Write a hardcopy of the current window to the
                                     file "hardcopy.n".
           C-a H       (log)         Begins/ends logging of the current window  to
                                     the file "screenlog.n".
           C-a i
           C-a C-i     (info)        Show info about this window.
           C-a k
           C-a C-k     (kill)        Destroy current window.
           C-a l
           C-a C-l     (redisplay)   Fully refresh current window.
           C-a L       (login)       Toggle  this  windows  login  slot. Available
                                     only if screen is configured  to  update  the
                                     utmp database.
           C-a m
           C-a C-m     (lastmsg)     Repeat the last message displayed in the mes-
                                     sage line.
           C-a M       (monitor)     Toggles monitoring of the current window.
           C-a space
           C-a n
           C-a C-n     (next)        Switch to the next window.
           C-a N       (number)      Show the number (and title)  of  the  current
           C-a backspace
           C-a h
           C-a p
           C-a C-p     (prev)        Switch to the previous window (opposite of C-
                                     a n).
           C-a q
           C-a C-q     (xon)         Send a control-q to the current window.
           C-a Q       (only)        Delete all regions but the current one.
           C-a C-v     (digraph)     Enter digraph.
           C-a w
           C-a C-w     (windows)     Show a list of window.
           C-a W       (width)       Toggle 80/132 columns.
           C-a x
           C-a C-x     (lockscreen)  Lock this terminal.
           C-a X       (remove)      Kill the current region.
           C-a z
           C-a C-z     (suspend)     Suspend screen.   Your  system  must  support
                                     BSD-style job-control.
           C-a Z       (reset)       Reset  the virtual terminal to its "power-on"
           C-a .       (dumptermcap) Write out a ".termcap" file.
           C-a ?       (help)        Show key bindings.
           C-a C-\     (quit)        Kill all windows and terminate screen.
           C-a :       (colon)       Enter command line mode.
           C-a [
           C-a C-[
           C-a esc     (copy)        Enter copy/scrollback mode.
           C-a ]       (paste .)     Write the contents of the paste buffer to the
                                     stdin queue of the current window.
           C-a {
           C-a }       (history)     Copy and paste a previous (command) line.
           C-a >       (writebuf)    Write paste buffer to a file.
           C-a <       (readbuf)     Reads the screen-exchange file into the paste
           C-a =       (removebuf)   Removes the file used by C-a < and C-a >.
           C-a ,       (license)     Shows where screen comes from, where it  went
                                     to and why you can use it.
           C-a _       (silence)     Start/stop  monitoring the current window for
           C-a *       (displays)    Show a listing of all currently attached dis-
           These are the "programmer's defaults" that can  be  overridden  in  the
           following  ways:  for  the global screenrc file screen searches for the
           environment variable $SYSSCREENRC (this override feature  may  be  dis-
           abled  at compile-time). The user specific screenrc file is searched in
           $SCREENRC, then $HOME/.screenrc.  The  command  line  option  -c  takes
           precedence over the above user screenrc files.
           Commands  in  these  files  are  used to set options, bind functions to
           keys, and to automatically establish one or more windows at the  begin-
           ning  of  your  screen session.  Commands are listed one per line, with
           empty lines being ignored.  A command's arguments are separated by tabs
           or  spaces,  and  may  be surrounded by single or double quotes.  A '#'
           turns the rest of the line into a comment, except in quotes.   Unintel-
           ligible  lines are warned about and ignored.  Commands may contain ref-
           erences to environment variables. The syntax is the shell-like "$VAR  "
           or "${VAR}". Note that this causes incompatibility with previous screen
           versions, as now the '$'-character has to be protected with '\'  if  no
           variable  substitution shall be performed. A string in single-quotes is
           also protected from variable substitution.
           Two configuration files are shipped as examples with your  screen  dis-
           tribution:  "etc/screenrc" and "etc/etcscreenrc". They contain a number
           of useful examples for various commands.
           Customization can also be done 'on-line'. To  enter  the  command  mode
           type  'C-a  :'.  Note  that commands starting with "def" change default
           values, while others change current settings.
           The following commands are available:
           acladd usernames [crypted-pw]
           addacl usernames
           Enable users to fully access this screen session. Usernames can be  one
           user or a comma separated list of users. This command enables to attach
           to the screen session and performs the equivalent of 'aclchg  usernames
           +rwx  "#?"'.   executed.  To add a user with restricted access, use the
           'aclchg' command below.  If an optional second parameter  is  supplied,
           it  should  be  a crypted password for the named user(s). 'Addacl' is a
           synonym to 'acladd'.  Multi user mode only.
           aclchg usernames permbits list
           chacl usernames permbits list
           Change permissions for a comma separated list of users. Permission bits
           are  represented  as 'r', 'w' and 'x'. Prefixing '+' grants the permis-
           sion, '-' removes it. The third parameter is a comma separated list  of
           commands and/or windows (specified either by number or title). The spe-
           cial list '#' refers to all windows, '?' to all commands. if  usernames
           consists  of a single '*', all known users are affected.  A command can
           be executed when the user has the 'x' bit for it.  The  user  can  type
           input to a window when he has its 'w' bit set and no other user obtains
           again.  Multi user mode only.
           aclgrp username [groupname]
           Creates groups of users that share common access rights.  The  name  of
           the group is the username of the group leader. Each member of the group
           inherits the permissions that are granted to  the  group  leader.  That
           means,  if  a user fails an access check, another check is made for the
           group leader.  A user is removed from  all  groups  the  special  value
           "none"  is  used for groupname.  If the second parameter is omitted all
           groups the user is in are listed.
           aclumask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits .... ]
           umask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits .... ]
           This specifies the access other users have to windows that will be cre-
           ated  by  the  caller  of the command.  Users may be no, one or a comma
           separated list of known usernames. If no users are specified, a list of
           all  currently  known  users  is  assumed.   Bits is any combination of
           access control bits allowed defined with the "aclchg" command. The spe-
           cial  username  "?" predefines the access that not yet known users will
           be granted to any window initially.  The special username  "??"  prede-
           fines  the  access that not yet known users are granted to any command.
           Rights of the special username nobody cannot be changed (see  the  "su"
           command).  'Umask' is a synonym to 'aclumask'.
           activity message
           When  any  activity  occurs  in a background window that is being moni-
           tored, screen displays a notification in the message line.  The notifi-
           cation  message  can  be re-defined by means of the "activity" command.
           Each occurrence of '%' in message is replaced by the number of the win-
           dow  in  which  activity  has  occurred, and each occurrence of '^G' is
           replaced by the definition for bell in your termcap (usually an audible
           bell).  The default message is
                       'Activity in window %n'
           Note  that  monitoring  is  off  for all windows by default, but can be
           altered by use of the "monitor" command (C-a M).
           allpartial on|off
           If set to on, only the current  cursor  line  is  refreshed  on  window
           change.   This  affects  all  windows  and  is useful for slow terminal
           lines. The previous setting of full/partial refresh for each window  is
           restored with "allpartial off".  This is a global flag that immediately
           takes effect on all windows overriding the "partial" settings. It  does
           not change the default redraw behavior of newly created windows.
           altscreen on|off
           be  omitted  from  the  identifier.  If identifier has a '#' or nothing
           appended it is matched against window numbers and titles.  Omitting  an
           identifier in front of the '#', '*' or '%'-character selects all users,
           displays or windows because a prefix-match is performed. Note  that  on
           the  affected  display(s)  a short message will describe what happened.
           Permission is checked for initiator of the "at" command,  not  for  the
           owners  of  the affected display(s).  Note that the '#' character works
           as a comment introducer when it is preceded by whitespace. This can  be
           escaped by prefixing a '\'.  Permission is checked for the initiator of
           the "at" command, not for the owners of the affected display(s).
           Caveat: When matching against windows, the command is executed at least
           once  per window. Commands that change the internal arrangement of win-
           dows (like "other") may be called again. In shared windows the  command
           will be repeated for each attached display. Beware, when issuing toggle
           commands like "login"!  Some commands (e.g. "process") require  that  a
           display  is associated with the target windows.  These commands may not
           work correctly under "at" looping over windows.
           attrcolor attrib [attribute/color-modifier]
           This command can be used to highlight attributes by changing the  color
           of  the  text.  If  the  attribute  attrib  is  in  use,  the specified
           attribute/color modifier is also applied. If no modifier is given,  the
           current one is deleted. See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for the syntax
           of the modifier. Screen understands two pseudo-attributes,  "i"  stands
           for  high-intensity  foreground  color and "I" for high-intensity back-
           ground color.
                  attrcolor b "R"
           Change the color to bright red if bold text is to be printed.
                  attrcolor u "-u b"
           Use blue text instead of underline.
                  attrcolor b ".I"
           Use bright colors for  bold  text.  Most  terminal  emulators  do  this
                  attrcolor i "+b"
           Make bright colored text also bold.
           autodetach on|off
           Sets  whether screen will automatically detach upon hangup, which saves
           all your running programs until they are resumed with a screen -r  com-
           mand.   When  turned off, a hangup signal will terminate screen and all
           string  escape  is  encountered.  The autorefresh parameter triggers an
           automatic refresh for caption and hardstatus strings after  the  speci-
           fied  number  of seconds. Only the last line of output is used for sub-
           If both the lifespan and the autorefresh parameters are zero, the back-
           tick  program is expected to stay in the background and generate output
           once in a while.  In this case, the command is executed right away  and
           screen  stores  the  last  line  of  output. If a new line gets printed
           screen will automatically refresh the hardstatus or the captions.
           The second form of the command deletes the backtick  command  with  the
           numerical id id.
           bce [on|off]
           Change background-color-erase setting. If "bce" is set to on, all char-
           acters cleared by an erase/insert/scroll/clear operation will  be  dis-
           played  in  the  current  background color. Otherwise the default back-
           ground color is used.
           bell_msg [message]
           When a bell character is sent to a background window, screen displays a
           notification  in the message line.  The notification message can be re-
           defined by this command.  Each occurrence of '%' in message is replaced
           by  the  number  of  the window to which a bell has been sent, and each
           occurrence of '^G' is replaced by the definition for bell in your term-
           cap (usually an audible bell).  The default message is
                       'Bell in window %n'
           An  empty message can be supplied to the "bell_msg" command to suppress
           output of a message line (bell_msg "").  Without parameter, the current
           message is shown.
           bind [-c class] key [command [args]]
           Bind  a command to a key.  By default, most of the commands provided by
           screen are bound to one or more keys as indicated in the  "DEFAULT  KEY
           BINDINGS"  section, e.g. the command to create a new window is bound to
           "C-c" and "c".  The "bind" command can be  used  to  redefine  the  key
           bindings and to define new bindings.  The key argument is either a sin-
           gle character, a two-character sequence of the form "^x"  (meaning  "C-
           x"), a backslash followed by an octal number (specifying the ASCII code
           of the character), or a backslash followed by a second character,  such
           as  "\^" or "\\".  The argument can also be quoted, if you like.  If no
           further argument is given, any previously established binding for  this
           key is removed.  The command argument can be any command listed in this
           If a command class is specified via the "-c" option, the key  is  bound
           for the specified class. Use the "command" command to activate a class.
           Command classes can be used to create multiple command keys  or  multi-
           binding from "C-a C-k" and "C-a k".  "C-a K" is then bound to the  kill
           command.  Then  it  binds  "C-f" to the command "create a window with a
           TELNET connection to foobar", and bind "escape"  to  the  command  that
           creates an non-login window with a.k.a. "root" in slot #9, with a supe-
           ruser shell and a scrollback buffer of 1000 lines.
                       bind -c demo1 0 select 10
                       bind -c demo1 1 select 11
                       bind -c demo1 2 select 12
                       bindkey "^B" command -c demo1
           makes "C-b 0" select window 10, "C-b 1" window 11, etc.
                       bind -c demo2 0 select 10
                       bind -c demo2 1 select 11
                       bind -c demo2 2 select 12
                       bind - command -c demo2
           makes "C-a - 0" select window 10, "C-a - 1" window 11, etc.
           bindkey [-d] [-m] [-a] [[-k|-t] string [cmd args]]
           This command manages screen's input translation tables. Every entry  in
           one  of  the  tables tells screen how to react if a certain sequence of
           characters is encountered. There are three tables: one that should con-
           tain  actions  programmed by the user, one for the default actions used
           for terminal emulation and one for screen's  copy  mode  to  do  cursor
           movement.  See  section  "INPUT  TRANSLATION" for a list of default key
           If the -d option is given,  bindkey  modifies  the  default  table,  -m
           changes  the  copy mode table and with neither option the user table is
           selected.  The argument string is the sequence of characters  to  which
           an action is bound. This can either be a fixed string or a termcap key-
           board capability name (selectable with the -k option).
           Some keys on a VT100 terminal can send a different string  if  applica-
           tion  mode  is  turned  on  (e.g  the cursor keys).  Such keys have two
           entries in the translation table. You can select the  application  mode
           entry by specifying the -a option.
           The -t option tells screen not to do inter-character timing. One cannot
           turn off the timing if a termcap capability is used.
           Cmd can be any of screen's commands with an arbitrary number  of  args.
           If cmd is omitted the key-binding is removed from the table.
           Here are some examples of keyboard bindings:
                   bindkey -d
           Show  all of the default key bindings. The application mode entries are
           marked with [A].
                   bindkey -k k1 select 1
           Make the "F1" key switch to window one.
                   bindkey -t foo stuff barfoo
           Send a break signal for duration*0.25 seconds to this window.  For non-
           Posix  systems  the  time  interval  may be rounded up to full seconds.
           Most useful if a character device is attached to the window rather than
           a shell process (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES"). The maximum duration
           of a break signal is limited to 15 seconds.
           Activate the screen blanker. First the screen is cleared. If no blanker
           program is defined, the cursor is turned off, otherwise, the program is
           started and it's output is written to the screen.  The  screen  blanker
           is killed with the first keypress, the read key is discarded.
           This command is normally used together with the "idle" command.
           blankerprg [program args]
           Defines a blanker program. Disables the blanker program if no arguments
           are given.
           breaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]
           Choose one of the available methods of generating a  break  signal  for
           terminal  devices.  This command should affect the current window only.
           But it still behaves identical to "defbreaktype". This will be  changed
           in  the  future.   Calling  "breaktype"  with no parameter displays the
           break method for the current window.
           bufferfile [exchange-file]
           Change the filename used for reading and writing with the paste buffer.
           If  the  optional  argument to the "bufferfile" command is omitted, the
           default setting ("/tmp/screen-exchange") is reactivated.  The following
           example  will  paste  the system's password file into the screen window
           (using the paste buffer, where a copy remains):
                       C-a : bufferfile /etc/passwd
                       C-a < C-a ]
                       C-a : bufferfile
           c1 [on|off]
           Change c1 code processing. "C1 on" tells  screen  to  treat  the  input
           characters  between  128  and  159 as control functions.  Such an 8-bit
           code is normally the same as ESC followed by  the  corresponding  7-bit
           code.  The  default  setting  is to process c1 codes and can be changed
           with the "defc1" command.  Users with fonts that have usable characters
           in the c1 positions may want to turn this off.
           caption always|splitonly [string]
           caption string [string]
           This  command  controls  the display of the window captions. Normally a
           while the fifth and sixth character must be in range '0' to '3' and set
           the GL/GR charset mapping. On every position a '.' may be used to indi-
           cate that the corresponding charset/mapping should not be changed  (set
           is  padded  to  six characters internally by appending '.'  chars). New
           windows have "BBBB02" as default charset, unless a  "encoding"  command
           is active.
           The current setting can be viewed with the "info" command.
           chdir [directory]
           Change  the  current directory of screen to the specified directory or,
           if called without an argument, to your home directory (the value of the
           environment  variable $HOME).  All windows that are created by means of
           the "screen" command from within ".screenrc" or  by  means  of  "C-a  :
           screen  ..." or "C-a c" use this as their default directory.  Without a
           chdir command, this would  be  the  directory  from  which  screen  was
           invoked.   Hardcopy  and  log  files are always written to the window's
           default directory, not the current directory of the process running  in
           the  window.  You can use this command multiple times in your .screenrc
           to start various windows in different default directories, but the last
           chdir value will affect all the windows you create interactively.
           Clears the current window and saves its image to the scrollback buffer.
           colon [prefix]
           Allows you to enter ".screenrc" command lines.  Useful  for  on-the-fly
           modification  of  key  bindings,  specific window creation and changing
           settings. Note that the "set" keyword no longer  exists!  Usually  com-
           mands affect the current window rather than default settings for future
           windows. Change defaults with commands starting with 'def...'.
           If you consider this as the 'Ex command mode' of screen, you may regard
           "C-a esc" (copy mode) as its 'Vi command mode'.
           command [-c class]
           This  command has the same effect as typing the screen escape character
           (^A). It is probably only useful for key bindings.  If the "-c"  option
           is  given,  select  the  specified  command class.  See also "bind" and
           compacthist [on|off]
           This tells  screen  whether  to  suppress  trailing  blank  lines  when
           scrolling up text into the history buffer.
           console [on|off]
           Grabs  or un-grabs the machines console output to a window.  Note: Only
             + and - positions one line up and down.
             G moves to the specified absolute line (default: end of buffer).
             | moves to the specified absolute column.
             w, b, e move the cursor word by word.
             B, E move the cursor WORD by WORD (as in vi).
             C-u  and  C-d  scroll  the display up/down by the specified amount of
               lines while preserving the cursor position. (Default: half  screen-
             C-b and C-f scroll the display up/down a full screen.
             g moves to the beginning of the buffer.
             % jumps to the specified percentage of the buffer.
               Emacs style movement keys can be customized by a .screenrc command.
               (E.g. markkeys "h=^B:l=^F:$=^E") There is no simple  method  for  a
               full emacs-style keymap, as this involves multi-character codes.
               The  copy range is specified by setting two marks. The text between
               these marks will be highlighted. Press
             space to set the first or second mark respectively.
             Y and y used to mark one whole line or to mark from start of line.
             W marks exactly one word.
           Repeat count:
               Any of these commands can be prefixed with a repeat count number by
