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    The following form allows you to view linux man pages.

    Command:

    ps

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           ps [options]
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           ps displays information about a selection of the active processes. If
           you want a repetitive update of the selection and the displayed
           information, use top(1) instead.
    
           This version of ps accepts several kinds of options:
           1   UNIX options, which may be grouped and must be preceded by a dash.
           2   BSD options, which may be grouped and must not be used with a dash.
           3   GNU long options, which are preceded by two dashes.
    
           Options of different types may be freely mixed, but conflicts can
           appear. There are some synonymous options, which are functionally
           identical, due to the many standards and ps implementations that this
           ps is compatible with.
    
           Note that "ps -aux" is distinct from "ps aux". The POSIX and UNIX
           standards require that "ps -aux" print all processes owned by a user
           named "x", as well as printing all processes that would be selected by
           the -a option. If the user named "x" does not exist, this ps may
           interpret the command as "ps aux" instead and print a warning. This
           behavior is intended to aid in transitioning old scripts and habits. It
           is fragile, subject to change, and thus should not be relied upon.
    
           By default, ps selects all processes with the same effective user ID
           (euid=EUID) as the current user and associated with the same terminal
           as the invoker. It displays the process ID (pid=PID), the terminal
           associated with the process (tname=TTY), the cumulated CPU time in
           [dd-]hh:mm:ss format (time=TIME), and the executable name (ucmd=CMD).
           Output is unsorted by default.
    
           The use of BSD-style options will add process state (stat=STAT) to the
           default display and show the command args (args=COMMAND) instead of the
           executable name. You can override this with the PS_FORMAT environment
           variable. The use of BSD-style options will also change the process
           selection to include processes on other terminals (TTYs) that are owned
           by you; alternately, this may be described as setting the selection to
           be the set of all processes filtered to exclude processes owned by
           other users or not on a terminal. These effects are not considered when
           options are described as being "identical" below, so -M will be
           considered identical to Z and so on.
    
           Except as described below, process selection options are additive. The
           default selection is discarded, and then the selected processes are
           added to the set of processes to be displayed. A process will thus be
           shown if it meets any of the given selection criteria.
    
    
           To get info about threads:
              ps -eLf
              ps axms
    
           To get security info:
              ps -eo euser,ruser,suser,fuser,f,comm,label
              ps axZ
              ps -eM
    
           To see every process running as root (real & effective ID) in user
           format:
              ps -U root -u root u
    
           To see every process with a user-defined format:
              ps -eo pid,tid,class,rtprio,ni,pri,psr,pcpu,stat,wchan:14,comm
              ps axo stat,euid,ruid,tty,tpgid,sess,pgrp,ppid,pid,pcpu,comm
              ps -eopid,tt,user,fname,tmout,f,wchan
    
           Print only the process IDs of syslogd:
              ps -C syslogd -o pid=
    
           Print only the name of PID 42:
              ps -q 42 -o comm=
    
    
    

    SIMPLE PROCESS SELECTION

           -A              Select all processes. Identical to -e.
    
           -N              Select all processes except those that fulfill the
                           specified conditions. (negates the selection) Identical
                           to --deselect.
    
           T               Select all processes associated with this terminal.
                           Identical to the t option without any argument.
    
           -a              Select all processes except both session leaders (see
                           getsid(2)) and processes not associated with a
                           terminal.
    
           a               Lift the BSD-style "only yourself" restriction, which
                           is imposed upon the set of all processes when some
                           BSD-style (without "-") options are used or when the ps
                           personality setting is BSD-like. The set of processes
                           selected in this manner is in addition to the set of
                           processes selected by other means. An alternate
                           description is that this option causes ps to list all
    
           r               Restrict the selection to only running processes.
    
           x               Lift the BSD-style "must have a tty" restriction, which
                           is imposed upon the set of all processes when some
                           BSD-style (without "-") options are used or when the ps
                           personality setting is BSD-like. The set of processes
                           selected in this manner is in addition to the set of
                           processes selected by other means. An alternate
                           description is that this option causes ps to list all
                           processes owned by you (same EUID as ps), or to list
                           all processes when used together with the a option.
    
           --deselect      Select all processes except those that fulfill the
                           specified conditions. (negates the selection) Identical
                           to -N.
    
    
    

    PROCESS SELECTION BY LIST

           These options accept a single argument in the form of a blank-separated
           or comma-separated list. They can be used multiple times.
           For example: ps -p "1 2" -p 3,4
    
           -C cmdlist      Select by command name.
                           This selects the processes whose executable name is
                           given in cmdlist.
    
