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           openssl pkcs12 [-export] [-chain] [-inkey filename] [-certfile
           filename] [-name name] [-caname name] [-in filename] [-out filename]
           [-noout] [-nomacver] [-nocerts] [-clcerts] [-cacerts] [-nokeys] [-info]
           [-des | -des3 | -idea | -aes128 | -aes192 | -aes256 | -camellia128 |
           -camellia192 | -camellia256 | -nodes] [-noiter] [-maciter | -nomaciter
           | -nomac] [-twopass] [-descert] [-certpbe cipher] [-keypbe cipher]
           [-macalg digest] [-keyex] [-keysig] [-password arg] [-passin arg]
           [-passout arg] [-rand file(s)] [-CAfile file] [-CApath dir] [-CSP name]


           The pkcs12 command allows PKCS#12 files (sometimes referred to as PFX
           files) to be created and parsed. PKCS#12 files are used by several
           programs including Netscape, MSIE and MS Outlook.


           There are a lot of options the meaning of some depends of whether a
           PKCS#12 file is being created or parsed. By default a PKCS#12 file is
           parsed. A PKCS#12 file can be created by using the -export option (see


           -in filename
               This specifies filename of the PKCS#12 file to be parsed. Standard
               input is used by default.
           -out filename
               The filename to write certificates and private keys to, standard
               output by default.  They are all written in PEM format.
           -pass arg, -passin arg
               the PKCS#12 file (i.e. input file) password source. For more
               information about the format of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS
               section in openssl(1).
           -passout arg
               pass phrase source to encrypt any outputed private keys with. For
               more information about the format of arg see the PASS PHRASE
               ARGUMENTS section in openssl(1).
               this option inhibits output of the keys and certificates to the
               output file version of the PKCS#12 file.
               only output client certificates (not CA certificates).
               only output CA certificates (not client certificates).
               no certificates at all will be output.
               use IDEA to encrypt private keys before outputting.
           -aes128, -aes192, -aes256
               use AES to encrypt private keys before outputting.
           -camellia128, -camellia192, -camellia256
               use Camellia to encrypt private keys before outputting.
               don't encrypt the private keys at all.
               don't attempt to verify the integrity MAC before reading the file.
               prompt for separate integrity and encryption passwords: most
               software always assumes these are the same so this option will
               render such PKCS#12 files unreadable.


               This option specifies that a PKCS#12 file will be created rather
               than parsed.
           -out filename
               This specifies filename to write the PKCS#12 file to. Standard
               output is used by default.
           -in filename
               The filename to read certificates and private keys from, standard
               input by default.  They must all be in PEM format. The order
               doesn't matter but one private key and its corresponding
               certificate should be present. If additional certificates are
               present they will also be included in the PKCS#12 file.
           -inkey filename
               file to read private key from. If not present then a private key
               must be present in the input file.
           -name friendlyname
               This specifies the "friendly name" for the certificate and private
               key. This name is typically displayed in list boxes by software
               importing the file.
           -certfile filename
               A filename to read additional certificates from.
           -caname friendlyname
               This specifies the "friendly name" for other certificates. This
               option may be used multiple times to specify names for all
               if this option is present then an attempt is made to include the
               entire certificate chain of the user certificate. The standard CA
               store is used for this search. If the search fails it is considered
               a fatal error.
               encrypt the certificate using triple DES, this may render the
               PKCS#12 file unreadable by some "export grade" software. By default
               the private key is encrypted using triple DES and the certificate
               using 40 bit RC2.
           -keypbe alg, -certpbe alg
               these options allow the algorithm used to encrypt the private key
               and certificates to be selected. Any PKCS#5 v1.5 or PKCS#12 PBE
               algorithm name can be used (see NOTES section for more
               information). If a a cipher name (as output by the list-cipher-
               algorithms command is specified then it is used with PKCS#5 v2.0.
               For interoperability reasons it is advisable to only use PKCS#12
               specifies that the private key is to be used for key exchange or
               just signing.  This option is only interpreted by MSIE and similar
               MS software. Normally "export grade" software will only allow 512
               bit RSA keys to be used for encryption purposes but arbitrary
               length keys for signing. The -keysig option marks the key for
               signing only. Signing only keys can be used for S/MIME signing,
               authenticode (ActiveX control signing)  and SSL client
               authentication, however due to a bug only MSIE 5.0 and later
               support the use of signing only keys for SSL client authentication.
           -macalg digest
               specify the MAC digest algorithm. If not included them SHA1 will be
           -nomaciter, -noiter
               these options affect the iteration counts on the MAC and key
               algorithms.  Unless you wish to produce files compatible with MSIE
               4.0 you should leave these options alone.
               To discourage attacks by using large dictionaries of common
               passwords the algorithm that derives keys from passwords can have
               an iteration count applied to it: this causes a certain part of the
               algorithm to be repeated and slows it down. The MAC is used to
               check the file integrity but since it will normally have the same
               password as the keys and certificates it could also be attacked.
               By default both MAC and encryption iteration counts are set to
               2048, using these options the MAC and encryption iteration counts
               can be set to 1, since this reduces the file security you should
               not use these options unless you really have to. Most software
               supports both MAC and key iteration counts.  MSIE 4.0 doesn't
               support MAC iteration counts so it needs the -nomaciter option.
           -CAfile file
               CA storage as a file.
           -CApath dir
               CA storage as a directory. This directory must be a standard
               certificate directory: that is a hash of each subject name (using
               x509 -hash) should be linked to each certificate.
           -CSP name
               write name as a Microsoft CSP name.