               pressing digits
             0..9 which is taken as a repeat count.
               Example:  "C-a  C-[  H  10 j 5 Y" will copy lines 11 to 15 into the
               paste buffer.
             / Vi-like search forward.
             ? Vi-like search backward.
             C-a s Emacs style incremental search forward.
             C-r Emacs style reverse i-search.
               There are however some keys that act differently than  in  vi.   Vi
               does  not  allow one to yank rectangular blocks of text, but screen
               does. Press
             c or C to set the left or right margin  respectively.  If  no  repeat
               count is given, both default to the current cursor position.
               Example: Try this on a rather full text screen: "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE
               c 10 l 5 j C SPACE".
               This moves one to the middle  line  of  the  screen,  moves  in  20
               columns  left,  marks  the  beginning of the paste buffer, sets the
               left column, moves 5 columns down, sets the right column, and  then
               marks the end of the paste buffer. Now try:
               "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE 10 l 5 j SPACE"
               and notice the difference in the amount of text copied.
             J  joins lines. It toggles between 4 modes: lines separated by a new-
               line character (012), lines glued seamless, lines  separated  by  a
             C-g gives information about the current line and column.
             x  exchanges  the first mark and the current cursor position. You can
               use this to adjust an already placed mark.
             @ does nothing. Does not even exit copy mode.
             All keys not described here exit copy mode.
           copy_reg [key]
           No longer exists, use "readreg" instead.
           crlf [on|off]
           This affects the copying of text regions with the 'C-a ['  command.  If
           it  is  set  to  'on',  lines  will  be  separated by the two character
           sequence 'CR' - 'LF'.  Otherwise (default) only 'LF' is used.  When  no
           parameter is given, the state is toggled.
           debug on|off
           Turns  runtime  debugging  on  or off. If screen has been compiled with
           option -DDEBUG debugging available and is turned on per  default.  Note
           that  this command only affects debugging output from the main "SCREEN"
           process correctly. Debug output from attacher  processes  can  only  be
           turned off once and forever.
           defc1 on|off
           Same  as the c1 command except that the default setting for new windows
           is changed. Initial setting is 'on'.
           defautonuke on|off
           Same as the autonuke command except that the default  setting  for  new
           displays  is  changed. Initial setting is 'off'.  Note that you can use
           the special 'AN' terminal capability if you want to have  a  dependency
           on the terminal type.
           defbce on|off
           Same as the bce command except that the default setting for new windows
           is changed. Initial setting is 'off'.
           defbreaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]
           Choose one of the available methods of generating a  break  signal  for
           terminal  devices.  The preferred methods are tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK.
           The third, TCSBRK, blocks the complete screen session for the  duration
           of  the  break,  but  it  may  be the only way to generate long breaks.
           Tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK may or may not produce long breaks with spikes
           (e.g.  4 per second). This is not only system dependant, this also dif-
           fers between serial board  drivers.   Calling  "defbreaktype"  with  no
           parameter displays the current setting.
           defflow on|off|auto [interrupt]
           Same as the flow command except that the default setting for  new  win-
           dows  is  changed. Initial setting is 'auto'.  Specifying "defflow auto
           interrupt" is the same as the command-line options -fa and -i.
           defgr on|off
           Same as the gr command except that the default setting for new  windows
           is changed. Initial setting is 'off'.
           defhstatus [status]
           The  hardstatus  line  that  all new windows will get is set to status.
           This command is useful to make the hardstatus of every  window  display
           the  window  number  or title or the like.  Status may contain the same
           directives as in the window messages, but the directive escape  charac-
           ter is '^E' (octal 005) instead of '%'.  This was done to make a misin-
           terpretation of program generated hardstatus lines impossible.  If  the
           parameter  status  is omitted, the current default string is displayed.
           Per default the hardstatus line of new windows is empty.
           defencoding enc
           Same as the encoding command except that the default  setting  for  new
           windows is changed. Initial setting is the encoding taken from the ter-
           deflog on|off
           Same as the log command except that the default setting for new windows
           is changed. Initial setting is 'off'.
           deflogin on|off
           Same  as the login command except that the default setting for new win-
           dows is changed. This is initialized with 'on' as distributed (see con-
           defmode mode
           The mode of each newly allocated pseudo-tty is set to mode.  Mode is an
           octal number.  When no "defmode" command is given, mode 0622 is used.
           defmonitor on|off
           Same as the monitor command except that the  default  setting  for  new
           windows is changed. Initial setting is 'off'.
           defnonblock on|off|numsecs
           Same  as  the nonblock command except that the default setting for dis-
           defshell command
           Synonym to the shell command. See there.
           defsilence on|off
           Same as the silence command except that the  default  setting  for  new
           windows is changed. Initial setting is 'off'.
           defslowpaste msec"
           Same  as  the slowpaste command except that the default setting for new
           windows is changed. Initial setting is 0 milliseconds, meaning 'off'.
           defutf8 on|off
           Same as the utf8 command except that the default setting for  new  win-
           dows  is  changed.  Initial  setting is 'on' if screen was started with
           "-U", otherwise 'off'.
           defwrap on|off
           Same as the wrap command except that the default setting for  new  win-
           dows  is changed. Initially line-wrap is on and can be toggled with the
           "wrap" command ("C-a r") or by means of "C-a : wrap on|off".
           defwritelock on|off|auto
           Same as the writelock command except that the default setting  for  new
           windows is changed. Initially writelocks will off.
           defzombie [keys]
           Synonym  to the zombie command. Both currently change the default.  See
           detach [-h]
           Detach the screen session (disconnect it from the terminal and  put  it
           into  the background).  This returns you to the shell where you invoked
           screen.  A detached screen can be resumed by invoking screen  with  the
           -r  option  (see  also  section  "COMMAND-LINE OPTIONS"). The -h option
           tells screen to  immediately  close  the  connection  to  the  terminal
           Show what screen thinks about your terminal. Useful if you want to know
           why features like color or the alternate charset don't work.
           Write the termcap entry for the virtual terminal optimized for the cur-
           rently  active  window  to  the   file   ".termcap"   in   the   user's
           "$HOME/.screen"  directory  (or wherever screen stores its sockets. See
           the "FILES" section below).  This termcap entry  is  identical  to  the
           value of the environment variable $TERMCAP that is set up by screen for
           each window. For terminfo based systems you will need  to  run  a  con-
           verter like captoinfo and then compile the entry with tic.
           echo [-n] message
           The  echo  command may be used to annoy screen users with a 'message of
           the day'. Typically installed in a global  /etc/screenrc.   The  option
           "-n" may be used to suppress the line feed.  See also "sleep".  Echo is
           also useful for online checking of environment variables.
           encoding enc [enc]
           Tell screen how to interpret the input/output. The first argument  sets
           the encoding of the current window. Each window can emulate a different
           encoding. The optional second parameter overwrites the encoding of  the
           connected terminal. It should never be needed as screen uses the locale
           setting to detect the encoding.  There is also a way to select a termi-
           nal  encoding  depending on the terminal type by using the "KJ" termcap
           Supported encodings are eucJP, SJIS, eucKR, eucCN, Big5,  GBK,  KOI8-R,
           CP1251,  UTF-8,  ISO8859-2, ISO8859-3, ISO8859-4, ISO8859-5, ISO8859-6,
           ISO8859-7, ISO8859-8, ISO8859-9, ISO8859-10, ISO8859-15, jis.
           See also "defencoding", which changes the default setting of a new win-
           escape xy
           Set  the  command character to x and the character generating a literal
           command character (by triggering the "meta" command) to y  (similar  to
           the  -e  option).   Each  argument is either a single character, a two-
           character sequence of the form "^x" (meaning "C-x"), a  backslash  fol-
           lowed  by an octal number (specifying the ASCII code of the character),
           or a backslash followed by a second character, such as  "\^"  or  "\\".
           The default is "^Aa".
           eval command1 [command2 ...]
           Parses and executes each argument as separate command.
           exec [[fdpat] newcommand [args ...]]
           Run  a  unix subprocess (specified by an executable path newcommand and
           When a subprocess is running the 'kill' command will affect it  instead
           of the windows process.
           Refer  to  the postscript file 'doc/' for a confusing illustra-
           tion of all 21 possible combinations. Each  drawing  shows  the  digits
           2,1,0  representing  the  three file descriptors of newcommand. The box
           marked 'W' is the usual pty that has  the  application-process  on  its
           slave  side.   The  box  marked  'P'  is the secondary pty that now has
           screen at its master side.
           Whitespace between the word 'exec' and fdpat and  the  command  can  be
           omitted. Trailing dots and a fdpat consisting only of dots can be omit-
           ted. A simple '|' is synonymous for the pattern '!..|'; the  word  exec
           can be omitted here and can always be replaced by '!'.
                  exec ... /bin/sh
                  exec /bin/sh
           Creates  another  shell in the same window, while the original shell is
           still running. Output of both shells is displayed  and  user  input  is
           sent to the new /bin/sh.
                  exec !.. stty 19200
                  exec ! stty 19200
                  !!stty 19200
           Set  the  speed  of  the window's tty. If your stty command operates on
           stdout, then add another '!'.
                  exec !..| less
           This adds a pager to the window output. The special  character  '|'  is
           needed  to  give  the  user control over the pager although it gets its
           input from the window's process. This works, because  less  listens  on
           stderr  (a  behavior that screen would not expect without the '|') when
           its stdin is not a tty.  Less versions newer than  177  fail  miserably
           here; good old pg still works.
                  !:sed -n s/.*Error.*/\007/p
           Sends  window  output  to  both,  the user and the sed command. The sed
           inserts an additional bell character (oct. 007) to  the  window  output
           seen  by screen.  This will cause "Bell in window x" messages, whenever
           the string "Error" appears in the window.
           Change the window size to the size of the current region. This  command
           so  that the top region is selected after the bottom one. If no subcom-
           mand is given it defaults to 'down'. 'up' cycles in the opposite order,
           'top' and 'bottom' go to the top and bottom region respectively. Useful
           bindings are (j and k as in vi)
               bind j focus down
               bind k focus up
               bind t focus top
               bind b focus bottom
           gr [on|off]
           Turn GR charset switching on/off. Whenever screen sees an input charac-
           ter with the 8th bit set, it will use the charset stored in the GR slot
           and print the character with the 8th bit  stripped.  The  default  (see
           also  "defgr")  is  not  to  process GR switching because otherwise the
           ISO88591 charset would not work.
           hardcopy [-h] [file]
           Writes out the currently displayed image to the file file,  or,  if  no
           filename  is specified, to hardcopy.n in the default directory, where n
           is the number of the current window.  This either appends or overwrites
           the  file if it exists. See below.  If the option -h is specified, dump
           also the contents of the scrollback buffer.
           hardcopy_append on|off
           If set to "on", screen will append to the "hardcopy.n" files created by
           the  command  "C-a h", otherwise these files are overwritten each time.
           Default is 'off'.
           hardcopydir directory
           Defines a directory where hardcopy files  will  be  placed.  If  unset,
           hardcopys are dumped in screen's current working directory.
           hardstatus [on|off]
           hardstatus [always]lastline|message|ignore [string]
           hardstatus string [string]
           This  command  configures the use and emulation of the terminal's hard-
           status line. The first form toggles whether screen will use  the  hard-
           ware  status  line  to  display  messages. If the flag is set to 'off',
           these messages are overlaid in reverse video mode at the display  line.
           The default setting is 'on'.
           The  second form tells screen what to do if the terminal doesn't have a
           hardstatus line (i.e. the  termcap/terminfo  capabilities  "hs",  "ts",
           "fs" and "ds" are not set). If the type "lastline" is used, screen will
           reserve the last line of the display for the hardstatus. "message" uses
           screen's  message  mechanism and "ignore" tells screen never to display
           the hardstatus.  If you prepend the word "always" to  the  type  (e.g.,
           Set the display height to a specified number of lines. When no argument
           is given it toggles between 24 and 42 lines display. You can also spec-
           ify a width if you want to change both values.   The  -w  option  tells
           screen  to  leave  the  display  size unchanged and just set the window
           size, -d vice versa.
           help [-c class]
           Not really a online help, but displays a help screen  showing  you  all
           the  key bindings.  The first pages list all the internal commands fol-
           lowed by their current bindings.  Subsequent  pages  will  display  the
           custom  commands,  one  command  per key.  Press space when you're done
           reading each page, or return to exit early.  All other  characters  are
           ignored.  If  the  "-c" option is given, display all bound commands for
           the specified command class.  See also "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS"  section.
           Usually  users  work  with  a shell that allows easy access to previous
           commands.  For example csh has the command "!!" to repeat the last com-
           mand executed.  Screen allows you to have a primitive way of re-calling
           "the command that started ...": You just type the first letter of  that
           command, then hit 'C-a {' and screen tries to find a previous line that
           matches with the 'prompt character' to the left  of  the  cursor.  This
           line  is  pasted into this window's input queue.  Thus you have a crude
           command history (made up by  the  visible  window  and  its  scrollback
           hstatus status
           Change the window's hardstatus line to the string status.
           idle [timeout [cmd args]]
           Sets  a command that is run after the specified number of seconds inac-
           tivity is reached. This command will normally be the "blanker"  command
           to  create  a  screen blanker, but it can be any screen command.  If no
           command is specified, only the timeout is set. A timeout  of  zero  (ot
           the  special  timeout  off)  disables  the  timer.  If no arguments are
           given, the current settings are displayed.
           ignorecase [on|off]
           Tell screen to ignore the case of characters in  searches.  Default  is
           Uses  the  message  line  to display some information about the current
           window: the cursor position in the form  "(column,row)"  starting  with
           "(1,1)",  the terminal width and height plus the size of the scrollback
           tion-keypad  mode,  has  output logging, activity monitoring or partial
           redraw enabled.
           The currently active character set (G0, G1, G2, or G3)  and  in  square
           brackets  the  terminal character sets that are currently designated as
           G0 through G3 is shown. If the window is  in  UTF-8  mode,  the  string
           "UTF-8" is shown instead.
           Additional  modes  depending on the type of the window are displayed at
           the end of the status line (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES").
           If the state machine of the  terminal  emulator  is  in  a  non-default
           state,  the  info line is started with a string identifying the current
           For system information use the "time" command.
           ins_reg [key]
           No longer exists, use "paste" instead.
           Kill current window.
           If there is an 'exec' command running then it is killed. Otherwise  the
           process  (shell) running in the window receives a HANGUP condition, the
           window structure is removed  and  screen  (your  display)  switches  to
           another  window.   When  the  last  window  is destroyed, screen exits.
           After a kill screen switches to the previously displayed window.
           Note: Emacs users should keep this command  in  mind,  when  killing  a
           line.   It  is recommended not to use "C-a" as the screen escape key or
           to rebind kill to "C-a K".
           Redisplay the last contents of  the  message/status  line.   Useful  if
           you're  typing  when  a message appears, because  the message goes away
           when you press a key (unless your terminal has a hardware status line).
           Refer to the commands "msgwait" and "msgminwait" for fine tuning.
           Display  the  disclaimer  page. This is done whenever screen is started
           without  options,  which  should  be  often  enough.   See   also   the
           "startup_message" command.
           Lock  this  display.   Call  a  screenlock  program  (/local/bin/lck or
           /usr/bin/lock or a builtin if no other is available). Screen  does  not
           accept  any  command keys until this program terminates. Meanwhile pro-
           cesses in  the  windows  may  continue,  as  the  windows  are  in  the
           'detached'  state.  The  screenlock  program may be changed through the
           environment variable $LOCKPRG (which must be  set  in  the  shell  from
           logfile filename
           logfile flush secs
           Defines  the name the logfiles will get. The default is "screenlog.%n".
           The second form changes the number of seconds screen will  wait  before
           flushing the logfile buffer to the file-system. The default value is 10
           login [on|off]
           Adds or removes the entry in the utmp database  file  for  the  current
           window.  This controls if the window is 'logged in'.  When no parameter
           is given, the login state of the window is  toggled.   Additionally  to
           that  toggle,  it  is convenient having a 'log in' and a 'log out' key.
           E.g. 'bind I login on' and 'bind O login off' will map these keys to be
           C-a  I  and C-a O.  The default setting (in should be "on"
           for a screen that runs under suid-root.  Use the "deflogin" command  to
           change  the default login state for new windows. Both commands are only
           present when screen has been compiled with utmp support.
           logtstamp [on|off]
           logtstamp after [secs]
           logtstamp string [string]
           This command controls logfile time-stamp mechanism of screen.  If time-
           stamps  are  turned  "on",  screen adds a string containing the current
           time to the logfile after two minutes of inactivity.  When output  con-
           tinues  and  more  than another two minutes have passed, a second time-
           stamp is added to document the restart of the output.  You  can  change
           this  timeout  with  the  second form of the command. The third form is
           used for customizing the time-stamp string ('-- %n:%t -- time-stamp  --
           %M/%d/%y %c:%s --\n' by default).
           Tell  screen  that the next input character should only be looked up in
           the default bindkey table. See also "bindkey".
           Like mapdefault, but don't even look in the default bindkey table.
           maptimeout [timo]
           Set the inter-character timer for input sequence detection to a timeout
           of  timo ms. The default timeout is 300ms. Maptimeout with no arguments
           shows the current setting.  See also "bindkey".
           markkeys string
           This is a method of changing the keymap  used  for  copy/history  mode.
           Set  the  maximum  window  number  screen  will  create. Doesn't affect
           already existing windows. The number may only be decreased.
           Insert the command  character  (C-a)  in  the  current  window's  input
           monitor [on|off]
           Toggles  activity  monitoring of windows.  When monitoring is turned on
           and an affected window  is  switched  into  the  background,  you  will
           receive  the  activity  notification  message in the status line at the
           first sign of output and the window will also be marked with an '@'  in
           the  window-status  display.   Monitoring is initially off for all win-
           msgminwait sec
           Defines the time screen delays a new message when one message  is  cur-
           rently displayed.  The default is 1 second.
           msgwait sec
           Defines  the  time a message is displayed if screen is not disturbed by
           other activity. The default is 5 seconds.
           multiuser on|off
           Switch between singleuser and multiuser mode. Standard screen operation
           is  singleuser.  In  multiuser  mode  the  commands 'acladd', 'aclchg',
           'aclgrp' and 'acldel' can be used to enable (and disable)  other  users
           accessing this screen session.
           nethack on|off
