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           openssl pkcs8 [-topk8] [-inform PEM|DER] [-outform PEM|DER] [-in
           filename] [-passin arg] [-out filename] [-passout arg] [-noiter]
           [-nocrypt] [-nooct] [-embed] [-nsdb] [-v2 alg] [-v1 alg] [-engine id]


           The pkcs8 command processes private keys in PKCS#8 format. It can
           handle both unencrypted PKCS#8 PrivateKeyInfo format and
           EncryptedPrivateKeyInfo format with a variety of PKCS#5 (v1.5 and v2.0)
           and PKCS#12 algorithms.


               Normally a PKCS#8 private key is expected on input and a
               traditional format private key will be written. With the -topk8
               option the situation is reversed: it reads a traditional format
               private key and writes a PKCS#8 format key.
           -inform DER|PEM
               This specifies the input format. If a PKCS#8 format key is expected
               on input then either a DER or PEM encoded version of a PKCS#8 key
               will be expected. Otherwise the DER or PEM format of the
               traditional format private key is used.
           -outform DER|PEM
               This specifies the output format, the options have the same meaning
               as the -inform option.
           -in filename
               This specifies the input filename to read a key from or standard
               input if this option is not specified. If the key is encrypted a
               pass phrase will be prompted for.
           -passin arg
               the input file password source. For more information about the
               format of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in openssl(1).
           -out filename
               This specifies the output filename to write a key to or standard
               output by default. If any encryption options are set then a pass
               phrase will be prompted for. The output filename should not be the
               same as the input filename.
           -passout arg
               the output file password source. For more information about the
               format of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in openssl(1).
               PKCS#8 keys generated or input are normally PKCS#8
               EncryptedPrivateKeyInfo structures using an appropriate password
               based encryption algorithm. With this option an unencrypted
               PrivateKeyInfo structure is expected or output.  This option does
               structures: a SEQUENCE containing the parameters and an ASN1
               INTEGER containing the private key.
               This option generates DSA keys in a broken format compatible with
               Netscape private key databases. The PrivateKey contains a SEQUENCE
               consisting of the public and private keys respectively.
           -v2 alg
               This option enables the use of PKCS#5 v2.0 algorithms. Normally
               PKCS#8 private keys are encrypted with the password based
               encryption algorithm called pbeWithMD5AndDES-CBC this uses 56 bit
               DES encryption but it was the strongest encryption algorithm
               supported in PKCS#5 v1.5. Using the -v2 option PKCS#5 v2.0
               algorithms are used which can use any encryption algorithm such as
               168 bit triple DES or 128 bit RC2 however not many implementations
               support PKCS#5 v2.0 yet. If you are just using private keys with
               OpenSSL then this doesn't matter.
               The alg argument is the encryption algorithm to use, valid values
               include des, des3 and rc2. It is recommended that des3 is used.
           -v1 alg
               This option specifies a PKCS#5 v1.5 or PKCS#12 algorithm to use. A
               complete list of possible algorithms is included below.
           -engine id
               specifying an engine (by its unique id string) will cause pkcs8 to
               attempt to obtain a functional reference to the specified engine,
               thus initialising it if needed. The engine will then be set as the
               default for all available algorithms.


           The encrypted form of a PEM encode PKCS#8 files uses the following
           headers and footers:
            -----BEGIN ENCRYPTED PRIVATE KEY-----
            -----END ENCRYPTED PRIVATE KEY-----
           The unencrypted form uses:
            -----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----
            -----END PRIVATE KEY-----
           Private keys encrypted using PKCS#5 v2.0 algorithms and high iteration
           counts are more secure that those encrypted using the traditional
           SSLeay compatible formats. So if additional security is considered
           important the keys should be converted.
           The default encryption is only 56 bits because this is the encryption
           that most current implementations of PKCS#8 will support.
               These algorithms were included in the original PKCS#5 v1.5
               specification.  They only offer 56 bits of protection since they
               both use DES.
           PBE-SHA1-RC2-64 PBE-MD2-RC2-64 PBE-MD5-RC2-64 PBE-SHA1-DES
               These algorithms are not mentioned in the original PKCS#5 v1.5
               specification but they use the same key derivation algorithm and
               are supported by some software. They are mentioned in PKCS#5 v2.0.
               They use either 64 bit RC2 or 56 bit DES.
           PBE-SHA1-RC4-128 PBE-SHA1-RC4-40 PBE-SHA1-3DES PBE-SHA1-2DES
           PBE-SHA1-RC2-128 PBE-SHA1-RC2-40
               These algorithms use the PKCS#12 password based encryption
               algorithm and allow strong encryption algorithms like triple DES or
               128 bit RC2 to be used.


           Convert a private from traditional to PKCS#5 v2.0 format using triple
            openssl pkcs8 -in key.pem -topk8 -v2 des3 -out enckey.pem
           Convert a private key to PKCS#8 using a PKCS#5 1.5 compatible algorithm
            openssl pkcs8 -in key.pem -topk8 -out enckey.pem
           Convert a private key to PKCS#8 using a PKCS#12 compatible algorithm
            openssl pkcs8 -in key.pem -topk8 -out enckey.pem -v1 PBE-SHA1-3DES
           Read a DER unencrypted PKCS#8 format private key:
            openssl pkcs8 -inform DER -nocrypt -in key.der -out key.pem
           Convert a private key from any PKCS#8 format to traditional format:
            openssl pkcs8 -in pk8.pem -out key.pem


           Test vectors from this PKCS#5 v2.0 implementation were posted to the
           pkcs-tng mailing list using triple DES, DES and RC2 with high iteration
           counts, several people confirmed that they could decrypt the private
           keys produced and Therefore it can be assumed that the PKCS#5 v2.0
           implementation is reasonably accurate at least as far as these
           algorithms are concerned.
           The format of PKCS#8 DSA (and other) private keys is not well
           documented: it is hidden away in PKCS#11 v2.01, section 11.9. OpenSSL's
           default DSA PKCS#8 private key format complies with this standard.

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