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           refer [ -benvCPRS ] [ -an ] [ -cfields ] [ -fn ] [ -ifields ]
                 [ -kfield ] [ -lm,n ] [ -pfilename ] [ -sfields ] [ -tn ]
                 [ -Bfield.macro ] [ filename... ]
           It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its


           This file documents the GNU version of refer,  which  is  part  of  the
           groff  document  formatting system.  refer copies the contents of file-
           name...  to the standard output, except that lines between  .[  and  .]
           are  interpreted as citations, and lines between .R1 and .R2 are inter-
           preted as commands about how citations are to be processed.
           Each citation specifies a reference.  The citation can specify a refer-
           ence  that  is contained in a bibliographic database by giving a set of
           keywords that only that reference contains.  Alternatively it can spec-
           ify a reference by supplying a database record in the citation.  A com-
           bination of these alternatives is also possible.
           For each citation, refer can produce a mark in  the  text.   This  mark
           consists  of  some  label which can be separated from the text and from
           other labels in various ways.  For each reference it also outputs groff
           commands  that  can  be  used by a macro package to produce a formatted
           reference for each citation.  The output of  refer  must  therefore  be
           processed  using  a suitable macro package.  The -ms and -me macros are
           both suitable.  The commands to format a citation's  reference  can  be
           output immediately after the citation, or the references may be accumu-
           lated, and the commands output at some later point.  If the  references
           are  accumulated,  then  multiple  citations of the same reference will
           produce a single formatted reference.
           The interpretation of lines between .R1 and .R2 as commands  is  a  new
           feature  of  GNU refer.  Documents making use of this feature can still
           be processed by Unix refer just by adding the lines
                  .de R1
                  .ig R2
           to the beginning of the document.  This  will  cause  troff  to  ignore
           everything  between  .R1 and .R2.  The effect of some commands can also
           be achieved by options.  These options are supported mainly for compat-
           ibility  with  Unix  refer.   It is usually more convenient to use com-
           refer generates .lf lines so that filenames and line  numbers  in  mes-
           sages  produced  by commands that read refer output will be correct; it
           also interprets lines beginning with .lf so  that  filenames  and  line
           numbers in the messages and .lf lines that it produces will be accurate
           even if the input has been preprocessed by a command such as soelim(1).
           -S     label "(A.n|Q) ', ' (D.y|D)"; bracket-label " (" ) "; "
           -an    reverse An
                  capitalize fields
           -fn    label %n
                  search-ignore fields
           -k     label L~%a
                  label field~%a
           -l     label A.nD.y%a
           -lm    label A.n+mD.y%a
           -l,n   label A.nD.y-n%a
           -lm,n  label A.n+mD.y-n%a
                  database filename
           -sspec sort spec
           -tn    search-truncate n
           These options are equivalent to the following commands with  the  addi-
           tion  that the filenames specified on the command line are processed as
           if they were arguments to the bibliography command instead  of  in  the
           normal way:
           -B     annotate X AP; no-label-in-reference
                  annotate field macro; no-label-in-reference
           The following options have no equivalent commands:
           -v     Print the version number.
           -R     Don't recognize lines beginning with .R1/.R2.


