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    Command:

    req

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           openssl req [-inform PEM|DER] [-outform PEM|DER] [-in filename]
           [-passin arg] [-out filename] [-passout arg] [-text] [-pubkey] [-noout]
           [-verify] [-modulus] [-new] [-rand file(s)] [-newkey rsa:bits] [-newkey
           alg:file] [-nodes] [-key filename] [-keyform PEM|DER] [-keyout
           filename] [-keygen_engine id] [-[digest]] [-config filename] [-subj
           arg] [-multivalue-rdn] [-x509] [-days n] [-set_serial n] [-asn1-kludge]
           [-no-asn1-kludge] [-newhdr] [-extensions section] [-reqexts section]
           [-utf8] [-nameopt] [-reqopt] [-subject] [-subj arg] [-batch] [-verbose]
           [-engine id]
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           The req command primarily creates and processes certificate requests in
           PKCS#10 format. It can additionally create self signed certificates for
           use as root CAs for example.
    
    
    

    COMMAND OPTIONS

           -inform DER|PEM
               This specifies the input format. The DER option uses an ASN1 DER
               encoded form compatible with the PKCS#10. The PEM form is the
               default format: it consists of the DER format base64 encoded with
               additional header and footer lines.
    
           -outform DER|PEM
               This specifies the output format, the options have the same meaning
               as the -inform option.
    
           -in filename
               This specifies the input filename to read a request from or
               standard input if this option is not specified. A request is only
               read if the creation options (-new and -newkey) are not specified.
    
           -passin arg
               the input file password source. For more information about the
               format of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in openssl(1).
    
           -out filename
               This specifies the output filename to write to or standard output
               by default.
    
           -passout arg
               the output file password source. For more information about the
               format of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in openssl(1).
    
           -text
               prints out the certificate request in text form.
    
           -subject
               prints out the request subject (or certificate subject if -x509 is
               specified)
    
           -pubkey
               user for the relevant field values. The actual fields prompted for
               and their maximum and minimum sizes are specified in the
               configuration file and any requested extensions.
    
               If the -key option is not used it will generate a new RSA private
               key using information specified in the configuration file.
    
           -subj arg
               Replaces subject field of input request with specified data and
               outputs modified request. The arg must be formatted as
               /type0=value0/type1=value1/type2=..., characters may be escaped by
               \ (backslash), no spaces are skipped.
    
           -rand file(s)
               a file or files containing random data used to seed the random
               number generator, or an EGD socket (see RAND_egd(3)).  Multiple
               files can be specified separated by a OS-dependent character.  The
               separator is ; for MS-Windows, , for OpenVMS, and : for all others.
    
           -newkey arg
               this option creates a new certificate request and a new private
               key. The argument takes one of several forms. rsa:nbits, where
               nbits is the number of bits, generates an RSA key nbits in size. If
               nbits is omitted, i.e. -newkey rsa specified, the default key size,
               specified in the configuration file is used.
    
               All other algorithms support the -newkey alg:file form, where file
               may be an algorithm parameter file, created by the genpkey
               -genparam command or and X.509 certificate for a key with
               approriate algorithm.
    
               param:file generates a key using the parameter file or certificate
               file, the algorithm is determined by the parameters. algname:file
               use algorithm algname and parameter file file: the two algorithms
               must match or an error occurs. algname just uses algorithm algname,
               and parameters, if neccessary should be specified via -pkeyopt
               parameter.
    
               dsa:filename generates a DSA key using the parameters in the file
               filename. ec:filename generates EC key (usable both with ECDSA or
               ECDH algorithms), gost2001:filename generates GOST R 34.10-2001 key
               (requires ccgost engine configured in the configuration file). If
               just gost2001 is specified a parameter set should be specified by
               -pkeyopt paramset:X
    
           -pkeyopt opt:value
               set the public key algorithm option opt to value. The precise set
               of options supported depends on the public key algorithm used and
               its implementation. See KEY GENERATION OPTIONS in the genpkey
               manual page for more details.
    
