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           #include <pthread.h>
           int pthread_create(pthread_t *thread, const pthread_attr_t *attr,
                              void *(*start_routine) (void *), void *arg);
           Compile and link with -pthread.


           The  pthread_create()  function starts a new thread in the calling pro-
           cess.  The new thread starts execution by invoking start_routine(); arg
           is passed as the sole argument of start_routine().
           The new thread terminates in one of the following ways:
           * It  calls  pthread_exit(3),  specifying  an exit status value that is
             available  to  another  thread  in  the  same  process   that   calls
           * It  returns  from  start_routine().   This  is  equivalent to calling
             pthread_exit(3) with the value supplied in the return statement.
           * It is canceled (see pthread_cancel(3)).
           * Any of the threads in the process calls exit(3), or the  main  thread
             performs  a  return  from main().  This causes the termination of all
             threads in the process.
           The attr argument points to a pthread_attr_t structure  whose  contents
           are  used  at  thread creation time to determine attributes for the new
           thread; this structure is initialized  using  pthread_attr_init(3)  and
           related  functions.   If  attr is NULL, then the thread is created with
           default attributes.
           Before returning, a successful call to pthread_create() stores  the  ID
           of  the  new thread in the buffer pointed to by thread; this identifier
           is used to refer to the thread in subsequent calls  to  other  pthreads
           The  new  thread  inherits  a copy of the creating thread's signal mask
           (pthread_sigmask(3)).  The set of pending signals for the new thread is
           empty  (sigpending(2)).   The  new thread does not inherit the creating
           thread's alternate signal stack (sigaltstack(2)).
           The new thread inherits the calling thread's floating-point environment
           The  initial  value  of  the  new  thread's  CPU-time  clock  is 0 (see
       Linux-specific details
           The new thread inherits copies of the calling thread's capability  sets
           EINVAL Invalid settings in attr.
           EPERM  No permission to set the scheduling policy and parameters speci-
                  fied in attr.




           See pthread_self(3) for further information on the thread  ID  returned
           in  *thread  by pthread_create().  Unless real-time scheduling policies
           are being employed, after a call to pthread_create(), it is  indetermi-
           nate which thread--the caller or the new thread--will next execute.
           A  thread may either be joinable or detached.  If a thread is joinable,
           then another thread can call pthread_join(3) to wait for the thread  to
           terminate  and  fetch its exit status.  Only when a terminated joinable
           thread has been joined are the last of its resources released  back  to
           the system.  When a detached thread terminates, its resources are auto-
           matically released back to the system: it is not possible to join  with
           the  thread  in  order  to  obtain  its  exit  status.  Making a thread
           detached is useful for some types of daemon threads whose  exit  status
           the  application does not need to care about.  By default, a new thread
           is created in a joinable state, unless  attr  was  set  to  create  the
           thread in a detached state (using pthread_attr_setdetachstate(3)).
           On  Linux/x86-32,  the  default  stack  size  for  a  new  thread  is 2
           megabytes.   Under  the   NPTL   threading   implementation,   if   the
           RLIMIT_STACK  soft  resource  limit at the time the program started has
           any value other than "unlimited", then it determines the default  stack
           size  of  new  threads.   Using pthread_attr_setstacksize(3), the stack
           size attribute can be explicitly set in the attr argument used to  cre-
           ate a thread, in order to obtain a stack size other than the default.


           In  the  obsolete LinuxThreads implementation, each of the threads in a
           process has a different process ID.  This is in violation of the  POSIX
           threads  specification, and is the source of many other nonconformances
           to the standard; see pthreads(7).


           The program below demonstrates the use of pthread_create(), as well  as
           a number of other functions in the pthreads API.
           In  the  following run, on a system providing the NPTL threading imple-
           mentation, the stack size defaults to the value  given  by  the  "stack
           size" resource limit:
               $ ulimit -s
               8192            # The stack size limit is 8 MB (0x800000 bytes)
               $ ./a.out hola salut servus
               Joined with thread 1; returned value was HOLA
               Joined with thread 2; returned value was SALUT
               Joined with thread 3; returned value was SERVUS
       Program source
           #include <pthread.h>
           #include <string.h>
           #include <stdio.h>
           #include <stdlib.h>
           #include <unistd.h>
           #include <errno.h>
           #include <ctype.h>
           #define handle_error_en(en, msg) \
                   do { errno = en; perror(msg); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); } while (0)
           #define handle_error(msg) \
                   do { perror(msg); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); } while (0)
           struct thread_info {    /* Used as argument to thread_start() */
               pthread_t thread_id;        /* ID returned by pthread_create() */
               int       thread_num;       /* Application-defined thread # */
               char     *argv_string;      /* From command-line argument */
           /* Thread start function: display address near top of our stack,
              and return upper-cased copy of argv_string */
           static void *
           thread_start(void *arg)
               struct thread_info *tinfo = arg;
               char *uargv, *p;
               printf("Thread %d: top of stack near %p; argv_string=%s\n",
                       tinfo->thread_num, &p, tinfo->argv_string);
               uargv = strdup(tinfo->argv_string);
               if (uargv == NULL)
               for (p = uargv; *p != '\0'; p++)
                   *p = toupper(*p);
               return uargv;
           main(int argc, char *argv[])
               int s, tnum, opt, num_threads;
                       fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s [-s stack-size] arg...\n",
               num_threads = argc - optind;
               /* Initialize thread creation attributes */
               s = pthread_attr_init(&attr);
               if (s != 0)
                   handle_error_en(s, "pthread_attr_init");
               if (stack_size > 0) {
                   s = pthread_attr_setstacksize(&attr, stack_size);
                   if (s != 0)
                       handle_error_en(s, "pthread_attr_setstacksize");
               /* Allocate memory for pthread_create() arguments */
               tinfo = calloc(num_threads, sizeof(struct thread_info));
               if (tinfo == NULL)
               /* Create one thread for each command-line argument */
               for (tnum = 0; tnum < num_threads; tnum++) {
                   tinfo[tnum].thread_num = tnum + 1;
                   tinfo[tnum].argv_string = argv[optind + tnum];
                   /* The pthread_create() call stores the thread ID into
                      corresponding element of tinfo[] */
                   s = pthread_create(&tinfo[tnum].thread_id, &attr,
                                      &thread_start, &tinfo[tnum]);
                   if (s != 0)
                       handle_error_en(s, "pthread_create");
               /* Destroy the thread attributes object, since it is no
                  longer needed */
               s = pthread_attr_destroy(&attr);
               if (s != 0)
                   handle_error_en(s, "pthread_attr_destroy");
               /* Now join with each thread, and display its returned value */
               for (tnum = 0; tnum < num_threads; tnum++) {
           getrlimit(2), pthread_attr_init(3), pthread_cancel(3),
           pthread_detach(3), pthread_equal(3), pthread_exit(3),
           pthread_getattr_np(3), pthread_join(3), pthread_self(3), pthreads(7)

    Linux 2012-08-03 PTHREAD_CREATE(3)


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