           Changes the kind of error messages used by screen.  When you are famil-
           iar with the game "nethack", you may enjoy the  nethack-style  messages
           which will often blur the facts a little, but are much funnier to read.
           Anyway, standard messages often tend to be unclear as well.
           This option is only available if screen was compiled with  the  NETHACK
           flag defined. The default setting is then determined by the presence of
           the environment variable $NETHACKOPTIONS.
           Switch to the next window.  This command  can  be  used  repeatedly  to
           cycle through the list of windows.
           nonblock [on|off|numsecs]
           Tell  screen  how to deal with user interfaces (displays) that cease to
           obuflimit [limit]
           If the output buffer contains more bytes than the specified  limit,  no
           more  data  will be read from the windows. The default value is 256. If
           you have a fast display (like xterm), you can set  it  to  some  higher
           value. If no argument is specified, the current setting is displayed.
           Kill all regions but the current one.
           Switch  to  the  window  displayed  previously.  If this window does no
           longer exist, other has the same effect as next.
           partial on|off
           Defines whether the display should be  refreshed  (as  with  redisplay)
           after  switching  to  the current window. This command only affects the
           current window.  To immediately affect all windows use  the  allpartial
           command.  Default is 'off', of course.  This default is fixed, as there
           is currently no defpartial command.
           password [crypted_pw]
           Present a crypted password in your ".screenrc" file and screen will ask
           for  it, whenever someone attempts to resume a detached. This is useful
           if you have privileged programs running under screen and  you  want  to
           protect  your session from reattach attempts by another user masquerad-
           ing as your uid (i.e. any superuser.)  If no crypted password is speci-
           fied, screen prompts twice for typing a password and places its encryp-
           tion in the paste buffer.  Default is 'none',  this  disables  password
           paste [registers [dest_reg]]
           Write  the  (concatenated)  contents  of the specified registers to the
           stdin queue of the current window. The register '.' is treated  as  the
           paste  buffer. If no parameter is given the user is prompted for a sin-
           gle register to paste.  The paste buffer can be filled with  the  copy,
           history  and  readbuf commands.  Other registers can be filled with the
           register, readreg and paste commands.  If paste is called with a second
           argument,  the  contents  of the specified registers is pasted into the
           named destination register rather than the window. If '.'  is  used  as
           the  second  argument,  the  displays  paste buffer is the destination.
           Note, that "paste" uses a wide variety of resources: Whenever a  second
           argument  is  specified  no  current  window is needed. When the source
           specification only contains registers (not the paste buffer) then there
           need not be a current display (terminal attached), as the registers are
           a global resource. The paste buffer exists once for every user.
           Power  detach.  Mainly the same as detach, but also sends a HANGUP sig-
           nal to the parent process of screen.  CAUTION: This will  result  in  a
           logout, when screen was started from your login shell.
           pow_detach_msg [message]
           The message specified here is output whenever a 'Power detach' was per-
           formed. It may be used as a replacement for  a  logout  message  or  to
           reset baud rate, etc.  Without parameter, the current message is shown.
           Switch to the window with the next lower number.  This command  can  be
           used repeatedly to cycle through the list of windows.
           printcmd [cmd]
           If  cmd  is not an empty string, screen will not use the terminal capa-
           bilities "po/pf" if it detects an ansi print sequence ESC [  5  i,  but
           pipe the output into cmd.  This should normally be a command like "lpr"
           or "'cat > /tmp/scrprint'".  printcmd without a  command  displays  the
           current  setting.  The ansi sequence ESC \ ends printing and closes the
           Warning: Be careful with this command! If other user have write  access
           to your terminal, they will be able to fire off print commands.
           process [key]
           Stuff the contents of the specified register into screen's input queue.
           If no argument is given you are prompted for a register name. The  text
           is  parsed  as  if  it had been typed in from the user's keyboard. This
           command can be used to bind multiple actions to a single key.
           Kill all windows and terminate screen.  Note that on VT100-style termi-
           nals  the keys C-4 and C-\ are identical.  This makes the default bind-
           ings dangerous: Be careful not to type C-a C-4  when  selecting  window
           no.  4.  Use the empty bind command (as in "bind '^\'") to remove a key
           readbuf [-e encoding] [filename]
           Reads the contents of the specified file into the  paste  buffer.   You
           can tell screen the encoding of the file via the -e option.  If no file
           is specified, the screen-exchange filename is used.  See also  "buffer-
           file" command.
           readreg [-e encoding] [register [filename]]
           Does  one of two things, dependent on number of arguments: with zero or
           one arguments it it duplicates the paste buffer contents into the  reg-
           register [-e encoding] key string
           Save  the  specified  string  to the register key.  The encoding of the
           string can be specified via the -e option.  See also the  "paste"  com-
           Kill the current region. This is a no-op if there is only one region.
           Unlinks  the  screen-exchange  file used by the commands "writebuf" and
           Reset the virtual  terminal  to  its  "power-on"  values.  Useful  when
           strange  settings  (like  scroll regions or graphics character set) are
           left over from an application.
           Resize the current region. The space will be removed from or  added  to
           the  region below or if there's not enough space from the region above.
                  resize +N   increase current region height by N
                  resize -N   decrease current region height by N
                  resize  N   set current region height to N
                  resize  =   make all windows equally high
                  resize  max maximize current region height
                  resize  min minimize current region height
           screen [-opts] [n] [cmd [args]]
           Establish a new window.  The flow-control options (-f,  -fn  and  -fa),
           title  (a.k.a.) option (-t), login options (-l and -ln) , terminal type
           option (-T <term>), the all-capability-flag (-a) and scrollback  option
           (-h  <num>)  may be specified with each command.  The option (-M) turns
           monitoring on for this window.  The option (-L) turns output logging on
           for  this  window.  If an optional number n in the range 0..9 is given,
           the window number n is assigned to the newly  created  window  (or,  if
           this  number  is already in-use, the next available number).  If a com-
           mand is specified after "screen", this command (with  the  given  argu-
           ments)  is started in the window; otherwise, a shell is created.  Thus,
           Screen  has built in some functionality of "cu" and "telnet".  See also
           chapter "WINDOW TYPES".
           scrollback num
           Set the size of the scrollback buffer for the current  windows  to  num
           lines.  The  default scrollback is 100 lines.  See also the "defscroll-
           back" command and use "C-a i" to view the current setting.
           select [WindowID]
           Switch to the window identified by WindowID.  This can be a prefix of a
           window title (alphanumeric window name) or a window number.  The param-
           eter is optional and if omitted, you get prompted  for  an  identifier.
           When  a  new  window  is  established,  the  first  available number is
           assigned to this window.  Thus, the first window can  be  activated  by
           "select  0".   The  number of windows is limited at compile-time by the
           MAXWIN configuration parameter.  There are two special  WindowIDs,  "-"
           selects  the  internal blank window and "." selects the current window.
           The latter is useful if used with screen's "-X" option.
           sessionname [name]
           Rename the current session. Note, that  for  "screen  -list"  the  name
           shows up with the process-id prepended. If the argument "name" is omit-
           ted, the name of this session is displayed. Caution: The $STY  environ-
           ment  variables  still reflects the old name. This may result in confu-
           sion.  The default is constructed from the tty and host names.
           setenv [var [string]]
           Set the environment variable var to value string.  If only var is spec-
           ified,  the  user  will be prompted to enter a value.  If no parameters
           are specified, the user will be prompted for both variable  and  value.
           The environment is inherited by all subsequently forked shells.
           setsid [on|off]
           Normally screen uses different sessions and process groups for the win-
           dows. If setsid is turned off, this is not done anymore and all windows
           will  be  in the same process group as the screen backend process. This
           also breaks job-control, so be careful.  The default is on, of  course.
           This command is probably useful only in rare circumstances.
           shell command
           Set  the  command to be used to create a new shell.  This overrides the
           value of the environment variable $SHELL.  This is useful if you'd like
           to  run a tty-enhancer which is expecting to execute the program speci-
           fied in $SHELL. If the command begins with a '-' character,  the  shell
           will be started as a login-shell.
           silencewait sec
           Define the time that all windows  monitored  for  silence  should  wait
           before displaying a message. Default 30 seconds.
           sleep num
           This  command will pause the execution of a .screenrc file for num sec-
           onds.  Keyboard activity will end the sleep.  It may be  used  to  give
           users a chance to read the messages output by "echo".
           slowpaste msec
           Define  the  speed at which text is inserted into the current window by
           the paste ("C-a ]") command.  If the slowpaste value is nonzero text is
           written  character by character.  screen will make a pause of msec mil-
           liseconds after each single character write to allow the application to
           process its input. Only use slowpaste if your underlying system exposes
           flow control problems while pasting large amounts of text.
           source file
           Read and execute commands from file file. Source commands may be nested
           to  a  maximum  recursion level of ten. If file is not an absolute path
           and screen is already processing a source command, the parent directory
           of  the  running source command file is used to search for the new com-
           mand file before screen's current directory.
           Note that termcap/terminfo/termcapinfo commands only  work  at  startup
           and  reattach  time,  so  they must be reached via the default screenrc
           files to have an effect.
           sorendition [attr [color]]
           Change the way screen does highlighting for text marking  and  printing
           messages.  See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for the syntax of the modi-
           fiers.  The default is currently "=s dd" (standout, default colors).
           Split the current region into two new ones. All regions on the  display
           are  resized  to make room for the new region. The blank window is dis-
           played on the new region. Use the "remove" or  the  "only"  command  to
           delete regions.
           startup_message on|off
           Select  whether  you  want  to see the copyright notice during startup.
           Default is 'on', as you probably noticed.
           stuff string
           When  the  identification  fails,  the  user has access to the commands
           available for user nobody.  These are "detach",  "license",  "version",
           "help" and "displays".
           Suspend  screen.  The windows are in the 'detached' state, while screen
           is suspended. This feature relies on the shell being  able  to  do  job
           term term
           In each window's environment screen opens, the $TERM variable is set to
           "screen" by default.  But when no description for "screen" is installed
           in  the  local  termcap or terminfo data base, you set $TERM to - say -
           "vt100". This won't do much harm, as screen is  VT100/ANSI  compatible.
           The  use  of the "term" command is discouraged for non-default purpose.
           That is, one may want to specify special $TERM  settings  (e.g.  vt100)
           for  the  next  "screen  rlogin  othermachine" command. Use the command
           "screen -T vt100 rlogin othermachine" rather than setting and resetting
           the default.
           termcap term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
           terminfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
           termcapinfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
           Use  this command to modify your terminal's termcap entry without going
           through all the hassles involved in creating a  custom  termcap  entry.
           Plus,  you  can optionally customize the termcap generated for the win-
           dows.  You have to place these commands in one of the screenrc  startup
           files, as they are meaningless once the terminal emulator is booted.
           If  your  system  works uses the terminfo database rather than termcap,
           screen will understand the  'terminfo'  command,  which  has  the  same
           effects  as the 'termcap' command.  Two separate commands are provided,
           as there are subtle syntactic differences, e.g. when parameter interpo-
           lation (using '%') is required. Note that termcap names of the capabil-
           ities have to be used with the 'terminfo' command.
           In many cases, where the arguments are valid in both terminfo and term-
           cap  syntax,  you  can  use  the command 'termcapinfo', which is just a
           shorthand for a pair of 'termcap' and 'terminfo' commands with  identi-
           cal arguments.
           The  first  argument  specifies which terminal(s) should be affected by
           this definition.  You can specify multiple terminal names by separating
           them  with '|'s.  Use '*' to match all terminals and 'vt*' to match all
           terminals that begin with "vt".
           Each tweak argument contains one or more termcap defines (separated  by
           ':'s)  to  be  inserted  at the start of the appropriate termcap entry,
           enhancing it or overriding existing values.  The first  tweak  modifies
           your  terminal's  termcap,  and contains definitions that your terminal
           uses to perform certain functions.  Specify a null string to leave this
                  termcap vt*  LP
                  termcap vt102|vt220  Z0=\E[?3h:Z1=\E[?3l
           Specifies the firm-margined 'LP'  capability  for  all  terminals  that
           begin with 'vt', and the second line will also add the escape-sequences
           to switch into (Z0) and back out of (Z1) 132-character-per-line mode if
           this  is a VT102 or VT220.  (You must specify Z0 and Z1 in your termcap
           to use the width-changing commands.)
                  termcap vt100  ""  l0=PF1:l1=PF2:l2=PF3:l3=PF4
           This leaves your vt100 termcap alone and adds the function  key  labels
           to each window's termcap entry.
                  termcap h19|z19  am@:im=\E@:ei=\EO  dc=\E[P
           Takes a h19 or z19 termcap and turns off auto-margins (am@) and enables
           the insert mode (im) and end-insert (ei) capabilities (the '@'  in  the
           'im' string is after the '=', so it is part of the string).  Having the
           'im' and 'ei' definitions put into your terminal's termcap  will  cause
           screen  to  automatically  advertise the character-insert capability in
           each window's termcap.  Each window will also get the  delete-character
           capability  (dc) added to its termcap, which screen will translate into
           a line-update for the terminal (we're  pretending  it  doesn't  support
           character deletion).
           If  you  would  like  to fully specify each window's termcap entry, you
           should instead set the $SCREENCAP variable  prior  to  running  screen.
           See  the  discussion  on the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" in this manual, and the
           termcap(5) man page for more information on termcap definitions.
           time [string]
           Uses the message line to display the time of day, the  host  name,  and
           the  load  averages  over 1, 5, and 15 minutes (if this is available on
           your system).  For window specific information use "info".
           If a string is specified, it changes the format of the time report like
           it  is described in the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a default
           of "%c:%s %M %d %H%? %l%?".
           title [windowtitle]
           Set the name of the current window to windowtitle. If no name is speci-
           fied, screen prompts for one. This command was known as 'aka' in previ-
           ous releases.
           unsetenv var
           Unset an environment variable.
           line when the bell character (^G) is received.  Visual bell support  of
           a terminal is defined by the termcap variable 'vb' (terminfo: 'flash').
           Per default, vbell is off, thus the audible bell  is  used.   See  also
           vbell_msg [message]
           Sets  the visual bell message. message is printed to the status line if
           the window receives a bell character (^G), vbell is set  to  "on",  but
           the  terminal  does  not support a visual bell.  The default message is
           "Wuff, Wuff!!".  Without parameter, the current message is shown.
           vbellwait sec
           Define a delay in seconds after each display of  screen's  visual  bell
           message. The default is 1 second.
           verbose [on|off]
           If  verbose is switched on, the command name is echoed, whenever a win-
           dow is created (or resurrected from  zombie  state).  Default  is  off.
           Without parameter, the current setting is shown.
           Print the current version and the compile date in the status line.
           wall message
           Write  a message to all displays. The message will appear in the termi-
           nal's status line.
           width [-w|-d] [cols [lines]]
           Toggle the window width between 80 and 132 columns or set  it  to  cols
           columns  if an argument is specified.  This requires a capable terminal
           and the termcap entries "Z0" and "Z1".  See the "termcap"  command  for
           more  information.  You  can  also  specify a new height if you want to
           change both values.  The -w option tells screen to  leave  the  display
           size unchanged and just set the window size, -d vice versa.
           windowlist [-b] [-m]
           windowlist string [string]
           windowlist title [title]
           Display all windows in a table for visual window selection. The desired
           window can be selected via the standard movement keys (see  the  "copy"
           command)  and activated via the return key.  If the -b option is given,
           screen will switch to the blank window before presenting the  list,  so
           that  the current window is also selectable.  The -m option changes the
           order of the windows, instead of sorting by window numbers screen  uses
           its internal most-recently-used list.
           received a bell is marked with a '!'; a background window that is being
           monitored  and  has  had activity occur is marked with an '@'; a window
           which has output logging turned on is marked with '(L)'; windows  occu-
           pied  by  other  users are marked with '&'; windows in the zombie state
           are marked with 'Z'.  If this list is too long to fit on the terminal's
           status line only the portion around the current window is displayed.
           wrap [on|off]
           Sets  the  line-wrap setting for the current window.  When line-wrap is
           on, the second consecutive printable character output at the last  col-
           umn  of  a  line  will  wrap to the start of the following line.  As an
           added feature, backspace (^H) will also wrap through the left margin to
           the previous line.  Default is 'on'.
           writebuf [-e encoding] [filename]
           Writes  the  contents of the paste buffer to the specified file, or the
           public accessible screen-exchange file if no filename is given. This is
           thought  of  as a primitive means of communication between screen users
           on the same host. If an encoding  is  specified  the  paste  buffer  is
           recoded on the fly to match the encoding.  The filename can be set with
           the bufferfile command and defaults to "/tmp/screen-exchange".
           writelock [on|off|auto]
           In addition to access control lists, not all users may be able to write
           to  the  same  window at once. Per default, writelock is in 'auto' mode
           and grants exclusive input permission to the user who is the  first  to
           switch to the particular window. When he leaves the window, other users
           may obtain the writelock (automatically). The writelock of the  current
           window  is  disabled by the command "writelock off". If the user issues
           the command "writelock on" he  keeps  the  exclusive  write  permission
           while switching to other windows.
           Insert  a  CTRL-s  / CTRL-q character to the stdin queue of the current
           zmodem [off|auto|catch|pass]
           zmodem sendcmd [string]
           zmodem recvcmd [string]
           Define zmodem support for  screen.  Screen  understands  two  different
           modes  when  it  detects  a zmodem request: "pass" and "catch".  If the
           mode is set to "pass", screen will relay all data to the attacher until
           the end of the transmission is reached.  In "catch" mode screen acts as
           a zmodem endpoint and starts the corresponding rz/sz commands.  If  the
           mode  is  set to "auto", screen will use "catch" if the window is a tty
           (e.g. a serial line), otherwise it will use "pass".
           ing zombie without parameters will clear the zombie setting, thus  mak-
           ing windows disappear when their process exits.
           As  the  zombie-setting  is  manipulated globally for all windows, this
           command should only be called defzombie. Until we need this  as  a  per
           window setting, the commands zombie and defzombie are synonymous.


