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           route [-CFvnee]
           route  [-v]  [-A  family]  add [-net|-host] target [netmask Nm] [gw Gw]
                  [metric N] [mss M] [window W]  [irtt  I]  [reject]  [mod]  [dyn]
                  [reinstate] [[dev] If]
           route  [-v]  [-A  family]  del [-net|-host] target [gw Gw] [netmask Nm]
                  [metric N] [[dev] If]
           route  [-V] [--version] [-h] [--help]


           This program is obsolete. For replacement check ip route.


           Route manipulates the kernel's IP routing tables.  Its primary  use  is
           to  set up static routes to specific hosts or networks via an interface
           after it has been configured with the ifconfig(8) program.
           When the add or del  options  are  used,  route  modifies  the  routing
           tables.   Without these options, route displays the current contents of
           the routing tables.


           -A family
                  use the specified address family (eg 'inet'; use 'route  --help'
                  for a full list).
           -F     operate  on the kernel's FIB (Forwarding Information Base) rout-
                  ing table.  This is the default.
           -C     operate on the kernel's routing cache.
           -v     select verbose operation.
           -n     show numerical addresses instead of trying to determine symbolic
                  host  names.  This  is useful if you are trying to determine why
                  the route to your nameserver has vanished.
           -e     use netstat(8)-format for displaying  the  routing  table.   -ee
                  will  generate  a  very  long  line with all parameters from the
                  routing table.
           del    delete a route.
                  be reachable first. This usually means that you have to set up a
                  static  route  to  the  gateway  beforehand.  If you specify the
                  address of one of your local interfaces,  it  will  be  used  to
                  decide about the interface to which the packets should be routed
                  to. This is a BSDism compatibility hack.
           metric M
                  set the metric field in the routing table (used by routing  dae-
                  mons) to M.
           mss M  sets  MTU  (Maximum  Transmission Unit) of the route to M bytes.
                  Note that the current implementation of the route  command  does
                  not allow the option to set the Maximum Segment Size (MSS).
           window W
                  set  the  TCP  window  size for connections over this route to W
                  bytes. This is typically only used on AX.25  networks  and  with
                  drivers unable to handle back to back frames.
           irtt I set  the initial round trip time (irtt) for TCP connections over
                  this route to I milliseconds (1-12000). This is  typically  only
                  used on AX.25 networks. If omitted the RFC 1122 default of 300ms
                  is used.
           reject install a blocking route, which will force  a  route  lookup  to
                  fail.   This  is  for  example  used to mask out networks before
                  using the default route.  This is NOT for firewalling.
           mod, dyn, reinstate
                  install a dynamic or modified route. These flags are  for  diag-
                  nostic  purposes, and are generally only set by routing daemons.
           dev If force the route to be associated with the specified  device,  as
                  the kernel will otherwise try to determine the device on its own
                  (by checking already existing routes and device  specifications,
                  and  where  the  route is added to). In most normal networks you
                  won't need this.
                  If dev If is the last option on the command line, the  word  dev
                  may  be omitted, as it's the default. Otherwise the order of the
                  route modifiers (metric - netmask - gw - dev) doesn't matter.


           route add -net
                  adds the normal loopback entry, using netmask (class A
                  net,  determined  from  the  destination address) and associated
                  with the "lo" device (assuming this device was prviously set  up
                  correctly with ifconfig(8)).
           route add -net netmask dev eth0
                  Adds the route to the "ipx4" host via the SLIP interface (assum-
                  ing that "ipx4" is the SLIP host).
           route add -net netmask gw ipx4
                  This command adds the net "192.57.66.x" to be gatewayed  through
                  the former route to the SLIP interface.
           route add -net netmask dev eth0
                  This  is  an obscure one documented so people know how to do it.
                  This sets all of the class D (multicast) IP  routes  to  go  via
                  "eth0".  This  is  the  correct normal configuration line with a
                  multicasting kernel.
           route add -net netmask reject
                  This  installs  a  rejecting  route  for  the  private   network


           The  output  of  the kernel routing table is organized in the following
                  The destination network or destination host.
                  The gateway address or '*' if none set.
                  The netmask for the destination  net;  ''  for  a
                  host destination and '' for the default route.
           Flags  Possible flags include
                  U (route is up)
                  H (target is a host)
                  G (use gateway)
                  R (reinstate route for dynamic routing)
                  D (dynamically installed by daemon or redirect)
                  M (modified from routing daemon or redirect)
                  A (installed by addrconf)
                  C (cache entry)
                  !  (reject route)
           Metric The  'distance'  to  the target (usually counted in hops). It is
                  not used by recent kernels, but may be needed  by  routing  dae-
           Ref    Number  of references to this route. (Not used in the Linux ker-
                  sibly slow) answers.
           HH (cached only)
                  The number of ARP entries and cached routes that  refer  to  the
                  hardware header cache for the cached route. This will be -1 if a
                  hardware address is not needed for the interface of  the  cached
                  route (e.g. lo).
           Arp (cached only)
                  Whether  or  not the hardware address for the cached route is up
                  to date.






           Route for  Linux  was  originally  written  by  Fred  N.   van  Kempen,
           <>  and  then modified by Johannes Stille and
           Linus Torvalds for pl15. Alan Cox added the mss and window options  for
           Linux  1.1.22.  irtt  support and merged with netstat from Bernd Ecken-


           Currently maintained by Phil Blundell <>.

    net-tools 2 January 2000 ROUTE(8)


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