           -G grplist      Select by real group ID (RGID) or name.
                           This selects the processes whose real group name or ID
                           is in the grplist list. The real group ID identifies
                           the group of the user who created the process, see
                           getgid(2).
    
           U userlist      Select by effective user ID (EUID) or name.
                           This selects the processes whose effective user name or
                           ID is in userlist. The effective user ID describes the
                           user whose file access permissions are used by the
                           process (see geteuid(2)). Identical to -u and --user.
    
           -U userlist     select by real user ID (RUID) or name.
                           It selects the processes whose real user name or ID is
                           in the userlist list. The real user ID identifies the
                           user who created the process, see getuid(2).
    
           -p pidlist      Select by PID.
                           This selects the processes whose process ID numbers
                           appear in pidlist. Identical to p and --pid.
    
           q pidlist       Quick select by process ID. Identical to -q
                           and --quick-pid.
    
           -q pidlist      Quick select by PID.
                           This selects the processes whose process ID numbers
                           appear in pidlist. With this option ps reads the
                           necessary info only for the pids listed in the pidlist
                           and doesn't apply additional filtering rules. The order
                           of pids is unsorted and preserved. No additional
                           selection options, sorting and forest type listings are
                           allowed in this mode. Identical to q and --quick-pid.
    
           -s sesslist     Select by session ID.
                           This selects the processes with a session ID specified
                           in sesslist.
    
           t ttylist       Select by tty. Nearly identical to -t and --tty, but
                           can also be used with an empty ttylist to indicate the
                           terminal associated with ps. Using the T option is
                           considered cleaner than using T with an empty ttylist.
    
           -t ttylist      Select by tty.
                           This selects the processes associated with the
                           terminals given in ttylist. Terminals (ttys, or screens
                           for text output) can be specified in several forms:
                           /dev/ttyS1, ttyS1, S1. A plain "-" may be used to
                           select processes not attached to any terminal.
    
           -u userlist     Select by effective user ID (EUID) or name.
                           This selects the processes whose effective user name or
                           ID is in userlist. The effective user ID describes the
                           user whose file access permissions are used by the
                           process (see geteuid(2)). Identical to U and --user.
    
           --Group grplist Select by real group ID (RGID) or name. Identical to
                           -G.
    
           --User userlist Select by real user ID (RUID) or name. Identical to -U.
    
                           pidlist.
    
           --quick-pid pidlist
                           Quick select by process ID. Identical to -q and q.
    
           --sid sesslist  Select by session ID. Identical to -s.
    
           --tty ttylist   Select by terminal. Identical to -t and t.
    
           --user userlist Select by effective user ID (EUID) or name. Identical
                           to -u and U.
    
           -123            Identical to --sid 123.
    
           123             Identical to --pid 123.
    
    
    

    OUTPUT FORMAT CONTROL

           These options are used to choose the information displayed by ps. The
           output may differ by personality.
    
           -F              extra full format. See the -f option, which -F implies.
    
           -O format       is like -o, but preloaded with some default columns.
                           Identical to -o pid,format,state,tname,time,command or
                           -o pid,format,tname,time,cmd, see -o below.
    
           O format        is preloaded o (overloaded).
                           The BSD O option can act like -O (user-defined output
                           format with some common fields predefined) or can be
                           used to specify sort order. Heuristics are used to
                           determine the behavior of this option. To ensure that
                           the desired behavior is obtained (sorting or
                           formatting), specify the option in some other way (e.g.
                           with -O or --sort). When used as a formatting option,
                           it is identical to -O, with the BSD personality.
    
           -M              Add a column of security data. Identical to Z.
                           (for SE Linux)
    
                           printed. When used with -L, the NLWP (number of
                           threads) and LWP (thread ID) columns will be added. See
                           the c option, the format keyword args, and the format
                           keyword comm.
    
           j               BSD job control format.
    
           -j              jobs format
    
           l               display BSD long format.
    
           -l              long format. The -y option is often useful with this.
    
           o format        specify user-defined format. Identical to -o and
                           --format.
    
