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           pic [ -nvCSU ] [ filename ... ]
           pic -t [ -cvzCSU ] [ filename ... ]


           This manual page describes the GNU version of pic, which is part of the
           groff document formatting system.  pic compiles  descriptions  of  pic-
           tures  embedded  within troff or TeX input files into commands that are
           understood by TeX or troff.  Each picture starts with a line  beginning
           with  .PS and ends with a line beginning with .PE.  Anything outside of
           .PS and .PE is passed through without change.
           It is the user's responsibility to provide appropriate  definitions  of
           the  PS and PE macros.  When the macro package being used does not sup-
           ply such definitions (for example, old versions  of  -ms),  appropriate
           definitions can be obtained with -mpic: these will center each picture.


           Options that do not take arguments may be grouped behind  a  single  -.
           The  special  option  -- can be used to mark the end of the options.  A
           filename of - refers to the standard input.
           -C     Recognize .PS and .PE even when followed by  a  character  other
                  than space or newline.
           -S     Safer mode; do not execute sh commands.  This can be useful when
                  operating on untrustworthy input.  (enabled by default)
           -U     Unsafe mode; revert the default option -S.
           -n     Don't use the groff extensions to the  troff  drawing  commands.
                  You  should  use  this  if  you  are  using a postprocessor that
                  doesn't support these extensions.  The extensions are  described
                  in groff_out(5).  The -n option also causes pic not to use zero-
                  length lines to draw dots in troff mode.
           -t     TeX mode.
           -c     Be more compatible with tpic.  Implies -t.  Lines beginning with
                  \  are not passed through transparently.  Lines beginning with .
                  are passed through with the initial .  changed  to  \.   A  line
                  beginning  with  .ps  is  given  special  treatment: it takes an
                  optional integer argument specifying  the  line  thickness  (pen
                  size)  in  milliinches; a missing argument restores the previous
                  line thickness; the default line  thickness  is  8  milliinches.
                  The  line thickness thus specified takes effect only when a non-
                  negative line thickness has not been specified  by  use  of  the
                  thickness attribute or by setting the linethick variable.
           -v     Print the version number.
           -z     In TeX mode draw dots using zero-length lines.
       TeX mode
           TeX  mode  is enabled by the -t option.  In TeX mode, pic will define a
           vbox called \graph for each picture.  You must yourself print that vbox
           using, for example, the command
           Actually,  since  the  vbox  has  a  height  of  zero this will produce
           slightly more vertical space above the picture than below it;
                  \centerline{\raise 1em\box\graph}
           would avoid this.
           You must use a TeX driver that supports the tpic specials, version 2.
           Lines beginning with \ are passed through transparently; a %  is  added
           to  the  end  of the line to avoid unwanted spaces.  You can safely use
           this feature to change fonts or to change the value  of  \baselineskip.
           Anything  else  may  well  produce undesirable results; use at your own
           risk.  Lines beginning with a period are not given any  special  treat-
           for variable = expr1 to expr2 [by [*]expr3] do X body X
                  Set variable to expr1.  While the value of variable is less than
                  or equal to expr2, do body and increment variable by  expr3;  if
                  by  is not given, increment variable by 1.  If expr3 is prefixed
                  by * then variable will instead be multiplied by expr3.   X  can
                  be any character not occurring in body.
           if expr then X if-true X [else Y if-false Y]
                  Evaluate  expr;  if it is non-zero then do if-true, otherwise do
                  if-false.  X can be any character not occurring in  if-true.   Y
                  can be any character not occurring in if-false.
           print arg...
                  Concatenate  the  arguments and print as a line on stderr.  Each
                  arg must be an expression, a position, or text.  This is  useful
                  for debugging.
           command arg...
                  Concatenate  the  arguments  and  pass them through as a line to
                  troff or TeX.  Each arg must be an expression,  a  position,  or
                  text.   This  has a similar effect to a line beginning with . or
                  \, but allows the values of variables to be passed through.
           sh X command X
                  Pass command to a shell.  X can be any character  not  occurring
                  occurring in body.  For example,
                         copy thru % circle at ($1,$2) % until "END"
                         1 2
                         3 4
                         5 6
                  is equivalent to
                         circle at (1,2)
                         circle at (3,4)
                         circle at (5,6)
                  The commands to be performed for each line  can  also  be  taken
                  from  a macro defined earlier by giving the name of the macro as
                  the argument to thru.
           reset variable1[,] variable2 ...
                  Reset pre-defined variables variable1, variable2  ...  to  their
                  default  values.   If  no  arguments  are  given, reset all pre-
                  defined variables to their default values.  Note that  assigning
                  a value to scale also causes all pre-defined variables that con-
                  trol dimensions to be reset to their default  values  times  the
                  new value of scale.
           plot expr ["text"]
                  This  is  a  text object which is constructed by using text as a
                  format string for sprintf with an argument of expr.  If text  is
                  omitted  a  format  string  of  "%g" is used.  Attributes can be
                  specified in the same way as for a normal text object.  Be  very
                  careful  that you specify an appropriate format string; pic does
                  only very limited checking of the string.  This is deprecated in
                  favour of sprintf.
           variable := expr
                  This  is  similar  to = except variable must already be defined,