           Although there are a large number of options most of them are very
           rarely used. For PKCS#12 file parsing only -in and -out need to be used
           for PKCS#12 file creation -export and -name are also used.
           If none of the -clcerts, -cacerts or -nocerts options are present then
           all certificates will be output in the order they appear in the input
           PKCS#12 files. There is no guarantee that the first certificate present
           is the one corresponding to the private key. Certain software which
           requires a private key and certificate and assumes the first
           certificate in the file is the one corresponding to the private key:
           this may not always be the case. Using the -clcerts option will solve
           this problem by only outputting the certificate corresponding to the
           private key. If the CA certificates are required then they can be
           output to a separate file using the -nokeys -cacerts options to just
           output CA certificates.
           The -keypbe and -certpbe algorithms allow the precise encryption
           algorithms for private keys and certificates to be specified. Normally
           the defaults are fine but occasionally software can't handle triple DES
           encrypted private keys, then the option -keypbe PBE-SHA1-RC2-40 can be
           used to reduce the private key encryption to 40 bit RC2. A complete
           description of all algorithms is contained in the pkcs8 manual page.


           Parse a PKCS#12 file and output it to a file:
            openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -out file.pem
           Output only client certificates to a file:
            openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -clcerts -out file.pem
           Don't encrypt the private key:
            openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -out file.pem -nodes
           Print some info about a PKCS#12 file:
            openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -info -noout
           generation routines. Under rare circumstances this could produce a
           PKCS#12 file encrypted with an invalid key. As a result some PKCS#12
           files which triggered this bug from other implementations (MSIE or
           Netscape) could not be decrypted by OpenSSL and similarly OpenSSL could
           produce PKCS#12 files which could not be decrypted by other
           implementations. The chances of producing such a file are relatively
           small: less than 1 in 256.
           A side effect of fixing this bug is that any old invalidly encrypted
           PKCS#12 files cannot no longer be parsed by the fixed version. Under
           such circumstances the pkcs12 utility will report that the MAC is OK
           but fail with a decryption error when extracting private keys.
           This problem can be resolved by extracting the private keys and
           certificates from the PKCS#12 file using an older version of OpenSSL
           and recreating the PKCS#12 file from the keys and certificates using a
           newer version of OpenSSL. For example:
            old-openssl -in bad.p12 -out keycerts.pem
            openssl -in keycerts.pem -export -name "My PKCS#12 file" -out fixed.p12



    1.0.1e 2013-02-11 PKCS12(1)


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