           -o format       user-defined format.
                           format is a single argument in the form of a
                           blank-separated or comma-separated list, which offers a
                           way to specify individual output columns. The
                           recognized keywords are described in the STANDARD
                           FORMAT SPECIFIERS section below. Headers may be renamed
                           (ps -o pid,ruser=RealUser -o comm=Command) as desired.
                           If all column headers are empty (ps -o pid= -o comm=)
                           then the header line will not be output. Column width
                           will increase as needed for wide headers; this may be
                           used to widen up columns such as WCHAN
                           (ps -o pid,wchan=WIDE-WCHAN-COLUMN -o comm). Explicit
                           width control (ps opid,wchan:42,cmd) is offered too.
                           The behavior of ps -o pid=X,comm=Y varies with
                           personality; output may be one column named "X,comm=Y"
                           or two columns named "X" and "Y". Use multiple -o
                           options when in doubt. Use the PS_FORMAT environment
                           variable to specify a default as desired; DefSysV and
                           DefBSD are macros that may be used to choose the
                           default UNIX or BSD columns.
    
           s               display signal format
    
           u               display user-oriented format
    
           v               display virtual memory format
    
    
    
    

    OUTPUT MODIFIERS

           -H              show process hierarchy (forest)
    
           N namelist      Specify namelist file. Identical to -n, see -n above.
    
           O order         Sorting order. (overloaded)
                           The BSD O option can act like -O (user-defined output
                           format with some common fields predefined) or can be
                           used to specify sort order. Heuristics are used to
                           determine the behavior of this option. To ensure that
                           the desired behavior is obtained (sorting or
                           formatting), specify the option in some other way (e.g.
                           with -O or --sort).
    
                           For sorting, obsolete BSD O option syntax is
                           O[+|-]k1[,[+|-]k2[,...]]. It orders the processes
                           listing according to the multilevel sort specified by
                           the sequence of one-letter short keys k1, k2, ...
                           described in the OBSOLETE SORT KEYS section below.
                           The "+" is currently optional, merely re-iterating the
                           default direction on a key, but may help to distinguish
                           an O sort from an O format. The "-" reverses direction
                           only on the key it precedes.
    
           S               Sum up some information, such as CPU usage, from dead
                           child processes into their parent. This is useful for
                           examining a system where a parent process repeatedly
                           forks off short-lived children to do work.
    
           c               Show the true command name. This is derived from the
                           name of the executable file, rather than from the argv
                           value. Command arguments and any modifications to them
                           (see setproctitle(3)) are thus not shown. This option
                           effectively turns the args format keyword into the comm
                           format keyword; it is useful with the -f format option
                           and with the various BSD-style format options, which
                           all normally display the command arguments. See the -f
                           option, the format keyword args, and the format keyword
                           comm.
    
           e               Show the environment after the command.
    
           f               ASCII-art process hierarchy (forest)
    
           k spec          specify sorting order. Sorting syntax is
                           [+|-]key[,[+|-]key[,...]] Choose a multi-letter key
                           from the STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS section. The "+" is
                           optional since default direction is increasing
                           numerical or lexicographic order. Identical to --sort.
                           Examples:
                           ps jaxkuid,-ppid,+pid
                           ps axk comm o comm,args
                           ps kstart_time -ef
    
           -n namelist     set namelist file. Identical to N.
                           The namelist file is needed for a proper WCHAN display,
                           and must match the current Linux kernel exactly for
                           correct output. Without this option, the default search
                           path for the namelist is:
    
                                $PS_SYSMAP
                                $PS_SYSTEM_MAP
                                /proc/*/wchan
                                /boot/System.map-`uname -r`
                                /boot/System.map
                                /lib/modules/`uname -r`/System.map
                                /usr/src/linux/System.map
                                /System.map
    
           n               Numeric output for WCHAN and USER. (including all types
                           of UID and GID)
    
           -w              Wide output. Use this option twice for unlimited width.
    
           w               Wide output. Use this option twice for unlimited width.
    
           --cols n        set screen width
    
           --columns n     set screen width
    
           --cumulative    include some dead child process data (as a sum with the
                           parent)
    
           --forest        ASCII art process tree
    
           --headers       repeat header lines, one per page of output
    
                           numerical or lexicographic order. Identical to k. For
                           example: ps jax --sort=uid,-ppid,+pid
    
           --width n       set screen width
    
    
    

    THREAD DISPLAY

           H               Show threads as if they were processes
    
           -L              Show threads, possibly with LWP and NLWP columns
    
           -T              Show threads, possibly with SPID column
    
           m               Show threads after processes
    
           -m              Show threads after processes
    
    
    

    OTHER INFORMATION

           L               List all format specifiers.
    