           -key filename
               will not be encrypted.
    
           -[digest]
               this specifies the message digest to sign the request with (such as
               -md5, -sha1). This overrides the digest algorithm specified in the
               configuration file. For full list of possible digests see openssl
               dgst -h output.
    
               Some public key algorithms may override this choice. For instance,
               DSA signatures always use SHA1, GOST R 34.10 signatures always use
               GOST R 34.11-94 (-md_gost94).
    
           -config filename
               this allows an alternative configuration file to be specified, this
               overrides the compile time filename or any specified in the
               OPENSSL_CONF environment variable.
    
           -subj arg
               sets subject name for new request or supersedes the subject name
               when processing a request.  The arg must be formatted as
               /type0=value0/type1=value1/type2=..., characters may be escaped by
               \ (backslash), no spaces are skipped.
    
           -multivalue-rdn
               this option causes the -subj argument to be interpreted with full
               support for multivalued RDNs. Example:
    
               /DC=org/DC=OpenSSL/DC=users/UID=123456+CN=John Doe
    
               If -multi-rdn is not used then the UID value is 123456+CN=John Doe.
    
           -x509
               this option outputs a self signed certificate instead of a
               certificate request. This is typically used to generate a test
               certificate or a self signed root CA. The extensions added to the
               certificate (if any) are specified in the configuration file.
               Unless specified using the set_serial option 0 will be used for the
               serial number.
    
           -days n
               when the -x509 option is being used this specifies the number of
               days to certify the certificate for. The default is 30 days.
    
           -set_serial n
               serial number to use when outputting a self signed certificate.
               This may be specified as a decimal value or a hex value if preceded
               by 0x.  It is possible to use negative serial numbers but this is
               not recommended.
    
           -extensions section
           -reqexts section
               these options specify alternative sections to include certificate
               options separated by commas.  Alternatively the -nameopt switch may
               be used more than once to set multiple options. See the x509(1)
               manual page for details.
    
           -reqopt
               customise the output format used with -text. The option argument
               can be a single option or multiple options separated by commas.
    
               See discission of the  -certopt parameter in the x509 command.
    
           -asn1-kludge
               by default the req command outputs certificate requests containing
               no attributes in the correct PKCS#10 format. However certain CAs
               will only accept requests containing no attributes in an invalid
               form: this option produces this invalid format.
    
               More precisely the Attributes in a PKCS#10 certificate request are
               defined as a SET OF Attribute. They are not OPTIONAL so if no
               attributes are present then they should be encoded as an empty SET
               OF. The invalid form does not include the empty SET OF whereas the
               correct form does.
    
               It should be noted that very few CAs still require the use of this
               option.
    
           -no-asn1-kludge
               Reverses effect of -asn1-kludge
    
           -newhdr
               Adds the word NEW to the PEM file header and footer lines on the
               outputed request. Some software (Netscape certificate server) and
               some CAs need this.
    
           -batch
               non-interactive mode.
    
           -verbose
               print extra details about the operations being performed.
    
           -engine id
               specifying an engine (by its unique id string) will cause req to
               attempt to obtain a functional reference to the specified engine,
               thus initialising it if needed. The engine will then be set as the
               default for all available algorithms.
    
           -keygen_engine id
               specifies an engine (by its unique id string) which would be used
               for key generation operations.
    
    
    

    CONFIGURATION FILE FORMAT

           The configuration options are specified in the req section of the
           configuration file. As with all configuration files if no value is
    
           default_keyfile
               This is the default filename to write a private key to. If not
               specified the key is written to standard output. This can be
               overridden by the -keyout option.
    
           oid_file
               This specifies a file containing additional OBJECT IDENTIFIERS.
               Each line of the file should consist of the numerical form of the
               object identifier followed by white space then the short name
               followed by white space and finally the long name.
    
           oid_section
               This specifies a section in the configuration file containing extra
               object identifiers. Each line should consist of the short name of
               the object identifier followed by = and the numerical form. The
               short and long names are the same when this option is used.
    
