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           restore  -C  [-cdHklMvVy]  [-b blocksize] [-D filesystem] [-f file] [-F
           script] [-L limit] [-s fileno] [-T directory]
           restore -i [-acdhHklmMNouvVy] [-A file] [-b blocksize]  [-f  file]  [-F
           script] [-Q file] [-s fileno] [-T directory]
           restore  -P file [-acdhHklmMNuvVy] [-b blocksize] [-f file] [-F script]
           [-s fileno] [-T directory] [-X filelist] [ file ... ]
           restore -R [-cdHklMNuvVy] [-b blocksize]  [-f  file]  [-F  script]  [-s
           fileno] [-T directory]
           restore  -r  [-cdHklMNuvVy]  [-b  blocksize]  [-f file] [-F script] [-s
           fileno] [-T directory]
           restore -t [-cdhHklMNuvVy] [-A  file]  [-b  blocksize]  [-f  file]  [-F
           script] [-Q file] [-s fileno] [-T directory] [-X filelist] [ file ... ]
           restore -x [-adchHklmMNouvVy] [-A file] [-b blocksize]  [-f  file]  [-F
           script] [-Q file] [-s fileno] [-T directory] [-X filelist] [ file ... ]


           The restore command performs the inverse function of dump(8).   A  full
           backup  of  a  file  system  may be restored and subsequent incremental
           backups layered on top of it. Single files and directory  subtrees  may
           be  restored from full or partial backups.  Restore works across a net-
           work; to do this see the -f flag described below.  Other  arguments  to
           the  command  are file or directory names specifying the files that are
           to be restored. Unless the  -h  flag  is  specified  (see  below),  the
           appearance  of  a  directory name refers to the files and (recursively)
           subdirectories of that directory.
           Exactly one of the following flags is required:
           -C     This mode allows comparison of files from a dump.  Restore reads
                  the  backup  and compares its contents with files present on the
                  disk. It first changes its working directory to the root of  the
                  filesystem  that was dumped and compares the tape with the files
                  in its new current directory. See also  the  -L  flag  described
           -i     This  mode  allows interactive restoration of files from a dump.
                  After reading  in  the  directory  information  from  the  dump,
                  restore  provides a shell like interface that allows the user to
                  move around the directory tree selecting files to be  extracted.
                  The  available commands are given below; for those commands that
                  require an argument, the default is the current directory.
                  add [arg]
                         The current directory or specified argument is  added  to
                         the  list  of  files  to be extracted.  If a directory is
                         most  of  the files from a directory is to add the direc-
                         tory to the extraction list and then delete  those  files
                         that are not needed.
                         All  files  on the extraction list are extracted from the
                         dump.  Restore will ask which volume the user  wishes  to
                         mount.  The  fastest  way  to  extract a f ew files is to
                         start with the last volume and  work  towards  the  first
                  help   List a summary of the available commands.
                  ls [arg]
                         List the current or specified directory. Entries that are
                         directories are appended with a "/".  Entries  that  have
                         been  marked  for extraction are prepended with a "*". If
                         the verbose flag is set, the inode number of  each  entry
                         is also listed.
                  pwd    Print the full pathname of the current working directory.
                  quit   Restore immediately exits, even if the extraction list is
                         not empty.
                         All  directories  that  have been added to the extraction
                         list have their owner, modes, and times set;  nothing  is
                         extracted  from  the dump. This is useful for cleaning up
                         after a restore has been prematurely aborted.
                         The sense of the -v flag is toggled. When set,  the  ver-
                         bose flag causes the ls command to list the inode numbers
                         of all entries. It  also  causes  restore  to  print  out
                         information about each file as it is extracted.
           -P file
                  Restore creates a new Quick File Access file file from an exist-
                  ing dump file without restoring its contents.
           -R     Restore requests a particular tape  of  a  multi-volume  set  on
                  which to restart a full restore (see the -r flag below). This is
                  useful if the restore has been interrupted.
           -r     Restore (rebuild) a file system. The target file  system  should
                  be made pristine with mke2fs(8), mounted, and the user cd'd into
                  the pristine file system before starting the restoration of  the
                  initial  level  0  backup. If the level 0 restores successfully,
                  the -r flag may be used to  restore  any  necessary  incremental
                  backups on top of the level 0. The -r flag precludes an interac-
                  tive file extraction and can be detrimental to one's health (not
                  Restore, in conjunction with mke2fs(8) and dump(8), may be  used
                  to modify file system parameters such as size or block size.
           -t     The names of the specified files are listed if they occur on the
                  backup. If no file argument is  given,  the  root  directory  is
                  listed,  which results in the entire content of the backup being
                  listed, unless the -h flag has been specified.  Note that the -t
                  flag  replaces  the function of the old dumpdir(8) program.  See
                  also the -X option below.
           -x     The named files are read from the given media. If a  named  file
                  matches  a directory whose contents are on the backup and the -h
                  flag is not specified, the directory is  recursively  extracted.
                  The  owner,  modification time, and mode are restored (if possi-
                  ble). If no file  argument  is  given,  the  root  directory  is
                  extracted,  which  results  in  the entire content of the backup
                  being extracted, unless the -h flag  has  been  specified.   See
                  also the -X option below.