           Screen  displays informational messages and other diagnostics in a mes-
           sage line.  While this line is distributed to appear at the  bottom  of
           the screen, it can be defined to appear at the top of the screen during
           compilation.  If your terminal has a status line defined in  its  term-
           cap, screen will use this for displaying its messages, otherwise a line
           of the current screen will be temporarily overwritten and  output  will
           be  momentarily  interrupted. The message line is automatically removed
           after a few seconds delay, but it can also be removed early (on  termi-
           nals without a status line) by beginning to type.
           The  message line facility can be used by an application running in the
           current window by means of the ANSI Privacy message  control  sequence.
           For instance, from within the shell, try something like:
                  echo '<esc>^Hello world from window '$WINDOW'<esc>\\'
           where  '<esc>'  is an escape, '^' is a literal up-arrow, and '\\' turns
           into a single backslash.


           Screen provides three different window types. New windows  are  created
           with screen's screen command (see also the entry in chapter "CUSTOMIZA-
           TION"). The first parameter to the screen command defines which type of
           window  is created. The different window types are all special cases of
           the normal type. They have been added in order to allow  screen  to  be
           used efficiently as a console multiplexer with 100 or more windows.
           ?  The  normal  window  contains  a  shell (default, if no parameter is
              given) or any other system command that could  be  executed  from  a
              shell (e.g.  slogin, etc...)
           ?  If a tty (character special device) name (e.g. "/dev/ttya") is spec-
              ified as the first parameter, then the window is directly  connected
              to  this  device.   This  window  type  is  similar to "screen cu -l
              /dev/ttya".  Read and write access is required on the  device  node,
              an  exclusive  open  is attempted on the node to mark the connection
              line as busy.  An optional parameter  is  allowed  consisting  of  a
              comma separated list of flags in the notation used by stty(1):
              istrip or -istrip
                     Clear (or keep) the eight bit in each received byte.
              You may want to specify as many  of  these  options  as  applicable.
              Unspecified options cause the terminal driver to make up the parame-
              ter values of the connection.  These values are system dependant and
              may be in defaults or values saved from a previous connection.
              For  tty  windows,  the info command shows some of the modem control
              lines in the status line. These may  include  'RTS',  'CTS',  'DTR',
              'DSR',  'CD'  and more.  This depends on the available ioctl()'s and
              system header files as well as the on the physical  capabilities  of
              the  serial  board.   Signals  that  are logical low (inactive) have
              their name preceded by an exclamation mark (!), otherwise the signal
              is logical high (active).  Signals not supported by the hardware but
              available to the ioctl() interface are usually shown low.
              When the CLOCAL status bit is true, the whole set of  modem  signals
              is  placed inside curly braces ({ and }).  When the CRTSCTS or TIOC-
              SOFTCAR bit is set, the signals 'CTS' or 'CD' are shown in parenthe-
              sis, respectively.
              For tty windows, the command break causes the Data transmission line
              (TxD) to go low for a specified period of time. This is expected  to
              be  interpreted  as break signal on the other side.  No data is sent
              and no modem control line is changed when a break is issued.
           ?  If the first  parameter  is  "//telnet",  the  second  parameter  is
              expected  to  be  a  host  name, and an optional third parameter may
              specify a TCP port number (default decimal 23).  Screen will connect
              to a server listening on the remote host and use the telnet protocol
              to communicate with that server.
              For telnet windows, the command info shows details about the connec-
              tion in square brackets ([ and ]) at the end of the status line.
              b      BINARY. The connection is in binary mode.
              e      ECHO. Local echo is disabled.
              c      SGA.  The  connection  is in 'character mode' (default: 'line
              t      TTYPE. The terminal type has been  requested  by  the  remote
                     host.   Screen sends the name "screen" unless instructed oth-
                     erwise (see also the command 'term').
              w      NAWS. The remote site is notified about window size  changes.
              f      LFLOW.  The  remote  host will send flow control information.
                     (Ignored at the moment.)
              Additional flags for debugging are x, t and n (XDISPLOC, TSPEED  and
           one  exception:  inside  of  a  window's hardstatus '^%' ('^E') is used
           Here is the full list of supported escapes:
           %      the escape character itself
           a      either 'am' or 'pm'
           A      either 'AM' or 'PM'
           c      current time HH:MM in 24h format
           C      current time HH:MM in 12h format
           d      day number
           D      weekday name
           f      flags of the window
           F      sets %? to true if the window has the focus
           h      hardstatus of the window
           H      hostname of the system
           l      current load of the system
           m      month number
           M      month name
           n      window number
           s      seconds
           t      window title
           u      all other users on this window
           w      all window numbers and names. With '-'  quailifier:  up  to  the
                  current  window;  with  '+'  qualifier: starting with the window
                  after the current one.
           W      all window numbers and names except the current one
           y      last two digits of the year number
           Y      full year number
           ?      the part to the next '%?' is displayed  only  if  a  '%'  escape
           >      mark the current text position for  the  next  truncation.  When
                  screen  needs  to do truncation, it tries to do it in a way that
                  the marked position gets moved to the  specified  percentage  of
                  the  output  area.  (The  area starts from the last absolute pad
                  position and ends with the position specified by the  truncation
                  operator.)  The 'L' qualifier tells screen to mark the truncated
                  parts with '...'.
           {      attribute/color modifier string terminated by the next "}"
           '      Substitute with the output of a 'backtick' command.  The  length
                  qualifier is misused to identify one of the commands.
           The  'c'  and 'C' escape may be qualified with a '0' to make screen use
           zero instead of space as fill character. The '0' qualifier  also  makes
           the  '='  escape use absolute positions. The 'n' and '=' escapes under-
           stand a length qualifier (e.g. '%3n'), 'D' and 'M' can be prefixed with
           'L'  to  generate long names, 'w' and 'W' also show the window flags if
           'L' is given.
           An attribute/color modifier is is used to change the attributes or  the
           color  settings.  Its  format  is "[attribute modifier] [color descrip-
           tion]". The attribute modifier must be prefixed by a change type  indi-
           cator  if  it  can  be  confused with a color desciption. The following
           change types are known:
           +      add the specified set to the current attributes
           -      remove the set from the current attributes
           !      invert the set in the current attributes
           =      change the current attributes to the specified set
           The attribute set can either be specified as a hexadecimal number or  a
           combination of the following letters:
           d      dim
           u      underline
           b      bold
           r      reverse
           s      standout
           B      blinking
           Colors are coded either as a hexadecimal number or two letters specify-
           ing the desired background and foreground color (in  that  order).  The
           following colors are known:
           k      black
           r      red
           g      green
           If you don't like this, prefix the color with a ".". If  you  want  the
           same behaviour for two-letter color descriptions, also prefix them with
           a ".".
           As a special case, "%{-}" restores the attributes and colors that  were
           set  before the last change was made (i.e. pops one level of the color-
           change stack).
           "G"    set color to bright green
           "+b r" use bold red
           "= yd" clear all attributes, write in default  color  on  yellow  back-
           %-Lw%{= BW}%50>%n%f* %t%{-}%+Lw%<
                  The  available  windows centered at the current window and trun-
                  cated to the available width. The current  window  is  displayed
                  white  on  blue.   This can be used with "hardstatus alwayslast-
           %?%F%{.R.}%?%3n %t%? [%h]%?
                  The window number and title and the window's hardstatus, if  one
                  is  set.  Also use a red background if this is the active focus.
                  Useful for "caption string".