       Bibliographic databases
           The  bibliographic  database is a text file consisting of records sepa-
           rated by one or more blank lines.  Within each record fields start with
           C      The place (city) of publication.
           D      The date of publication.  The year should be specified in  full.
                  If  the  month  is specified, the name rather than the number of
                  the month should be used, but only the first three  letters  are
                  required.   It is a good idea always to supply a D field; if the
                  date is unknown, a value such as in  press  or  unknown  can  be
           E      For  an article that is part of a book, the name of an editor of
                  the book.  Where the work has editors and no authors, the  names
                  of the editors should be given as A fields and , (ed) or , (eds)
                  should be appended to the last author.
           G      US Government ordering number.
           I      The publisher (issuer).
           J      For an article in a journal, the name of the journal.
           K      Keywords to be used for searching.
           L      Label.
           N      Journal issue number.
           O      Other information.  This is usually printed at the  end  of  the
           P      Page number.  A range of pages can be specified as m-n.
           Q      The  name  of  the  author, if the author is not a person.  This
                  will only be used if there are no A fields.  There can  only  be
                  one Q field.
           R      Technical report number.
           S      Series name.
           T      Title.   For an article in a book or journal, this should be the
                  title of the article.
           V      Volume number of the journal or book.
           X      Annotation.
           For all fields except A and E, if there is more than one occurrence  of
           a  particular field in a record, only the last such field will be used.
           If accent strings are used, they should  follow  the  character  to  be
           accented.   This  means  that  the  AM  macro must be used with the -ms
           reference  that  contains all the words in keywords.  It is an error if
           more than one reference if found.
           The fields components specifies additional fields to replace or supple-
           ment those specified in the reference.  When references are being accu-
           mulated and the keywords component is non-empty, then additional fields
           should be specified only on the first occasion that a particular refer-
           ence is cited, and will apply to all citations of that reference.
           The opening-text and closing-text component  specifies  strings  to  be
           used  to  bracket  the  label  instead  of the strings specified in the
           bracket-label command.  If either of these components is non-empty, the
           strings  specified  in the bracket-label command will not be used; this
           behaviour can be altered using the [ and ] flags.   Note  that  leading
           and trailing spaces are significant for these components.
           The  flags  component  is a list of non-alphanumeric characters each of
           which modifies the treatment of this particular citation.   Unix  refer
           will  treat these flags as part of the keywords and so will ignore them
           since they are non-alphanumeric.  The  following  flags  are  currently
           #      This says to use the label specified by the short-label command,
                  instead of that specified by the label  command.   If  no  short
                  label  has been specified, the normal label will be used.  Typi-
                  cally the short label is used with author-date labels  and  con-
                  sists of only the date and possibly a disambiguating letter; the
                  # is supposed to be suggestive of a numeric type of label.
           [      Precede opening-text with the  first  string  specified  in  the
                  bracket-label command.
           ]      Follow  closing-text  with  the  second  string specified in the
                  bracket-label command.
           One advantages of using the [ and ] flags  rather  than  including  the
           brackets  in  opening-text  and closing-text is that you can change the
           style of bracket used in the document just  by  changing  the  bracket-
           label  command.  Another advantage is that sorting and merging of cita-
           tions will not necessarily be inhibited if the flags are used.
           If a label is to be inserted into the text, it will be attached to  the
           line  preceding  the  .[ line.  If there is no such line, then an extra
           line will be inserted before the .[ line and a warning will be given.
           There is no special notation for making a citation to  multiple  refer-
           ences.   Just  use  a  sequence  of  citations, one for each reference.
           Don't put anything between the citations.  The labels for all the cita-
           tions  will  be attached to the line preceding the first citation.  The
           labels may also be sorted or merged.  See the  description  of  the  <>
           label expression, and of the sort-adjacent-labels and abbreviate-label-
           ranges command.  A label will not be merged if its citation has a  non-
           extends to the end of the line (but  does  not  conceal  the  newline).
           Each command is broken up into words.  Words are separated by spaces or
           tabs.  A word that begins with " extends to the next " that is not fol-
           lowed  by another ".  If there is no such " the word extends to the end
           of the line.  Pairs of " in a word beginning with " collapse to a  sin-
           gle  ".   Neither # nor ; are recognized inside "s.  A line can be con-
           tinued by ending it with \; this works everywhere except after a #.
           Each command name that is marked with * has an associated negative com-
           mand  no-name that undoes the effect of name.  For example, the no-sort
           command specifies that references should not be sorted.   The  negative
           commands take no arguments.
           In the following description each argument must be a single word; field
           is used for a single upper or lower case letter naming a field;  fields
           is used for a sequence of such letters; m and n are used for a non-neg-
           ative numbers; string is used for an arbitrary string; filename is used
           for the name of a file.
           abbreviate* fields string1 string2 string3 string4
                                    Abbreviate the first names of fields.  An ini-
                                    tial letter will  be  separated  from  another
                                    initial  letter by string1, from the last name
                                    by string2, and from anything else (such as  a
                                    von  or  de)  by  string3.  These default to a
                                    period followed by a space.  In  a  hyphenated
                                    first  name,  the initial of the first part of
                                    the name will be separated from the hyphen  by
                                    string4;   this  defaults  to  a  period.   No
                                    attempt is made to handle any ambiguities that
                                    might  result  from  abbreviation.   Names are