           The following additional options may be specified:
           -a     In  -i or -x mode, restore does ask the user for the volume num-
                  ber on which the files to be extracted are supposed  to  be  (in
                  order  to minimise the time by reading only the interesting vol-
                  umes). The -a option disables this behaviour and reads  all  the
                  volumes starting with 1. This option is useful when the operator
                  does not know on which volume the  files  to  be  extracted  are
                  and/or  when  he  prefers the longer unattended mode rather than
                  the shorter interactive mode.
           -A archive_file
                  Read the table of contents  from  archive_file  instead  of  the
                  media.  This  option can be used in combination with the -t, -i,
                  or -x options, making it possible to check whether files are  on
                  the media without having to mount the media.
           -b blocksize
                  The number of kilobytes per dump record. If the -b option is not
                  specified, restore tries  to  determine  the  media  block  size
           -c     Normally,  restore will try to determine dynamically whether the
                  dump was made from an old (pre-4.4) or new format  file  system.
                  The  -c flag disables this check, and only allows reading a dump
                  in the old format.
           -d     The -d (debug) flag causes restore to print debug information.
           -D filesystem
                  The -D flag allows the user to specify the filesystem name  when
                  ask  the user to change the tape. Any other exit code will cause
                  restore to abort. For security reasons, restore reverts back  to
                  the  real  user  ID  and  the  real  group ID before running the
           -h     Extract the actual directory, rather than the files that it ref-
                  erences. This prevents hierarchical restoration of complete sub-
                  trees from the dump.
           -H hash_size
                  Use a hashtable having the specified number of entries for stor-
                  ing  the  directories  entries  instead  of  a linked list. This
                  hashtable will considerably  speed  up  inode  lookups  (visible
                  especially  in  interactive mode when adding/removing files from
                  the restore list), but at the price of much more  memory  usage.
                  The default value is 1, meaning no hashtable is used.
           -k     Use  Kerberos  authentication  when  contacting  the remote tape
                  server. (Only available if this options was enabled when restore
                  was compiled.)
           -l     When  doing remote restores, assume the remote file is a regular
                  file (instead of a tape device). If you're  restoring  a  remote
                  compressed file, you will need to specify this option or restore
                  will fail to access it correctly.
           -L limit
                  The -L flag allows the user to specify a maximal number of  mis-
                  compares  when  using  restore  with  the -C option to check the
                  backup. If this limit is reached, restore  will  abort  with  an
                  error  message.  A  value  of 0 (the default value) disables the
           -m     Extract by inode numbers rather than by file name. This is  use-
                  ful  if  only  a few files are being extracted, and one wants to
                  avoid regenerating the complete pathname to the file.
           -M     Enables the multi-volume feature (for reading dumps  made  using
                  the -M option of dump). The name specified with -f is treated as
                  a prefix and restore tries to read in sequence from <prefix>001,
                  <prefix>002 etc.
           -N     The  -N  flag  causes  restore  to  perform  a full execution as
                  requested by one of -i, -R, -r, t or x command without  actually
                  writing any file on disk.
           -o     The  -o flag causes restore to automatically restore the current
                  directory permissions without asking the operator whether to  do
                  so in one of -i or -x modes.
           -Q file
                  Use the file file in order to read tape position as stored using
                  This  option  can  be  used  when restoring from local or remote
                  tapes (see above) or from local or remote files.
           -s fileno
                  Read from the specified fileno on a multi-file tape.  File  num-
                  bering starts at 1.
           -T directory
                  The  -T  flag  allows the user to specify a directory to use for
                  the storage of temporary files. The default value is /tmp.  This
                  flag  is  most  useful  when restoring files after having booted
                  from a floppy. There might be little or no space on  the  floppy
                  filesystem, but another source of space might exist.
           -u     When  creating  certain  types  of files, restore may generate a
                  warning diagnostic if they already exist in  the  target  direc-
                  tory.  To  prevent  this, the -u (unlink) flag causes restore to
                  remove old entries before attempting to create new ones.
           -v     Normally restore does its work silently. The -v  (verbose)  flag
                  causes  it  to  type the name of each file it treats preceded by
                  its file type.
           -V     Enables reading multi-volume non-tape mediums like CDROMs.
           -X filelist
                  Read list of files to be listed or extracted from the text  file
                  filelist  in  addition  to  those specified on the command line.
                  This can be used in conjunction with the -t or -x commands.  The
                  file  filelist  should contain file names separated by newlines.
                  filelist may be an ordinary file or - (the standard input).
           -y     Do not ask the user whether to abort the restore in the event of
                  an  error.   Always  try  to skip over the bad block(s) and con-
           (The 4.3BSD option syntax is implemented for backward compatibility but
           is not documented here.)