           Each window has a flow-control setting that determines how screen deals
           with the XON and XOFF characters (and perhaps the interrupt character).
           When flow-control is turned off, screen ignores the XON and XOFF  char-
           acters,  which  allows  the user to send them to the current program by
           simply typing them (useful for the emacs editor,  for  instance).   The
           trade-off  is  that it will take longer for output from a "normal" pro-
           gram to pause in response to an XOFF.  With flow-control turned on, XON
           and  XOFF  characters  are  used to immediately pause the output of the
           current window.  You can still send these  characters  to  the  current
           program, but you must use the appropriate two-character screen commands
           (typically "C-a q" (xon) and "C-a s" (xoff)).   The  xon/xoff  commands
           are  also useful for typing C-s and C-q past a terminal that intercepts
           these characters.
           Each window has an initial flow-control value set with  either  the  -f
           option  or the "defflow" .screenrc command. Per default the windows are
           set to automatic flow-switching.  It can then be  toggled  between  the
           three states 'fixed on', 'fixed off' and 'automatic' interactively with
           the "flow" command bound to "C-a f".
           The automatic flow-switching mode deals with  flow  control  using  the
           TIOCPKT  mode  (like "rlogin" does). If the tty driver does not support
           TIOCPKT, screen tries to find out the right mode based on  the  current
           setting of the application keypad - when it is enabled, flow-control is
           you might need to turn off flow-control (or use auto-flow mode to  turn
           it  off  automatically) when running a program that expects you to type
           the interrupt character as input, as it is possible  to  interrupt  the
           output of the virtual terminal to your physical terminal when flow-con-
           trol is enabled.  If this happens, a simple refresh of the screen  with
           "C-a  l" will restore it.  Give each mode a try, and use whichever mode
           you find more comfortable.