           -V              Print the procps version.
    
           V               Print the procps version.
    
           --help          Print a help message.
    
           --info          Print debugging info.
    
           --version       Print the procps version.
    
    
    

    NOTES

           This ps works by reading the virtual files in /proc. This ps does not
           need to be setuid kmem or have any privileges to run. Do not give this
           ps any special permissions.
    
           This ps needs access to namelist data for proper WCHAN display. For
           kernels prior to 2.6, the System.map file must be installed.
    
           CPU usage is currently expressed as the percentage of time spent
           running during the entire lifetime of a process. This is not ideal,
           and it does not conform to the standards that ps otherwise conforms to.
           CPU usage is unlikely to add up to exactly 100%.
    
           The SIZE and RSS fields don't count some parts of a process including
           the page tables, kernel stack, struct thread_info, and struct
           task_struct. This is usually at least 20 KiB of memory that is always
           4    used super-user privileges
    
    
    

    PROCESS STATE CODES

           Here are the different values that the s, stat and state output
           specifiers (header "STAT" or "S") will display to describe the state of
           a process.
           D    Uninterruptible sleep (usually IO)
           R    Running or runnable (on run queue)
           S    Interruptible sleep (waiting for an event to complete)
           T    Stopped, either by a job control signal or because it is being
                traced.
           W    paging (not valid since the 2.6.xx kernel)
           X    dead (should never be seen)
           Z    Defunct ("zombie") process, terminated but not reaped by its
                parent.
    
           For BSD formats and when the stat keyword is used, additional
           characters may be displayed:
           <    high-priority (not nice to other users)
           N    low-priority (nice to other users)
           L    has pages locked into memory (for real-time and custom IO)
           s    is a session leader
           l    is multi-threaded (using CLONE_THREAD, like NPTL pthreads do)
           +    is in the foreground process group
    
    
    

    OBSOLETE SORT KEYS

           These keys are used by the BSD O option (when it is used for sorting).
           The GNU --sort option doesn't use these keys, but the specifiers
           described below in the STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS section. Note that
           the values used in sorting are the internal values ps uses and not the
           "cooked" values used in some of the output format fields (e.g. sorting
           on tty will sort into device number, not according to the terminal name
           displayed). Pipe ps output into the sort(1) command if you want to sort
           the cooked values.
    
           KEY   LONG         DESCRIPTION
           c     cmd          simple name of executable
           C     pcpu         cpu utilization
           f     flags        flags as in long format F field
           g     pgrp         process group ID
           G     tpgid        controlling tty process group ID
           j     cutime       cumulative user time
           J     cstime       cumulative system time
           k     utime        user time
           m     min_flt      number of minor page faults
           M     maj_flt      number of major page faults
           n     cmin_flt     cumulative minor page faults
           N     cmaj_flt     cumulative major page faults
    
    
    

    AIX FORMAT DESCRIPTORS

           This ps supports AIX format descriptors, which work somewhat like the
           formatting codes of printf(1) and printf(3). For example, the normal
           default output can be produced with this:  ps -eo "%p %y %x %c".
           The NORMAL codes are described in the next section.
    
           CODE   NORMAL   HEADER
           %C     pcpu     %CPU
           %G     group    GROUP
           %P     ppid     PPID
           %U     user     USER
           %a     args     COMMAND
           %c     comm     COMMAND
           %g     rgroup   RGROUP
           %n     nice     NI
           %p     pid      PID
           %r     pgid     PGID
           %t     etime    ELAPSED
           %u     ruser    RUSER
           %x     time     TIME
           %y     tty      TTY
           %z     vsz      VSZ
    
    
    

    STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS

           Here are the different keywords that may be used to control the output
           format (e.g. with option -o) or to sort the selected processes with the
           GNU-style --sort option.
    
           For example:  ps -eo pid,user,args --sort user
    
           This version of ps tries to recognize most of the keywords used in
           other implementations of ps.
    
           The following user-defined format specifiers may contain spaces: args,
           cmd, comm, command, fname, ucmd, ucomm, lstart, bsdstart, start.
    
           Some keywords may not be available for sorting.
    
    
    

    CODE HEADER DESCRIPTION

    
    
    

    %cpu %CPU cpu utilization of the process in "##.#" format.

                        Currently, it is the CPU time used divided by the time the
                        process has been running (cputime/realtime ratio),
                        expressed as a percentage. It will not add up to 100%
                        unless you are lucky. (alias pcpu).
    