           Complains if it gets a read error. If y has been specified, or the user
           responds y, restore will attempt to continue the restore.
           If a backup was made using more than  one  tape  volume,  restore  will
           notify  the user when it is time to mount the next volume. If the -x or
           -i flag has been specified, restore will also ask which volume the user
           wishes  to  mount.  The  fastest way to extract a few files is to start
           with the last volume, and work towards the first volume.
           There are numerous consistency checks that can be  listed  by  restore.
           Most  checks  are self-explanatory or can "never happen". Common errors
                  occur when using a dump created on an active file system.
           Incremental dump too low
                  When  doing  an  incremental  restore,  a  dump that was written
                  before the previous incremental dump, or that  has  too  low  an
                  incremental level has been loaded.
           Incremental dump too high
                  When  doing  an  incremental restore, a dump that does not begin
                  its coverage where the previous incremental dump  left  off,  or
                  that has too high an incremental level has been loaded.
           Tape read error while restoring <filename>
           Tape read error while skipping over inode <inumber>
           Tape read error while trying to resynchronize
                  A  tape (or other media) read error has occurred. If a file name
                  is specified, its contents are probably partially wrong.  If  an
                  inode  is  being skipped or the tape is trying to resynchronize,
                  no extracted files have been corrupted, though files may not  be
                  found on the tape.
           resync restore, skipped <num> blocks
                  After  a  dump  read  error,  restore  may have to resynchronize
                  itself. This message  lists  the  number  of  blocks  that  were
                  skipped over.


           Restore  exits  with  zero status on success. Tape errors are indicated
           with an exit code of 1.
           When doing a comparison of files from a dump, an exit code of  2  indi-
           cates that some files were modified or deleted since the dump was made.


           If the following environment variable exists it  will  be  utilized  by
           TAPE   If no -f option was specified, restore will use the device spec-
                  ified via TAPE as the dump device.  TAPE  may  be  of  the  form
                  tapename, host:tapename or user@host:tapename.
           TMPDIR The  directory  given  in TMPDIR will be used instead of /tmp to
                  store temporary files.
           RMT    The environment variable RMT will be used to determine the path-
                  name of the remote rmt(8) program.
           RSH    Restore uses the contents of this variable to determine the name
                  of the remote shell command to use when doing a network  restore
                  (rsh,  ssh  etc.).  If this variable is not set, rcmd(3) will be


           dump(8), mount(8), mke2fs(8), rmt(8)


           Restore can get confused when doing  incremental  restores  from  dumps
           that were made on active file systems.
           A  level 0 dump must be done after a full restore. Because restore runs
           in user code, it has no control over inode allocation; thus a full dump
           must  be  done to get a new set of directories reflecting the new inode
           numbering, even though the content of the files is unchanged.
           The temporary files /tmp/rstdir* and /tmp/rstmode* are generated with a
           unique  name  based  on  the  date  of the dump and the process ID (see
           mktemp(3)), except when -r or -R is used.  Because  -R  allows  you  to
           restart  a  -r  operation that may have been interrupted, the temporary
           files should be the same  across  different  processes.  In  all  other
           cases,  the files are unique because it is possible to have two differ-
           ent dumps started at the same time, and separate  operations  shouldn't
           conflict with each other.
           To  do  a  network  restore,  you  have to run restore as root or use a
           remote shell replacement (see RSH variable).  This is due to the previ-
           ous  security  history of dump and restore.  ( restore is written to be
           setuid root, but we are not certain all bugs are gone from the  code  -
           run setuid at your own risk.)
           At  the end of restores in -i or -x modes (unless -o option is in use),
           restore will ask the operator whether to set  the  permissions  on  the
           current  directory.  If  the operator confirms this action, the permis-
           sions on the directory from where restore was launched will be replaced
           by the permissions on the dumped root inode. Although this behaviour is
           not really a bug, it has proven itself to be confusing for many  users,
           so  it  is  recommended to answer 'no', unless you're performing a full
           restore and you do want to restore the permissions on '/'.
           It should be underlined that because it runs in user  code,  restore  ,
           when  run  with  the  -C  option, sees the files as the kernel presents
           them, whereas dump sees all the files on a given filesystem. In partic-
           ular,  this can cause some confusion when comparing a dumped filesystem
           a part of which is hidden by a filesystem mounted on top of it.


           The dump/restore backup suite was ported  to  Linux's  Second  Extended
           File System by Remy Card <card@Linux.EU.Org>. He maintained the initial
           versions of dump (up and including 0.4b4, released in January 1997).
           Starting   with   0.4b5,   the   new   maintainer   is   Stelian    Pop



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