                  and expr will be assigned to variable without creating  a  vari-
                  able  local  to  the current block.  (By contrast, = defines the
                  variable in the current block  if  it  is  not  already  defined
                  there,  and  then  changes the value in the current block only.)
                  For example, the following:
                         x = 3
           are also allowed to be of the form
                  { anything }
           In this case anything can contain balanced  occurrences  of  {  and  }.
           Strings may contain X or imbalanced occurrences of { and }.
           The syntax for expressions has been significantly extended:
           x ^ y (exponentiation)
           atan2(y, x)
           log(x) (base 10)
           exp(x) (base 10, ie 10^x)
           rand() (return a random number between 0 and 1)
           rand(x) (return a random number between 1 and x; deprecated)
           srand(x) (set the random number seed)
           max(e1, e2)
           min(e1, e2)
           e1 && e2
           e1 || e2
           e1 == e2
           e1 != e2
           e1 >= e2
           e1 > e2
           e1 <= e2
           e1 < e2
           "str1" == "str2"
           "str1" != "str2"
           String comparison expressions must be parenthesised in some contexts to
           avoid ambiguity.
       Other Changes
           A bare expression, expr, is acceptable as an attribute; it  is  equiva-
           lent to dir expr, where dir is the current direction.  For example
                  line 2i
           means  draw a line 2 inches long in the current direction.  The 'i' (or
           'I') character is ignored; to use another  measurement  unit,  set  the
           scale variable to an appropriate value.
           The  maximum  width  and height of the picture are taken from the vari-
           ables maxpswid and maxpsht.  Initially these have values 8.5 and 11.
           Scientific notation is allowed for numbers.  For example
           Circles and arcs can be dotted or dashed.  In TeX mode splines  can  be
           dotted or dashed.
           Boxes can have rounded corners.  The rad attribute specifies the radius
           of the quarter-circles at each corner.  If no rad or diam attribute  is
           given, a radius of boxrad is used.  Initially, boxrad has a value of 0.
           A box with rounded corners can be dotted or dashed.
           The .PS line can have a second argument specifying a maximum height for
           the  picture.   If  the  width  of  zero is specified the width will be
           ignored in computing the scaling factor for the picture.  Note that GNU
           pic  will  always scale a picture by the same amount vertically as well
           as horizontally.  This is different from the  DWB  2.0  pic  which  may
           scale a picture by a different amount vertically than horizontally if a
           height is specified.
           Each text object has an invisible box associated with it.  The  compass
           points  of  a  text  object  are  determined by this box.  The implicit
           motion associated with the object is also determined by this box.   The
           dimensions  of this box are taken from the width and height attributes;
           if the width attribute is not supplied then the width will be taken  to
           be  textwid;  if  the  height attribute is not supplied then the height
           will be taken to be the number of  text  strings  associated  with  the
           object times textht.  Initially textwid and textht have a value of 0.
           In  (almost  all)  places  where  a  quoted text string can be used, an
           expression of the form
                  sprintf("format", arg,...)
           can also be used; this will produce the arguments  formatted  according
           to format, which should be a string as described in printf(3) appropri-
           ate for the number of arguments supplied.
           The thickness of the lines used to draw objects is  controlled  by  the
           linethick  variable.   This  gives the thickness of lines in points.  A
           negative value means use the default thickness:  in  TeX  output  mode,
           this  means  use  a thickness of 8 milliinches; in TeX output mode with
           the -c option, this means use  the  line  thickness  specified  by  .ps
           lines; in troff output mode, this means use a thickness proportional to
           the pointsize.  A zero value means draw the thinnest possible line sup-
           ported by the output device.  Initially it has a value of -1.  There is
           also a thick[ness] attribute.  For example,
                  circle thickness 1.5
           would draw a circle using a line with a thickness of 1.5  points.   The
           thickness  of lines is not affected by the value of the scale variable,
           nor by the width or height given in the .PS line.
           Boxes (including boxes with rounded corners), circles and ellipses  can
           colo[u]r[ed]  sets both.  All three keywords expect a suffix specifying
           the color, for example
                  circle shaded "green" outline "black"
           Currently, color support isn't available in TeX mode.  Predefined color
           names  for  groff  are  in the device macro files, for example ps.tmac;
           additional colors can be defined with the .defcolor  request  (see  the
           manual page of troff(1) for more details).
           pic  assumes  that  at  the  beginning of a picture both glyph and fill
           color are set to the default value.
           Arrow heads will be drawn as solid triangles if the variable  arrowhead
           is  non-zero  and  either  TeX mode is enabled or the -n option has not
           been given.  Initially arrowhead has a value  of 1.   Note  that  solid
           arrow heads are always filled with the current outline color.
           The troff output of pic is device-independent.  The -T option is there-
           fore redundant.  All numbers are taken to be  in  inches;  numbers  are
           never interpreted to be in troff machine units.
           Objects  can  have  an  aligned  attribute.  This will only work if the
           postprocessor is grops.  Any text associated with an object having  the
           aligned  attribute  will  be  rotated about the center of the object so
           that it is aligned in the direction from the start  point  to  the  end
           point  of the object.  Note that this attribute will have no effect for
           objects whose start and end points are coincident.
           In places where nth is allowed 'expr'th is also allowed.  Note that 'th
           is  a  single token: no space is allowed between the ' and the th.  For
                  for i = 1 to 4 do {
                     line from 'i'th box.nw to 'i+1'th