                                    abbreviated before sorting  and  before  label
           abbreviate-label-ranges* string
                                    Three  or  more  adjacent labels that refer to
                                    consecutive references will be abbreviated  to
                                    a  label  consisting  of the first label, fol-
                                    lowed by string followed by  the  last  label.
                                    This is mainly useful with numeric labels.  If
                                    string is omitted it defaults to -.
           accumulate*              Accumulate references instead of  writing  out
                                    each  reference as it is encountered.  Accumu-
                                    lated references will be written out  whenever
                                    a reference of the form
                                    is encountered, after all input files hve been
                                    cles, and should be ignored at  the  beginning
                                    of  T  fields when sorting.  Initially, the, a
                                    and an are recognized as articles.
           bibliography filename... Write out all the references contained in  the
                                    bibliographic databases filename...
           bracket-label string1 string2 string3
                                    In  the  text, bracket each label with string1
                                    and string2.  An occurrence of string2 immedi-
                                    ately  followed by string1 will be turned into
                                    string3.  The default behaviour is
                                           bracket-label \*([. \*(.] ", "
           capitalize fields        Convert fields to caps and small caps.
           compatible*              Recognize .R1 and .R2 even when followed by  a
                                    character other than space or newline.
           database filename...     Search the bibliographic databases filename...
                                    For each filename if an index filename.i  cre-
                                    ated  by  indxbib(1)  exists,  then it will be
                                    searched instead; each index can cover  multi-
                                    ple databases.
           date-as-label* string    string  is a label expression that specifies a
                                    string with which to replace the D field after
                                    constructing the label.  See the Label expres-
                                    sions subsection for a  description  of  label
                                    expressions.  This command is useful if you do
                                    not want  explicit  labels  in  the  reference
                                    list, but instead want to handle any necessary
                                    disambiguation by qualifying the date in  some
                                    way.   The  label used in the text would typi-
                                    cally be some combination of  the  author  and
                                    date.   In  most cases you should also use the
                                    no-label-in-reference command.  For example,
                                           date-as-label D.+yD.y%a*D.-y
                                    would attach a disambiguating  letter  to  the
                                    year part of the D field in the reference.
           default-database*        The default database should be searched.  This
                                    is the default behaviour, so the negative ver-
                                    sion  of  this  command is more useful.  refer
                                    determines whether the default database should
                                    be  searched  on  the  first  occasion that it
                                    needs to do  a  search.   Thus  a  no-default-
                                    database command must be given before then, in
                                    order to be effective.
                                           et-al " et al" 2 3
           include filename         Include filename and interpret the contents as
           join-authors string1 string2 string3
                                    This  says  how  authors  should   be   joined
                                    together.  When there are exactly two authors,
                                    they will be joined with string1.  When  there
                                    are  more  than  two authors, all but the last
                                    two will be joined with string2, and the  last
                                    two  authors  will be joined with string3.  If
                                    string3  is  omitted,  it  will   default   to
                                    string1;  if  string2  is also omitted it will
                                    also default to string1.  For example,
                                           join-authors " and " ", " ", and "
                                    will restore the default  method  for  joining
           label-in-reference*      When  outputting  the  reference,  define  the
                                    string [F to be the reference's  label.   This
                                    is the default behaviour; so the negative ver-
                                    sion of this command is more useful.
           label-in-text*           For each reference output a label in the text.
                                    The label will be separated from the surround-
                                    ing text as  described  in  the  bracket-label
                                    command.   This  is  the default behaviour; so
                                    the negative version of this command  is  more
           label string             string is a label expression describing how to
                                    label each reference.
           separate-label-second-parts string
                                    When merging  two-part  labels,  separate  the
                                    second part of the second label from the first
                                    label with string.  See the description of the
                                    <> label expression.
           move-punctuation*        In  the  text, move any punctuation at the end
                                    of line past the label.  It is usually a  good
                                    idea to give this command unless you are using
                                    superscripted numbers as labels.
           reverse* string          Reverse the fields whose names are in  string.
                                    Each  field  name  can be followed by a number
                                    which says how  many  such  fields  should  be
                                    reversed.   If no number is given for a field,
                                    all such fields will be reversed.
                                    citation.    When   using   author-date  style
                                    labels, the identity of the author or  authors
                                    is sometimes clear from the context, and so it
                                    may be desirable to omit the author or authors
                                    from  the label.  The short-label command will
