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           rcs options file ...


           rcs  creates  new RCS files or changes attributes of existing ones.  An
           RCS file contains multiple revisions of text, an access list, a  change
           log,  descriptive  text, and some control attributes.  For rcs to work,
           the caller's login name must be on  the  access  list,  except  if  the
           access  list is empty, the caller is the owner of the file or the supe-
           ruser, or the -i option is present.
           Pathnames matching an RCS suffix denote RCS files;  all  others  denote
           working  files.  Names are paired as explained in ci(1).  Revision num-
           bers use the syntax described in ci(1).


           -i     Create and initialize a new RCS file, but  do  not  deposit  any
                  revision.   If  the RCS file has no path prefix, try to place it
                  first into the subdirectory ./RCS, and  then  into  the  current
                  directory.   If the RCS file already exists, print an error mes-
                  Append the login names appearing  in  the  comma-separated  list
                  logins to the access list of the RCS file.
                  Append  the access list of oldfile to the access list of the RCS
                  Erase the login names  appearing  in  the  comma-separated  list
                  logins from the access list of the RCS file.  If logins is omit-
                  ted, erase the entire access list.
                  Set the default branch to rev.  If rev is omitted,  the  default
                  branch  is  reset  to  the  (dynamically)  highest branch on the
                  Set the comment leader to string.  An initial ci, or  an  rcs -i
                  without  -c,  guesses  the comment leader from the suffix of the
                  working filename.
                  This option is obsolescent, since RCS normally uses the  preced-
                  ing $Log$ line's prefix when inserting log lines during checkout
                  (see co(1)).  However, older versions of  RCS  use  the  comment
                  leader  instead  of  the  $Log$ line's prefix, so if you plan to
                  access a file with both old and new versions of RCS,  make  sure
                  its comment leader matches its $Log$ line prefix.
                  Unlock  the  revision  with  number  rev.  If a branch is given,
                  unlock the latest revision on that branch.  If rev  is  omitted,
                  remove  the  latest lock held by the caller.  Normally, only the
                  locker of a revision can unlock it.  Somebody else  unlocking  a
                  revision breaks the lock.  This causes a mail message to be sent
                  to the original  locker.   The  message  contains  a  commentary
                  solicited  from  the  breaker.   The commentary is terminated by
                  end-of-file or by a line containing . by itself.
           -L     Set locking to strict.  Strict locking means that the  owner  of
                  an RCS file is not exempt from locking for checkin.  This option
                  should be used for files that are shared.
           -U     Set locking to non-strict.  Non-strict locking  means  that  the
                  owner  of  a  file  need  not lock a revision for checkin.  This
                  option should not be used for files that  are  shared.   Whether
                  default  locking is strict is determined by your system adminis-
                  trator, but it is normally strict.
                  Replace revision rev's log message with msg.
           -M     Do not send mail  when  breaking  somebody  else's  lock.   This
                  option  is  not  meant  for casual use; it is meant for programs
                  that warn users by other means, and invoke rcs -u only as a low-
                  level lock-breaking operation.
                  Associate  the  symbolic  name  name with the branch or revision
                  rev.  Delete the symbolic name if both : and  rev  are  omitted;
                  otherwise,  print an error message if name is already associated
                  with another number.  If rev is symbolic, it is expanded  before
                  association.   A rev consisting of a branch number followed by a
                  . stands for the current latest revision in  the  branch.   A  :
                  with  an empty rev stands for the current latest revision on the
                  default   branch,   normally   the    trunk.     For    example,
                  rcs -nname: RCS/*  associates name with the current latest revi-
                  sion  of  all  the  named  RCS  files;   this   contrasts   with
                  rcs -nname:$ RCS/*  which associates name with the revision num-
                  bers extracted from keyword strings in the corresponding working
                  Act like -n, except override any previous assignment of name.
                  deletes ("outdates") the revisions given by range.  A range con-
                  sisting of a single revision  number  means  that  revision.   A
                  range consisting of a branch number means the latest revision on
                  that branch.  A range of the form rev1:rev2 means revisions rev1
                  to rev2 on the same branch, :rev means from the beginning of the
                  (for released).  By default, ci(1) sets the state of a  revision
                  to Exp.
                  Write  descriptive text from the contents of the named file into
                  the RCS file, deleting the existing  text.   The  file  pathname
                  cannot  begin  with -.  If file is omitted, obtain the text from
                  standard input, terminated by end-of-file or by a line  contain-
                  ing  . by  itself.  Prompt for the text if interaction is possi-
                  ble; see -I.  With -i, descriptive text is obtained even  if  -t
                  is not given.
                  Write descriptive text from the string into the RCS file, delet-
                  ing the existing text.
           -T     Preserve the modification time on the RCS file unless a revision
                  is  removed.   This  option can suppress extensive recompilation
                  caused by a make(1) dependency of some copy of the working  file
                  on  the  RCS  file.   Use this option with care; it can suppress
                  recompilation even when it is needed, i.e. when a change to  the
                  RCS  file  would mean a change to keyword strings in the working
           -V     Print RCS's version number.
           -Vn    Emulate RCS version n.  See co(1) for details.
                  Use suffixes to characterize RCS files.  See ci(1) for  details.
           -zzone Use  zone  as the default time zone.  This option has no effect;
                  it is present for compatibility with other RCS commands.
           At least one explicit option must be  given,  to  ensure  compatibility
           with future planned extensions to the rcs command.


           The  -brev  option  generates  an RCS file that cannot be parsed by RCS
           version 3 or earlier.
           The -ksubst options (except -kkv) generate an RCS file that  cannot  be
           parsed by RCS version 4 or earlier.
           Use rcs -Vn to make an RCS file acceptable to RCS version n by discard-
           ing information that would confuse version n.
           RCS version 5.5 and  earlier  does  not  support  the  -x  option,  and
           requires a ,v suffix on an RCS pathname.


           rcs  accesses  files much as ci(1) does, except that it uses the effec-


           Author: Walter F. Tichy.
           Manual Page Revision: 5.13; Release Date: 1995/06/05.
           Copyright (C) 1982, 1988, 1989 Walter F. Tichy.
           Copyright (C) 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995 Paul Eggert.


           rcsintro(1),   co(1),   ci(1),   ident(1),   rcsclean(1),   rcsdiff(1),
           rcsmerge(1), rlog(1), rcsfile(5)
           Walter F. Tichy, RCS--A System for Version Control,  Software--Practice
           & Experience 15, 7 (July 1985), 637-654.


           A  catastrophe  (e.g.  a  system crash) can cause RCS to leave behind a
           semaphore file that causes later invocations of RCS to claim  that  the
           RCS  file  is  in  use.   To  fix  this,  remove the semaphore file.  A
           semaphore file's name typically begins with , or ends with _.
           The separator for revision ranges in the -o option used to be - instead
           of  :,  but this leads to confusion when symbolic names contain -.  For
           backwards compatibility rcs -o still supports the old - separator,  but
           it warns about this obsolete use.
           Symbolic  names  need not refer to existing revisions or branches.  For
           example, the -o option does not remove symbolic names for the  outdated
           revisions; you must use -n to remove the names.

    GNU 1995/06/05 RCS(1)


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