                        keyword, the -f option, and the c option.
                        When specified last, this column will extend to the edge
                        of the display. If ps can not determine display width, as
                        when output is redirected (piped) into a file or another
                        command, the output width is undefined. (it may be 80,
                        unlimited, determined by the TERM variable, and so on) The
                        COLUMNS environment variable or --cols option may be used
                        to exactly determine the width in this case. The w or -w
                        option may be also be used to adjust width.
    
    
    

    blocked BLOCKED mask of the blocked signals, see signal(7). According to

                        the width of the field, a 32-bit or 64-bit mask in
                        hexadecimal format is displayed.
                        (alias sig_block, sigmask).
    
    
    

    bsdstart START time the command started. If the process was started less

                        than 24 hours ago, the output format is " HH:MM", else it
                        is "mmm dd" (where mmm is the three letters of the month).
                        See also lstart, start, start_time, and stime.
    
    
    

    bsdtime TIME accumulated cpu time, user + system. The display format is

                        usually "MMM:SS", but can be shifted to the right if the
                        process used more than 999 minutes of cpu time.
    
    
    

    c C processor utilization. Currently, this is the integer

                        value of the percent usage over the lifetime of the
                        process. (see %cpu).
    
    
    

    caught CAUGHT mask of the caught signals, see signal(7). According to

                        the width of the field, a 32 or 64 bits mask in
                        hexadecimal format is displayed.
                        (alias sig_catch, sigcatch).
    
    
    

    cgroup CGROUP display control groups to which the process belonges.

    
    
    

    class CLS scheduling class of the process. (alias policy, cls).

                        Field's possible values are:
                        -   not reported
                        TS  SCHED_OTHER
                        FF  SCHED_FIFO
                        RR  SCHED_RR
                        B   SCHED_BATCH
                        ISO SCHED_ISO
                        IDL SCHED_IDLE
                        ?   unknown value
    
    
    

    cls CLS scheduling class of the process. (alias policy, class).

                        Field's possible values are:
                        -   not reported
                        TS  SCHED_OTHER
                        FF  SCHED_FIFO
                        RR  SCHED_RR
                        When specified last, this column will extend to the edge
                        of the display. If ps can not determine display width, as
                        when output is redirected (piped) into a file or another
                        command, the output width is undefined. (it may be 80,
                        unlimited, determined by the TERM variable, and so on) The
                        COLUMNS environment variable or --cols option may be used
                        to exactly determine the width in this case. The w or -w
                        option may be also be used to adjust width.
    
    
    

    command COMMAND see args. (alias args, cmd).

    
    
    

    cp CP per-mill (tenths of a percent) CPU usage. (see %cpu).

    
    
    

    cputime TIME cumulative CPU time, "[dd-]hh:mm:ss" format. (alias time).

    
    
    

    egid EGID effective group ID number of the process as a decimal

                        integer. (alias gid).
    
    
    

    egroup EGROUP effective group ID of the process. This will be the

                        textual group ID, if it can be obtained and the field
                        width permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.
                        (alias group).
    
    
    

    eip EIP instruction pointer.

    
    
    

    esp ESP stack pointer.

    
    
    

    etime ELAPSED elapsed time since the process was started, in the

                        form [[dd-]hh:]mm:ss.
    
    
    

    euid EUID effective user ID. (alias uid).

    
    
    

    euser EUSER effective user name. This will be the textual user ID,

                        if it can be obtained and the field width permits,
                        or a decimal representation otherwise. The n option can be
                        used to force the decimal representation.
                        (alias uname, user).
    
    
    

    f F flags associated with the process, see the PROCESS FLAGS

                        section. (alias flag, flags).
    
    
    

    fgid FGID filesystem access group ID. (alias fsgid).

    
    
    

    fgroup FGROUP filesystem access group ID. This will be the textual

                        user ID, if it can be obtained and the field width
                        permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.
                        (alias fsgroup).
    
    
    

    flag F see f. (alias f, flags).

    
    
    

    flags F see f. (alias f, flag).

    
    
    
    

    ignored IGNORED mask of the ignored signals, see signal(7). According to

                        the width of the field, a 32-bit or 64-bit mask in
                        hexadecimal format is displayed. (alias sig_ignore,
                        sigignore).
    
    
    

    label LABEL security label, most commonly used for SE Linux context

                        data. This is for the Mandatory Access Control ("MAC")
                        found on high-security systems.
    