    TITLES (naming windows)

           You can customize each window's name in the window display (viewed with
           the "windows" command (C-a w)) by setting it with one of the title com-
           mands.  Normally the name displayed is the actual command name  of  the
           program created in the window.  However, it is sometimes useful to dis-
           tinguish various programs of the same name or to change  the  name  on-
           the-fly to reflect the current state of the window.
           The default name for all shell windows can be set with the "shelltitle"
           command in the .screenrc file, while all other windows are created with
           a "screen" command and thus can have their name set with the -t option.
           Interactively,    there    is    the    title-string    escape-sequence
           (<esc>kname<esc>\)  and the "title" command (C-a A).  The former can be
           output from an application to control the window's name under  software
           control,  and  the  latter  will prompt for a name when typed.  You can
           also bind pre-defined names to keys with the  "title"  command  to  set
           things quickly without prompting.
           Finally,  screen has a shell-specific heuristic that is enabled by set-
           ting the window's name to "search|name" and arranging to  have  a  null
           title escape-sequence output as a part of your prompt.  The search por-
           tion specifies an end-of-prompt search string, while the  name  portion
           specifies the default shell name for the window.  If the name ends in a
           ':' screen will add what it believes to be the current command  running
           in  the window to the end of the window's shell name (e.g. "name:cmd").
           Otherwise the current command name supersedes the shell name  while  it
           is running.
           Here's  how  it  works:   you must modify your shell prompt to output a
           null title-escape-sequence (<esc>k<esc>\) as a  part  of  your  prompt.
           The  last part of your prompt must be the same as the string you speci-
           fied for the search portion of the title.  Once this is set up,  screen
           will  use  the title-escape-sequence to clear the previous command name
           and get ready for the next command.  Then, when a newline  is  received
           from  the shell, a search is made for the end of the prompt.  If found,
           it will grab the first word after the matched string and use it as  the
           command  name.  If the command name begins with either '!', '%', or '^'
           screen will use the first word on the  following  line  (if  found)  in
           preference  to  the  just-found  name.  This helps csh users get better
           command names when using job control or history recall commands.
           Here's some .screenrc examples:
           (it  looks  after  the  '>  ' for the command name).  The window status
           would show the name "trn" while the command was running, and revert  to
           "csh" upon completion.
                  bind R screen -t '% |root:' su
           Having  this command in your .screenrc would bind the key sequence "C-a
           R" to the "su" command and give it an auto-title name of "root:".   For
           this auto-title to work, the screen could look something like this:
                       % !em
                       emacs file.c
           Here  the user typed the csh history command "!em" which ran the previ-
           ously  entered  "emacs"  command.   The  window   status   would   show
           "root:emacs"  during the execution of the command, and revert to simply
           "root:" at its completion.
                       bind o title
                       bind E title ""
                       bind u title (unknown)
           The first binding doesn't have any arguments, so it  would  prompt  you
           for  a title. when you type "C-a o".  The second binding would clear an
           auto-title's current setting (C-a E).  The third binding would set  the
           current window's title to "(unknown)" (C-a u).
           One  thing  to keep in mind when adding a null title-escape-sequence to
           your prompt is that some shells (like the csh) count all  the  non-con-
           trol  characters  as  part  of the prompt's length.  If these invisible
           characters aren't a multiple of 8 then  backspacing  over  a  tab  will
           result in an incorrect display.  One way to get around this is to use a
           prompt like this:
                  set prompt='^[[0000m^[k^[\% '
           The escape-sequence "<esc>[0000m" not  only  normalizes  the  character
           attributes, but all the zeros round the length of the invisible charac-
           ters up to 8.  Bash  users  will  probably  want  to  echo  the  escape
           sequence in the PROMPT_COMMAND:
                  PROMPT_COMMAND='echo -n -e "\033k\033\134"'
           (I used "134" to output a '\' because of a bug in bash v1.04).