           To obtain a stand-alone picture from a pic file, enclose your pic  code
           with  .PS and .PE requests; roff configuration commands may be added at
           the beginning of the file, but no roff text.
           It is necessary to feed this file into groff without  adding  any  page
           information,  so you must check which .PS and .PE requests are actually
           called.  For example, the mm macro package adds a page number, which is
           very annoying.  At the moment, calling standard groff without any macro
           package works.  Alternatively, you can define your own  requests,  e.g.
           to do nothing:
                  .de PS
                  .de PE
                  gs --help
           for a list of the available devices.
           As the Encapsulated PostScript File Format EPS is getting more and more
           important,  and  the conversion wasn't regarded trivial in the past you
           might be interested to know that  there  is  a  conversion  tool  named
           ps2eps  which  does  the  right  job.   It is much better than the tool
           ps2epsi packaged with gs.
           For bitmapped graphic formats, you should use  pstopnm;  the  resulting
           (intermediate) PNM file can be then converted to virtually any graphics
           format using the tools of the netpbm package .


                  Example definitions of the PS and PE macros.


           troff(1),   groff_out(5),   tex(1),   gs(1),   ps2eps(1),   pstopnm(1),
           ps2epsi(1), pnm(5)
           Tpic: Pic for TeX
           Brian  W.  Kernighan,  PIC  -- A Graphics Language for Typesetting (User
           Manual).  AT&T Bell Laboratories, Computing  Science  Technical  Report
           No. 116  <>  (revised  May,
           ps2eps is available from CTAN mirrors, e.g.
           W. Richard Stevens - Turning PIC Into HTML
           W. Richard Stevens - Examples of picMacros


           Input characters that are invalid for groff (ie those with  ASCII  code
           0, or 013 octal, or between 015 and 037 octal, or between 0200 and 0237
           octal) are rejected even in TeX mode.
           The interpretation of fillval is incompatible with the pic in 10th edi-
           tion Unix, which interprets 0 as black and 1 as white.
           PostScript(R) is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporation.

    Groff Version 20 September 2002 PIC(1)


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