           RANDFILE
               This specifies a filename in which random number seed information
               is placed and read from, or an EGD socket (see RAND_egd(3)).  It is
               used for private key generation.
    
           encrypt_key
               If this is set to no then if a private key is generated it is not
               encrypted. This is equivalent to the -nodes command line option.
               For compatibility encrypt_rsa_key is an equivalent option.
    
           default_md
               This option specifies the digest algorithm to use. Possible values
               include md5 sha1 mdc2. If not present then MD5 is used. This option
               can be overridden on the command line.
    
           string_mask
               This option masks out the use of certain string types in certain
               fields. Most users will not need to change this option.
    
               It can be set to several values default which is also the default
               option uses PrintableStrings, T61Strings and BMPStrings if the pkix
               value is used then only PrintableStrings and BMPStrings will be
               used. This follows the PKIX recommendation in RFC2459. If the
               utf8only option is used then only UTF8Strings will be used: this is
               the PKIX recommendation in RFC2459 after 2003. Finally the nombstr
               option just uses PrintableStrings and T61Strings: certain software
               has problems with BMPStrings and UTF8Strings: in particular
               Netscape.
    
           req_extensions
               this specifies the configuration file section containing a list of
               extensions to add to the certificate request. It can be overridden
               by the -reqexts command line switch. See the x509v3_config(5)
               manual page for details of the extension section format.
               strings, by default they are interpreted as ASCII. This means that
               the field values, whether prompted from a terminal or obtained from
               a configuration file, must be valid UTF8 strings.
    
           attributes
               this specifies the section containing any request attributes: its
               format is the same as distinguished_name. Typically these may
               contain the challengePassword or unstructuredName types. They are
               currently ignored by OpenSSL's request signing utilities but some
               CAs might want them.
    
           distinguished_name
               This specifies the section containing the distinguished name fields
               to prompt for when generating a certificate or certificate request.
               The format is described in the next section.
    
    
    

    DISTINGUISHED NAME AND ATTRIBUTE SECTION FORMAT

           There are two separate formats for the distinguished name and attribute
           sections. If the prompt option is set to no then these sections just
           consist of field names and values: for example,
    
            CN=My Name
            OU=My Organization
            emailAddress=someone@somewhere.org
    
           This allows external programs (e.g. GUI based) to generate a template
           file with all the field names and values and just pass it to req. An
           example of this kind of configuration file is contained in the EXAMPLES
           section.
    
           Alternatively if the prompt option is absent or not set to no then the
           file contains field prompting information. It consists of lines of the
           form:
    
            fieldName="prompt"
            fieldName_default="default field value"
            fieldName_min= 2
            fieldName_max= 4
    
           "fieldName" is the field name being used, for example commonName (or
           CN).  The "prompt" string is used to ask the user to enter the relevant
           details. If the user enters nothing then the default value is used if
           no default value is present then the field is omitted. A field can
           still be omitted if a default value is present if the user just enters
           the '.' character.
    
           The number of characters entered must be between the fieldName_min and
           fieldName_max limits: there may be additional restrictions based on the
           field being used (for example countryName can only ever be two
           characters long and must fit in a PrintableString).
    
           Some fields (such as organizationName) can be used more than once in a
           will be treated as though they were a DirectoryString.
    