    
    

    lstart STARTED time the command started. See also bsdstart, start,

                        start_time, and stime.
    
    
    

    lwp LWP lwp (light weight process, or thread) ID of the lwp being

                        reported. (alias spid, tid).
    
    
    

    ni NI nice value. This ranges from 19 (nicest) to -20 (not nice

                        to others), see nice(1). (alias nice).
    
    
    

    nice NI see ni. (alias ni).

    
    
    

    nlwp NLWP number of lwps (threads) in the process. (alias thcount).

    
    
    

    nwchan WCHAN address of the kernel function where the process is

                        sleeping (use wchan if you want the kernel function name).
                        Running tasks will display a dash ('-') in this column.
    
    
    

    pcpu %CPU see %cpu. (alias %cpu).

    
    
    

    pending PENDING mask of the pending signals. See signal(7). Signals

                        pending on the process are distinct from signals pending
                        on individual threads. Use the m option or the -m option
                        to see both. According to the width of the field, a 32-bit
                        or 64-bit mask in hexadecimal format is displayed.
                        (alias sig).
    
    
    

    pgid PGID process group ID or, equivalently, the process ID of the

                        process group leader. (alias pgrp).
    
    
    

    pgrp PGRP see pgid. (alias pgid).

    
    
    

    pid PID process ID number of the process.

    
    
    

    pmem %MEM see %mem. (alias %mem).

    
    
    

    policy POL scheduling class of the process. (alias class, cls).

                        Possible values are:
                        -   not reported
                        TS  SCHED_OTHER
                        FF  SCHED_FIFO
                        RR  SCHED_RR
                        B   SCHED_BATCH
    
    
    

    rip RIP 64-bit instruction pointer.

    
    
    

    rsp RSP 64-bit stack pointer.

    
    
    

    rss RSS resident set size, the non-swapped physical memory that a

                        task has used (in kiloBytes). (alias rssize, rsz).
    
    
    

    rssize RSS see rss. (alias rss, rsz).

    
    
    

    rsz RSZ see rss. (alias rss, rssize).

    
    
    

    rtprio RTPRIO realtime priority.

    
    
    

    ruid RUID real user ID.

    
    
    

    ruser RUSER real user ID. This will be the textual user ID, if it can

                        be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
                        representation otherwise.
    
    
    

    s S minimal state display (one character). See section PROCESS

                        STATE CODES for the different values. See also stat if you
                        want additional information displayed. (alias state).
    
    
    

    sched SCH scheduling policy of the process. The policies SCHED_OTHER

                        (SCHED_NORMAL), SCHED_FIFO, SCHED_RR, SCHED_BATCH,
                        SCHED_ISO, and SCHED_IDLE are respectively displayed as
                        0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.
    
    
    

    sess SESS session ID or, equivalently, the process ID of the

                        session leader. (alias session, sid).
    
    
    

    sgi_p P processor that the process is currently executing on.

                        Displays "*" if the process is not currently running or
                        runnable.
    
    
    

    sgid SGID saved group ID. (alias svgid).

    
    
    

    sgroup SGROUP saved group name. This will be the textual group ID, if it

                        can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
                        representation otherwise.
    
    
    

    sid SID see sess. (alias sess, session).

    
    
    

    sig PENDING see pending. (alias pending, sig_pend).

    
    
    

    sigcatch CAUGHT see caught. (alias caught, sig_catch).

    
    
    

    sigignore IGNORED see ignored. (alias ignored, sig_ignore).

    
    
    

    sigmask BLOCKED see blocked. (alias blocked, sig_block).

    
    
    

    start_time START starting time or date of the process. Only the year will

                        be displayed if the process was not started the same year
                        ps was invoked, or "mmmdd" if it was not started the same
                        day, or "HH:MM" otherwise. See also bsdstart, start,
                        lstart, and stime.
    
    
    

    stat STAT multi-character process state. See section PROCESS STATE

                        CODES for the different values meaning. See also s and
                        state if you just want the first character displayed.
    
    
    

    state S see s. (alias s).

    
    
    

    suid SUID saved user ID. (alias svuid).

    
    
    

    suser SUSER saved user name. This will be the textual user ID, if it

                        can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
                        representation otherwise. (alias svuser).
    
    
    

    svgid SVGID see sgid. (alias sgid).

    
    
    

    svuid SVUID see suid. (alias suid).