                                    typically be used to specify a label  contain-
                                    ing  just a date and possibly a disambiguating
           sort* string             Sort references according to  string.   Refer-
                                    ences   will   automatically  be  accumulated.
                                    string should be a list of field  names,  each
                                    followed  by  a  number,  indicating  how many
                                    fields with the name should be used for  sort-
                                    ing.   +  can be used to indicate that all the
                                    fields with the name should be used.   Also  .
                                    can  be used to indicate the references should
                                    be sorted using the (tentative)  label.   (The
                                    Label  expressions  subsection  describes  the
                                    concept of a tentative label.)
           sort-adjacent-labels*    Sort labels that  are  adjacent  in  the  text
                                    according  to  their position in the reference
                                    list.  This command should usually be given if
                                    the  abbreviate-label-ranges  command has been
                                    given, or if the label expression  contains  a
                                    <>  expression.   This  will  have  no  effect
                                    unless references are being accumulated.
       Label expressions
           Label expressions can be evaluated both normally and tentatively.   The
           result  of  normal evaluation is used for output.  The result of tenta-
           tive evaluation, called the tentative label,  is  used  to  gather  the
           information  that  normal  evaluation  needs to disambiguate the label.
           Label expressions specified by the date-as-label and  short-label  com-
           mands  are  not evaluated tentatively.  Normal and tentative evaluation
           are the same for all types of expression other than @, *, and % expres-
           sions.   The  description  below  applies  to normal evaluation, except
           where otherwise specified.
           field n
                  The n-th part of field.  If n is omitted, it defaults to 1.
                  The characters in string literally.
           @      All the authors joined as specified by the join-authors command.
                  The  whole  of each author's name will be used.  However, if the
                  references are sorted by author (that is the sort  specification
                  starts  with A+), then authors' last names will be used instead,
                  provided that this does not introduce  ambiguity,  and  also  an
                  used.   @ tentatively evaluates to a canonical representation of
                  the authors, such that authors that compare equally for  sorting
                  purpose will have the same representation.
           %I     The  serial  number  of the reference formatted according to the
                  character following the %.  The serial number of a reference  is
                  1  plus  the  number  of  earlier references with same tentative
                  label as this reference.  These expressions tentatively evaluate
                  to an empty string.
           expr*  If  there  is another reference with the same tentative label as
                  this reference, then expr, otherwise an empty string.  It tenta-
                  tively evaluates to an empty string.
           expr-n The  first (+) or last (-) n upper or lower case letters or dig-
                  its of expr.  Troff special characters (such as \('a) count as a
                  single  letter.   Accent  strings  are retained but do not count
                  towards the total.
           expr.l expr converted to lowercase.
           expr.u expr converted to uppercase.
           expr.c expr converted to caps and small caps.
           expr.r expr reversed so that the last name is first.
           expr.a expr with first names abbreviated.  Note that  fields  specified
                  in  the abbreviate command are abbreviated before any labels are
                  evaluated.  Thus .a is useful only when you want a field  to  be
                  abbreviated in a label but not in a reference.
           expr.y The year part of expr.
                  The  part  of  expr  before the year, or the whole of expr if it
                  does not contain a year.
                  The part of expr after the year, or an empty string if expr does
                  not contain a year.
           expr.n The last name part of expr.
                  expr1  except  that  if the last character of expr1 is - then it
                  will be replaced by expr2.
                  adjacent  two-part labels which have the same first part will be
                  merged by appending the second part of the second label onto the
                  first  label  separated by the string specified in the separate-
                  label-second-parts command (initially, a  comma  followed  by  a
                  space);  the  resulting label will also be a two-part label with
                  the same first part as before merging, and so additional  labels
                  can  be  merged  into  it.   Note that it is permissible for the
                  first part to be empty; this  maybe  desirable  for  expressions
                  used in the short-label command.
           (expr) The same as expr.  Used for grouping.
           The  above  expressions  are  listed  in  order  of precedence (highest
           first); & and | have the same precedence.
       Macro interface
           Each reference starts with a call to the macro ]-.  The string [F  will
           be  defined to be the label for this reference, unless the no-label-in-
           reference command has been given.   There  then  follows  a  series  of
           string  definitions, one for each field: string [X corresponds to field
           X.  The number register [P is set to 1 if the P field contains a  range
           of pages.  The [T, [A and [O number registers are set to 1 according as
           the T, A and O fields end with one of the characters .?!.  The [E  num-
           ber  register  will be set to 1 if the [E string contains more than one
           name.  The reference is followed by a call to the ][ macro.  The  first
           argument to this macro gives a number representing the type of the ref-
           erence.  If a reference contains a J field, it will  be  classified  as
           type  1,  otherwise if it contains a B field, it will type 3, otherwise
           if it contains a G or R field it will be type 4, otherwise if  contains
           a  I  field it will be type 2, otherwise it will be type 0.  The second
           argument is a symbolic name for the type: other, journal-article, book,
           article-in-book  or  tech-report.   Groups of references that have been
           accumulated or are produced by the bibliography command are preceded by
           a call to the ]< macro and followed by a call to the ]> macro.


           /usr/dict/papers/Ind  Default database.
           file.i                Index files.


           indxbib(1), lookbib(1), lkbib(1)


           In  label  expressions, <> expressions are ignored inside .char expres-

    Groff Version 27 June 2001 REFER(1)


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