           Each  window  in  a screen session emulates a VT100 terminal, with some
           extra functions added. The VT100 emulator is hard-coded, no other  ter-
           minal types can be emulated.
           (or  "screen-w"  if  the terminal is wide (132 cols or more)).  If even
           this entry cannot be found, "vt100" is used as a substitute.
           The idea is that if you have a terminal which doesn't support an impor-
           tant  feature  (e.g.  delete  char or clear to EOS) you can build a new
           termcap/terminfo entry for screen (named "screen.<dumbterm>") in  which
           this  capability  has been disabled. If this entry is installed on your
           machines you are able to do a rlogin and still keep the  correct  term-
           cap/terminfo  entry.  The terminal name is put in the $TERM variable of
           all new windows.  Screen also sets the $TERMCAP variable reflecting the
           capabilities of the virtual terminal emulated. Notice that, however, on
           machines using the terminfo database this variable has no effect.  Fur-
           thermore, the variable $WINDOW is set to the window number of each win-
           The actual set  of  capabilities  supported  by  the  virtual  terminal
           depends  on  the  capabilities supported by the physical terminal.  If,
           for instance, the physical terminal does not support  underscore  mode,
           screen  does  not  put the 'us' and 'ue' capabilities into the window's
           $TERMCAP variable, accordingly.  However, a minimum number of capabili-
           ties  must  be  supported  by a terminal in order to run screen; namely
           scrolling, clear screen, and direct  cursor  addressing  (in  addition,
           screen  does  not  run on hardcopy terminals or on terminals that over-
           Also, you can customize the $TERMCAP value used by screen by using  the
           "termcap"  .screenrc  command,  or  by defining the variable $SCREENCAP
           prior to startup.  When the is latter defined, its value will be copied
           verbatim  into each window's $TERMCAP variable.  This can either be the
           full terminal definition, or a filename  where  the  terminal  "screen"
           (and/or "screen-w") is defined.
           Note  that screen honors the "terminfo" .screenrc command if the system
           uses the terminfo database rather than termcap.
           When the boolean 'G0' capability is present in the  termcap  entry  for
           the terminal on which screen has been called, the terminal emulation of
           screen supports multiple character sets.  This allows an application to
           make use of, for instance, the VT100 graphics character set or national
           character sets.  The following control functions from ISO 2022 are sup-
           ported:  lock  shift  G0  (SI), lock shift G1 (SO), lock shift G2, lock
           shift G3, single shift G2, and single shift G3.  When a virtual  termi-
           nal  is  created  or reset, the ASCII character set is designated as G0
           through G3.  When the 'G0' capability is present, screen evaluates  the
           capabilities  'S0', 'E0', and 'C0' if present. 'S0' is the sequence the
           terminal uses to enable and start the  graphics  character  set  rather
           than  SI.   'E0'  is the corresponding replacement for SO. 'C0' gives a
           character by character translation string that  is  used  during  semi-
           graphics  mode.  This string is built like the 'acsc' terminfo capabil-
           When the 'po' and 'pf' capabilities are present in the terminal's term-
           changed    with   the   ANSI   Application   Program   Command   (APC):
           "ESC_<string>ESC\". As a  convenience  for  xterm  users  the  sequence
           "ESC]0..2;<string>^G" is also accepted.
           Some  capabilities  are only put into the $TERMCAP variable of the vir-
           tual terminal if they can be efficiently implemented  by  the  physical
           terminal.  For instance, 'dl' (delete line) is only put into the $TERM-
           CAP variable if the terminal supports  either  delete  line  itself  or
           scrolling  regions. Note that this may provoke confusion, when the ses-
           sion is reattached on a different terminal, as the  value  of  $TERMCAP
           cannot be modified by parent processes.
           The  "alternate  screen" capability is not enabled by default.  Set the
           altscreen .screenrc command to enable it.
           The following is a list of  control  sequences  recognized  by  screen.
           "(V)" and "(A)" indicate VT100-specific and ANSI- or ISO-specific func-
           tions, respectively.
           ESC E                      Next Line
           ESC D                      Index
           ESC M                      Reverse Index
           ESC H                      Horizontal Tab Set
           ESC Z                      Send VT100 Identification String
           ESC 7                 (V)  Save Cursor and Attributes
           ESC 8                 (V)  Restore Cursor and Attributes
           ESC [s                (A)  Save Cursor and Attributes
           ESC [u                (A)  Restore Cursor and Attributes
           ESC c                      Reset to Initial State
           ESC g                      Visual Bell
           ESC Pn p                   Cursor Visibility (97801)
               Pn = 6                 Invisible
                    7                 Visible
           ESC =                 (V)  Application Keypad Mode
           ESC >                 (V)  Numeric Keypad Mode
           ESC _                 (A)  Application Program Command (Hardstatus)
           ESC ] 0 ; string ^G   (A)  Operating System Command (Hardstatus,  xterm
                                      title hack)
           ESC ] 83 ; cmd ^G     (A)  Execute  screen  command. This only works if
                                      multi-user support is compiled into  screen.
                                      The  pseudo-user ":window:" is used to check
                                      the access control list. Use  "addacl  :win-
                                      dow:  -rwx  #?"  to  create  a  user with no
                                      rights and allow only the needed commands.
           Control-N             (A)  Lock Shift G1 (SO)
           Control-O             (A)  Lock Shift G0 (SI)
           ESC n                 (A)  Lock Shift G2
           ESC o                 (A)  Lock Shift G3
           ESC N                 (A)  Single Shift G2
           ESC O                 (A)  Single Shift G3
           ESC ( Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G0
           ESC ) Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G1
           ESC * Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G2
           ESC + Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G3
           ESC [ Pn ; Pn H            Direct Cursor Addressing
           ESC [ Pn ; Pn f            same as above
           ESC [ Pn J                 Erase in Display
                 Pn = None or 0       From Cursor to End of Screen
                      1               From Beginning of Screen to Cursor
                      2               Entire Screen
           ESC [ Pn K                 Erase in Line
                 Pn = None or 0       From Cursor to End of Line
                      1               From Beginning of Line to Cursor
                      2               Entire Line
           ESC [ Pn G                 Cursor horizontal position
           ESC [ Pn '                 same as above
           ESC [ Pn d                 Cursor vertical position
           ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps m        Select Graphic Rendition
                 Ps = None or 0       Default Rendition
                      1               Bold
                      2          (A)  Faint
                      3          (A)  Standout Mode (ANSI: Italicized)
                      4               Underlined
                      5               Blinking
                      7               Negative Image
                      22         (A)  Normal Intensity
                      23         (A)  Standout Mode off (ANSI: Italicized off)
                      24         (A)  Not Underlined
                      25         (A)  Not Blinking
                      27         (A)  Positive Image
                      30         (A)  Foreground Black
                      31         (A)  Foreground Red
                      32         (A)  Foreground Green
                      33         (A)  Foreground Yellow
                      34         (A)  Foreground Blue
                      35         (A)  Foreground Magenta
                      36         (A)  Foreground Cyan
                      37         (A)  Foreground White
                      39         (A)  Foreground Default
                      40         (A)  Background Black
           ESC [ Pn Z            (A)  Backward Tab
           ESC [ Pn L            (A)  Insert Line
           ESC [ Pn M            (A)  Delete Line
           ESC [ Pn @            (A)  Insert Character
           ESC [ Pn P            (A)  Delete Character
           ESC [ Pn S                 Scroll Scrolling Region Up
           ESC [ Pn T                 Scroll Scrolling Region Down
           ESC [ Pn ^                 same as above
           ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps h        Set Mode
           ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps l        Reset Mode
                 Ps = 4          (A)  Insert Mode
                      20         (A)  Automatic Linefeed Mode
                      34              Normal Cursor Visibility
                      ?1         (V)  Application Cursor Keys
                      ?3         (V)  Change Terminal Width to 132 columns
                      ?5         (V)  Reverse Video
                      ?6         (V)  Origin Mode
                      ?7         (V)  Wrap Mode
                      ?9              X10 mouse tracking
                      ?25        (V)  Visible Cursor
                      ?47             Alternate Screen (old xterm code)
                      ?1000      (V)  VT200 mouse tracking
                      ?1047           Alternate Screen (new xterm code)
                      ?1049           Alternate Screen (new xterm code)
           ESC [ 5 i             (A)  Start relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)
           ESC [ 4 i             (A)  Stop relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)