    
    

    EXAMPLES

           Examine and verify certificate request:
    
            openssl req -in req.pem -text -verify -noout
    
           Create a private key and then generate a certificate request from it:
    
            openssl genrsa -out key.pem 1024
            openssl req -new -key key.pem -out req.pem
    
           The same but just using req:
    
            openssl req -newkey rsa:1024 -keyout key.pem -out req.pem
    
           Generate a self signed root certificate:
    
            openssl req -x509 -newkey rsa:1024 -keyout key.pem -out req.pem
    
           Example of a file pointed to by the oid_file option:
    
            1.2.3.4        shortName       A longer Name
            1.2.3.6        otherName       Other longer Name
    
           Example of a section pointed to by oid_section making use of variable
           expansion:
    
            testoid1=1.2.3.5
            testoid2=${testoid1}.6
    
           Sample configuration file prompting for field values:
    
            [ req ]
            default_bits           = 1024
            default_keyfile        = privkey.pem
            distinguished_name     = req_distinguished_name
            attributes             = req_attributes
            x509_extensions        = v3_ca
    
            dirstring_type = nobmp
    
            [ req_distinguished_name ]
            countryName                    = Country Name (2 letter code)
            countryName_default            = AU
            countryName_min                = 2
            countryName_max                = 2
    
            localityName                   = Locality Name (eg, city)
    
            organizationalUnitName         = Organizational Unit Name (eg, section)
    
            authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid:always,issuer:always
            basicConstraints = CA:true
    
           Sample configuration containing all field values:
    
            RANDFILE               = $ENV::HOME/.rnd
    
            [ req ]
            default_bits           = 1024
            default_keyfile        = keyfile.pem
            distinguished_name     = req_distinguished_name
            attributes             = req_attributes
            prompt                 = no
            output_password        = mypass
    
            [ req_distinguished_name ]
            C                      = GB
            ST                     = Test State or Province
            L                      = Test Locality
            O                      = Organization Name
            OU                     = Organizational Unit Name
            CN                     = Common Name
            emailAddress           = test@email.address
    
            [ req_attributes ]
            challengePassword              = A challenge password
    
    
    

    NOTES

           The header and footer lines in the PEM format are normally:
    
            -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----
            -----END CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----
    
           some software (some versions of Netscape certificate server) instead
           needs:
    
            -----BEGIN NEW CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----
            -----END NEW CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----
    
           which is produced with the -newhdr option but is otherwise compatible.
           Either form is accepted transparently on input.
    
           The certificate requests generated by Xenroll with MSIE have extensions
           added. It includes the keyUsage extension which determines the type of
           key (signature only or general purpose) and any additional OIDs entered
           by the script in an extendedKeyUsage extension.
    
    
    

    DIAGNOSTICS

           The following messages are frequently asked about:
    
                   Using configuration from /some/path/openssl.cnf
                   Unable to load config info
                   Attributes:
                       a0:00
    
           this is displayed when no attributes are present and the request
           includes the correct empty SET OF structure (the DER encoding of which
           is 0xa0 0x00). If you just see:
    
                   Attributes:
    
           then the SET OF is missing and the encoding is technically invalid (but
           it is tolerated). See the description of the command line option
           -asn1-kludge for more information.
    
    
    

    ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

           The variable OPENSSL_CONF if defined allows an alternative
           configuration file location to be specified, it will be overridden by
           the -config command line switch if it is present. For compatibility
           reasons the SSLEAY_CONF environment variable serves the same purpose
           but its use is discouraged.
    
    
    

    BUGS

           OpenSSL's handling of T61Strings (aka TeletexStrings) is broken: it
           effectively treats them as ISO-8859-1 (Latin 1), Netscape and MSIE have
           similar behaviour.  This can cause problems if you need characters that
           aren't available in PrintableStrings and you don't want to or can't use
           BMPStrings.
    
           As a consequence of the T61String handling the only correct way to
           represent accented characters in OpenSSL is to use a BMPString:
           unfortunately Netscape currently chokes on these. If you have to use
           accented characters with Netscape and MSIE then you currently need to
           use the invalid T61String form.
    
           The current prompting is not very friendly. It doesn't allow you to
           confirm what you've just entered. Other things like extensions in
           certificate requests are statically defined in the configuration file.
           Some of these: like an email address in subjectAltName should be input
           by the user.
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           x509(1), ca(1), genrsa(1), gendsa(1), config(5), x509v3_config(5)
    
    
    

    1.0.1e 2016-01-07 REQ(1)

    
    
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