    
    
    

    sz SZ size in physical pages of the core image of the process.

                        This includes text, data, and stack space. Device mappings
                        are currently excluded; this is subject to change. See vsz
                        and rss.
    
    
    

    thcount THCNT see nlwp. (alias nlwp). number of kernel threads owned by

                        the process.
    
    
    

    tid TID see lwp. (alias lwp).

    
    
    

    time TIME cumulative CPU time, "[dd-]hh:mm:ss" format.

                        (alias cputime).
    
    
    

    tname TTY controlling tty (terminal). (alias tt, tty).

    
    
    

    tpgid TPGID ID of the foreground process group on the tty (terminal)

                        that the process is connected to, or -1 if the process is
                        not connected to a tty.
    
    
    

    tt TT controlling tty (terminal). (alias tname, tty).

    
    
    

    tty TT controlling tty (terminal). (alias tname, tt).

    
    
    

    ucmd CMD see comm. (alias comm, ucomm).

    
    
    

    ucomm COMMAND see comm. (alias comm, ucmd).

    
    
    

    uid UID see euid. (alias euid).

    
    
    

    uname USER see euser. (alias euser, user).

                        threads.
    
    
    

    ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

           The following environment variables could affect ps:
    
           COLUMNS
              Override default display width.
    
           LINES
              Override default display height.
    
           PS_PERSONALITY
              Set to one of posix, old, linux, bsd, sun, digital...
              (see section PERSONALITY below).
    
           CMD_ENV
              Set to one of posix, old, linux, bsd, sun, digital...
              (see section PERSONALITY below).
    
           I_WANT_A_BROKEN_PS
              Force obsolete command line interpretation.
    
           LC_TIME
              Date format.
    
           PS_COLORS
              Not currently supported.
    
           PS_FORMAT
              Default output format override. You may set this to a format string
              of the type used for the -o option. The DefSysV and DefBSD values
              are particularly useful.
    
           PS_SYSMAP
              Default namelist (System.map) location.
    
           PS_SYSTEM_MAP
              Default namelist (System.map) location.
    
           POSIXLY_CORRECT
              Don't find excuses to ignore bad "features".
    
           POSIX2
              When set to "on", acts as POSIXLY_CORRECT.
    
           UNIX95
              Don't find excuses to ignore bad "features".
    
           _XPG
              Cancel CMD_ENV=irix non-standard behavior.
    
           digital    like Tru64 (was Digital Unix, was OSF/1) ps
           gnu        like the old Debian ps
           hp         like HP-UX ps
           hpux       like HP-UX ps
           irix       like Irix ps
           linux      ***** RECOMMENDED *****
           old        like the original Linux ps (totally non-standard)
           os390      like OS/390 Open Edition ps
           posix      standard
           s390       like OS/390 Open Edition ps
           sco        like SCO ps
           sgi        like Irix ps
           solaris2   like Solaris 2+ (SunOS 5) ps
           sunos4     like SunOS 4 (Solaris 1) ps (totally non-standard)
           svr4       standard
           sysv       standard
           tru64      like Tru64 (was Digital Unix, was OSF/1) ps
           unix       standard
           unix95     standard
           unix98     standard
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           top(1), pgrep(1), pstree(1), proc(5).
    
    
    

    STANDARDS

           This ps conforms to:
    
           1   Version 2 of the Single Unix Specification
           2   The Open Group Technical Standard Base Specifications, Issue 6
           3   IEEE Std 1003.1, 2004 Edition
           4   X/Open System Interfaces Extension [UP XSI]
           5   ISO/IEC 9945:2003
    
    
    

    AUTHOR

           ps was originally written by Branko Lankester <lankeste@fwi.uva.nl>.
           Michael K. Johnson <johnsonm@redhat.com> re-wrote it significantly to
           use the proc filesystem, changing a few things in the process. Michael
           Shields <mjshield@nyx.cs.du.edu> added the pid-list feature. Charles
           Blake <cblake@bbn.com> added multi-level sorting, the dirent-style
           library, the device name-to-number mmaped database, the approximate
           binary search directly on System.map, and many code and documentation
           cleanups. David Mossberger-Tang wrote the generic BFD support for
           psupdate. Albert Cahalan <albert@users.sf.net> rewrote ps for full
           Unix98 and BSD support, along with some ugly hacks for obsolete and
           foreign syntax.
    
           Please send bug reports to <procps-feedback@lists.sf.net>.
    
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