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It is possible to have whitespace between the -e command line option
and its parameter.
preconv reads files and converts its encoding(s) to a form GNU troff(1)
can process, sending the data to standard output. Currently, this
means ASCII characters and '\[uXXXX]' entities, where 'XXXX' is a hex-
adecimal number with four to six digits, representing a Unicode input
code. Normally, preconv should be invoked with the -k and -K options
-d Emit debugging messages to standard error (mainly the used
Specify default encoding if everything fails (see below).
Specify input encoding explicitly, overriding all other methods.
This corresponds to groff's -Kencoding option. Without this
switch, preconv uses the algorithm described below to select the
--help -h Print help message.
-r Do not add .lf requests.
-v Print version number.
preconv tries to find the input encoding with the following algorithm.
1. If the input encoding has been explicitly specified with option
-e, use it.
2. Otherwise, check whether the input starts with a Byte Order Mark
(BOM, see below). If found, use it.
3. Finally, check whether there is a known coding tag (see below)
in either the first or second input line. If found, use it.
4. If everything fails, use a default encoding as given with option
-D, by the current locale, or 'latin1' if the locale is set to
'C', 'POSIX', or empty (in that order).
Note that the groff program supports a GROFF_ENCODING environment vari-
ted; it has then the meaning of a 'zero width no-break space' character
- something not needed normally in groff.
Editors which support more than a single character encoding need tags
within the input files to mark the file's encoding. While it is possi-
ble to guess the right input encoding with the help of heuristic algo-
rithms for data which represents a greater amount of a natural lan-
guage, it is still just a guess. Additionally, all algorithms fail
easily for input which is either too short or doesn't represent a natu-
For these reasons, preconv supports the coding tag convention (with
some restrictions) as used by GNU Emacs and XEmacs (and probably other
Coding tags in GNU Emacs and XEmacs are stored in so-called File Vari-
ables. preconv recognizes the following syntax form which must be put
into a troff comment in the first or second line.
-*- tag1: value1; tag2: value2; ... -*-
The only relevant tag for preconv is 'coding' which can take the values
listed below. Here an example line which tells Emacs to edit a file in
troff mode, and to use latin2 as its encoding.
.\" -*- mode: troff; coding: latin-2 -*-
The following list gives all MIME coding tags (either lowercase or
uppercase) supported by preconv; this list is hard-coded in the source.
big5, cp1047, euc-jp, euc-kr, gb2312, iso-8859-1, iso-8859-2,
iso-8859-5, iso-8859-7, iso-8859-9, iso-8859-13, iso-8859-15,
koi8-r, us-ascii, utf-8, utf-16, utf-16be, utf-16le
In addition, the following hard-coded list of other tags is recognized
which eventually map to values from the list above.
ascii, chinese-big5, chinese-euc, chinese-iso-8bit, cn-big5,
cn-gb, cn-gb-2312, cp878, csascii, csisolatin1,
cyrillic-iso-8bit, cyrillic-koi8, euc-china, euc-cn, euc-japan,
euc-japan-1990, euc-korea, greek-iso-8bit, iso-10646/utf8,
iso-10646/utf-8, iso-latin-1, iso-latin-2, iso-latin-5,
iso-latin-7, iso-latin-9, japanese-euc, japanese-iso-8bit, jis8,
koi8, korean-euc, korean-iso-8bit, latin-0, latin1, latin-1,
latin-2, latin-5, latin-7, latin-9, mule-utf-8, mule-utf-16,
mule-utf-16be, mule-utf-16-be, mule-utf-16be-with-signature,
mule-utf-16le, mule-utf-16-le, mule-utf-16le-with-signature,
utf8, utf-16-be, utf-16-be-with-signature,
utf-16be-with-signature, utf-16-le, utf-16-le-with-signature,
the GNU Emacs and XEmacs info pages
Groff Version 1.21 31 December 2010 PRECONV(1)