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    Command:

    newusers

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           newusers [options new_users]
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           The newusers command reads a file of user name and clear-text password
           pairs and uses this information to update a group of existing users or
           to create new users. Each line is in the same format as the standard
           password file (see passwd(5)) with the exceptions explained below:
    
           pw_name:pw_passwd:pw_uid:pw_gid:pw_gecos:pw_dir:pw_shell
    
           pw_name
               This is the name of the user.
    
               It can be the name of a new user or the name of an existing user
               (or an user created before by newusers). In case of an existing
               user, the user?s information will be changed, otherwise a new user
               will be created.
    
           pw_passwd
               This field will be encrypted and used as the new value of the
               encrypted password.
    
           pw_uid
               This field is used to define the UID of the user.
    
               If the field is empty, an new (unused) UID will be defined
               automatically by newusers.
    
               If this field contains a number, this number will be used as the
               UID.
    
               If this field contains the name of an existing user (or the name of
               an user created before by newusers), the UID of the specified user
               will be used.
    
               If the UID of an existing user is changed, the files ownership of
               the user?s file should be fixed manually.
    
           pw_gid
               This field is used to define the primary group ID for the user.
    
               If this field contains the name of an existing group (or a group
               created before by newusers), the GID of this group will be used as
               the primary group ID for the user.
    
               If this field is a number, this number will be used as the primary
               group ID of the user. If no groups exist with this GID, a new group
               will be created with this GID, and the name of the user.
    
               If this field is empty, a new group will be created with the name
               of the user and a GID will be automatically defined by newusers to
    
               If this field does not specify an existing directory, the specified
               directory is created, with ownership set to the user being created
               or updated and its primary group.Note that newusers does not create
               parent directories of the new user's home directory. The newusers
               command will fail to create the home directory if the parent
               directories do not exist, and will send a message to stderr
               informing the user of the failure. The newusers command will not
               halt or return a failure to the calling shell if it fails to create
               the home directory, it will continue to process the batch of new
               users specified.
    
               If the home directory of an existing user is changed, newusers does
               not move or copy the content of the old directory to the new
               location. This should be done manually.
    
           pw_shell
               This field defines the shell of the user. No checks are performed
               on this field.
    
           newusers first tries to create or change all the specified users, and
           then write these changes to the user or group databases. If an error
           occurs (except in the final writes to the databases), no changes are
           committed to the databases.
    
           This command is intended to be used in a large system environment where
           many accounts are updated at a single time.
    
    
    

    OPTIONS

           The options which apply to the newusers command are:
    
           -c, --crypt-method
               Use the specified method to encrypt the passwords.
    
               The available methods are DES, MD5, NONE, and SHA256 or SHA512 if
               your libc support these methods.
    
           -h, --help
               Display help message and exit.
    
           -r, --system
               Create a system account.
    
               System users will be created with no aging information in
               /etc/shadow, and their numeric identifiers are choosen in the
               SYS_UID_MIN-SYS_UID_MAX range, defined in login.defs, instead of
               UID_MIN-UID_MAX (and their GID counterparts for the creation of
               groups).
    
           -s, --sha-rounds
               Use the specified number of rounds to encrypt the passwords.
    
    
    

    CAVEATS

           The input file must be protected since it contains unencrypted
           passwords.
    
           You should make sure the passwords and the encryption method respect
           the system?s password policy.
    
    
    

    CONFIGURATION

           The following configuration variables in /etc/login.defs change the
           behavior of this tool:
    
           ENCRYPT_METHOD (string)
               This defines the system default encryption algorithm for encrypting
               passwords (if no algorithm are specified on the command line).
    
               It can take one of these values:
    
               ?   DES (default)
    
               ?   MD5
    
               ?   SHA256
    
               ?   SHA512
    
                   Note: this parameter overrides the MD5_CRYPT_ENAB variable.
    
               GID_MAX (number), GID_MIN (number)
                   Range of group IDs used for the creation of regular groups by
                   useradd, groupadd, or newusers.
    
               MAX_MEMBERS_PER_GROUP (number)
                   Maximum members per group entry. When the maximum is reached, a
                   new group entry (line) is started in /etc/group (with the same
                   name, same password, and same GID).
    
                   The default value is 0, meaning that there are no limits in the
                   number of members in a group.
    
                   This feature (split group) permits to limit the length of lines
                   in the group file. This is useful to make sure that lines for
                   NIS groups are not larger than 1024 characters.
    
                   If you need to enforce such limit, you can use 25.
    
                   Note: split groups may not be supported by all tools (even in
                   the Shadow toolsuite). You should not use this variable unless
                   you really need it.
    
               MD5_CRYPT_ENAB (boolean)
                   Indicate if passwords must be encrypted using the MD5-based
                   algorithm. If set to yes, new passwords will be encrypted using
                   password is older than this, a password change will be forced.
                   If not specified, -1 will be assumed (which disables the
                   restriction).
    
               PASS_MIN_DAYS (number)
                   The minimum number of days allowed between password changes.
                   Any password changes attempted sooner than this will be
                   rejected. If not specified, -1 will be assumed (which disables
                   the restriction).
    
               PASS_WARN_AGE (number)
                   The number of days warning given before a password expires. A
                   zero means warning is given only upon the day of expiration, a
                   negative value means no warning is given. If not specified, no
                   warning will be provided.
    
               SHA_CRYPT_MIN_ROUNDS (number), SHA_CRYPT_MAX_ROUNDS (number)
                   When ENCRYPT_METHOD is set to SHA256 or SHA512, this defines
                   the number of SHA rounds used by the encryption algorithm by
                   default (when the number of rounds is not specified on the
                   command line).
    
                   With a lot of rounds, it is more difficult to brute forcing the
                   password. But note also that more CPU resources will be needed
                   to authenticate users.
    
                   If not specified, the libc will choose the default number of
                   rounds (5000).
    
                   The values must be inside the 1000-999999999 range.
    
                   If only one of the SHA_CRYPT_MIN_ROUNDS or SHA_CRYPT_MAX_ROUNDS
                   values is set, then this value will be used.
    
                   If SHA_CRYPT_MIN_ROUNDS > SHA_CRYPT_MAX_ROUNDS, the highest
                   value will be used.
    
               SYS_GID_MAX (number), SYS_GID_MIN (number)
                   Range of group IDs used for the creation of system groups by
                   useradd, groupadd, or newusers.
    
               SYS_UID_MAX (number), SYS_UID_MIN (number)
                   Range of user IDs used for the creation of system users by
                   useradd or newusers.
    
               UID_MAX (number), UID_MIN (number)
                   Range of user IDs used for the creation of regular users by
                   useradd or newusers.
    
               UMASK (number)
                   The file mode creation mask is initialized to this value. If
                   not specified, the mask will be initialized to 022.
    
           /etc/shadow
               Secure user account information.
    
           /etc/group
               Group account information.
    
           /etc/gshadow
               Secure group account information.
    
           /etc/login.defs
               Shadow password suite configuration.
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           login.defs(5), passwd(1), useradd(8).
    
    
    

    System Management Commands 07/24/2009 NEWUSERS(8)

    
    
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