           In order to do a full VT100 emulation  screen  has  to  detect  that  a
           sequence  of characters in the input stream was generated by a keypress
           on the user's keyboard and insert  the  VT100  style  escape  sequence.
           Screen  has  a very flexible way of doing this by making it possible to
           map arbitrary commands on arbitrary sequences of characters. For  stan-
           dard  VT100  emulation  the  command will always insert a string in the
           input buffer of the window (see also command stuff in the  command  ta-
           ble).  Because the sequences generated by a keypress can change after a
           reattach from a different terminal type, it is possible  to  bind  com-
           mands  to the termcap name of the keys.  Screen will insert the correct
           binding after each  reattach.  See  the  bindkey  command  for  further
           details on the syntax and examples.
           Here  is the table of the default key bindings. (A) means that the com-
           mand is executed if the keyboard is switched into application mode.
           Key name          Termcap name    Command
           Cursor up             ku          stuff \033[A
                                             stuff \033OA    (A)
           Cursor down           kd          stuff \033[B
                                             stuff \033OB    (A)
           Cursor right          kr          stuff \033[C
                                             stuff \033OC    (A)
           Cursor left           kl          stuff \033[D
                                             stuff \033OD    (A)
           Function key 0        k0          stuff \033[10~
           Function key 1        k1          stuff \033OP
           Function key 2        k2          stuff \033OQ
           Function key 3        k3          stuff \033OR
           Function key 4        k4          stuff \033OS
           Function key 5        k5          stuff \033[15~
           Function key 6        k6          stuff \033[17~
           Function key 7        k7          stuff \033[18~
           Function key 8        k8          stuff \033[19~
           Function key 9        k9          stuff \033[20~
           Function key 10       k;          stuff \033[21~
           Function key 11       F1          stuff \033[23~
           Function key 12       F2          stuff \033[24~
           Home                  kh          stuff \033[1~
           End                   kH          stuff \033[4~
           Insert                kI          stuff \033[2~
           Delete                kD          stuff \033[3~
           Page up               kP          stuff \033[5~
           Page down             kN          stuff \033[6~
           Keypad 0              f0          stuff 0
                                             stuff \033Op    (A)
           Keypad 1              f1          stuff 1
                                             stuff \033Oq    (A)
           Keypad 2              f2          stuff 2
                                             stuff \033Or    (A)
           Keypad +              f+          stuff +
                                             stuff \033Ok    (A)
           Keypad -              f-          stuff -
                                             stuff \033Om    (A)
           Keypad *              f*          stuff *
                                             stuff \033Oj    (A)
           Keypad /              f/          stuff /
                                             stuff \033Oo    (A)
           Keypad =              fq          stuff =
                                             stuff \033OX    (A)
           Keypad .              f.          stuff .
                                             stuff \033On    (A)
           Keypad ,              f,          stuff ,
                                             stuff \033Ol    (A)
           Keypad enter          fe          stuff \015
                                             stuff \033OM    (A)


           The following table describes all terminal capabilities that are recog-
           nized  by  screen  and are not in the termcap(5) manual.  You can place
           these capabilities in your termcap entries (in '/etc/termcap')  or  use
           them  with the commands 'termcap', 'terminfo' and 'termcapinfo' in your
           screenrc files. It is often not possible to place these capabilities in
           the terminfo database.
           LP   (bool)  Terminal  has  VT100 style margins ('magic margins'). Note
                        that this capability is obsolete because screen  uses  the
                        standard 'xn' instead.
           Z0   (str)   Change width to 132 columns.
           Z1   (str)   Change width to 80 columns.
           WS   (str)   Resize  display. This capability has the desired width and
                        height as arguments. SunView(tm) example: '\E[8;%d;%dt'.
           NF   (bool)  Terminal doesn't need flow control. Send ^S and ^Q  direct
                        to  the  application.  Same as 'flow off'. The opposite of
                        this capability is 'nx'.
           G0   (bool)  Terminal can deal with ISO 2022 font selection  sequences.
           S0   (str)   Switch  charset  'G0' to the specified charset. Default is
           E0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' back to standard charset.  Default  is
           C0   (str)   Use the string as a conversion table for font '0'. See the
           AF   (str)   Change  character foreground color in an ANSI conform way.
                        This capability will almost always  be  set  to  '\E[3%dm'
                        ('\E[3%p1%dm' on terminfo machines).
           AB   (str)   Same as 'AF', but change background color.
           AX   (bool)  Does  understand  ANSI  set  default fg/bg color (\E[39m /
           XC   (str)   Describe a translation of characters to strings  depending
                        on  the current font. More details follow in the next sec-
           XT   (bool)  Terminal understands special xterm sequences  (OSC,  mouse
           C8   (bool)  Terminal needs bold to display high-intensity colors (e.g.
           TF   (bool)  Add missing capabilities to the termcap/info  entry.  (Set
                        by default).


           Screen  has  a  powerful mechanism to translate characters to arbitrary
           strings depending on the current font and terminal type.  Use this fea-
           ture  if  you  want  to  work with a common standard character set (say
           ISO8851-latin1) even on terminals that scatter the more unusual charac-
           ters over several national language font pages.
               <charset-mapping> := <designator><template>{,<mapping>}
               <mapping> := <char-to-be-mapped><template-arg>
           The things in braces may be repeated any number of times.
           A  <charset-mapping> tells screen how to map characters in font <desig-
           nator> ('B': Ascii, 'A': UK, 'K':  german,  etc.)   to  strings.  Every
           <mapping>  describes  to  what string a single character will be trans-
           lated. A template mechanism is used, as most of the time the codes have
           a  lot  in  common  (for  example strings to switch to and from another
           charset). Each occurrence of '%' in <template>  gets  substituted  with
           the  <template-arg>  specified  together  with  the  character. If your
           strings are not similar at all, then use '%' as a  template  and  place
           the  full  string  in  <template-arg>. A quoting mechanism was added to
           make it possible to use a real '%'. The '\' character quotes  the  spe-
           cial characters '\', '%', and ','.
           Here is an example:
           This example shows one use of the extension:
               termcap xterm 'XC=K%,%\E(B,[\304,\\\\\326,]\334'
           Here,  a  part of the german ('K') charset is emulated on an xterm.  If
           screen has to change to the 'K' charset, '\E(B' will  be  sent  to  the
           terminal,  i.e. the ASCII charset is used instead. The template is just
           '%', so the mapping is straightforward: '[' to '\304', '\'  to  '\326',
           and ']' to '\334'.


           COLUMNS        Number  of  columns  on  the terminal (overrides termcap
           HOME           Directory in which to look for .screenrc.
           LINES          Number of  lines  on  the  terminal  (overrides  termcap
           LOCKPRG        Screen lock program.
           NETHACKOPTIONS Turns on nethack option.
           PATH           Used for locating programs to run.
           SCREENCAP      For customizing a terminal's TERMCAP value.
           SCREENDIR      Alternate socket directory.
           SCREENRC       Alternate user screenrc file.
           SHELL          Default  shell  program  for  opening  windows  (default
           STY            Alternate socket name.
           SYSSCREENRC    Alternate system screenrc file.
           TERM           Terminal name.
           TERMCAP        Terminal description.
           WINDOW         Window number of a window (at creation time).


           .../screen-4.?.??/etc/etcscreenrc Examples in the  screen  distribution
                                             package   for   private   and  global
                                             initialization files.
           /etc/screenrc                     screen initialization commands
           $HOME/.screenrc                   Read in after /etc/screenrc
           /local/screens/S-<login>          Socket directories (default)
           /usr/tmp/screens/S-<login>        Alternate socket directories.
           <socket directory>/.termcap       Written by the "termcap" output func-
           /usr/tmp/screens/screen-exchange  or
           /tmp/screen-exchange              screen   'interprocess  communication
           hardcopy.[0-9]                    Screen images created by the hardcopy
           screenlog.[0-9]                   Output  log  files created by the log


           Copyright (C) 1993-2003
                Juergen Weigert (
                Michael Schroeder (
           Copyright (C) 1987 Oliver Laumann
           This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
           under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published  by  the
           Free  Software  Foundation;  either  version 2, or (at your option) any
           later version.
           This program is distributed in the hope that it  will  be  useful,  but
           WITHOUT  ANY  WARRANTY;  without  even  the  implied  warranty  of MER-
           Public License for more details.
           You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
           with this program (see the file COPYING); if not,  write  to  the  Free
           Software  Foundation,  Inc.,  59  Temple  Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA
           02111-1307, USA


           Ken Beal (,
           Rudolf Koenig (,
           Toerless Eckert (,
           Wayne Davison (,
           Patrick Wolfe (, kailand!pat),
           Bart Schaefer (,
           Nathan Glasser (,
           Larry W. Virden (,
           Howard Chu (,
           Tim MacKenzie (,
           Markku Jarvinen (mta@{cc,cs,ee},
           Marc Boucher (marc@CAM.ORG),
           Doug Siebert (,
           Ken Stillson (,
           Ian Frechett (frechett@spot.Colorado.EDU),
           Brian Koehmstedt (,
           Don Smith (,
           Frank van der Linden (,
           Martin Schweikert (,
           David Vrona (,
           E. Tye McQueen (,
           Matthew Green (,
           Christopher Williams (,
           Matt Mosley (,
           Gregory Neil Shapiro (gshapiro@wpi.WPI.EDU),
           Johannes Zellner (,
           Pablo Averbuj (


           This is version 4.0.2. Its roots are a merge of a custom version 2.3PR7
           by  Wayne  Davison and several enhancements to Oliver Laumann's version
           2.0. Note that all versions numbered 2.x are copyright by  Oliver  Lau-
           ?  Screen has no clue about double-high or double-wide characters.  But
              this is the only area where vttest is allowed to fail.
           ?  It is not possible to change the environment variable $TERMCAP  when
              reattaching under a different terminal type.
           ?  The  support of terminfo based systems is very limited. Adding extra
              capabilities to $TERMCAP may not have any effects.
           ?  Screen does not make use of hardware tabs.
           ?  Screen must be installed as set-uid with owner root on most  systems
              in  order to be able to correctly change the owner of the tty device
              file for each window.  Special permission may also  be  required  to
              write the file "/etc/utmp".
           ?  Entries  in  "/etc/utmp"  are not removed when screen is killed with
              SIGKILL.  This will cause some programs  (like  "w"  or  "rwho")  to
              advertise that a user is logged on who really isn't.
           ?  Screen may give a strange warning when your tty has no utmp entry.
           ?  When the modem line was hung up, screen may not automatically detach
              (or quit) unless the device driver is configured to  send  a  HANGUP
              signal.   To  detach  a screen session use the -D or -d command line
           ?  If a password is set, the command  line  options  -d  and  -D  still
              detach a session without asking.
           ?  Both  "breaktype"  and  "defbreaktype"  change  the break generating
              method used by all terminal devices. The first should change a  win-
              dow  specific  setting,  where  the  latter  should  change only the
              default for new windows.
           ?  When attaching to a multiuser session, the user's .screenrc file  is
              not  sourced.  Each  user's personal settings have to be included in
              the .screenrc file from which the session is booted, or have  to  be
              changed manually.
           ?  A weird imagination is most useful to gain full advantage of all the
           ?  Send bug-reports, fixes, enhancements, t-shirts, money, beer & pizza

    4th Berkeley Distribution Aug 2003 SCREEN(1)


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