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    Command:

    newaliases

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           sendmail [option ...] [recipient ...]
    
           mailq
           sendmail -bp
    
           newaliases
           sendmail -I
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           The Postfix sendmail(1) command implements the Postfix to Sendmail com-
           patibility interface.  For the  sake  of  compatibility  with  existing
           applications,  some  Sendmail  command-line  options are recognized but
           silently ignored.
    
           By default, Postfix sendmail(1) reads a  message  from  standard  input
           until  EOF  or  until  it  reads  a  line  with only a . character, and
           arranges for delivery.  Postfix sendmail(1) relies on  the  postdrop(1)
           command to create a queue file in the maildrop directory.
    
           Specific  command aliases are provided for other common modes of opera-
           tion:
    
           mailq  List the mail queue. Each entry shows the queue file ID, message
                  size,  arrival  time, sender, and the recipients that still need
                  to be delivered.  If mail could not be delivered upon  the  last
                  attempt, the reason for failure is shown. The queue ID string is
                  followed by an optional status character:
    
                  *      The message is in the active queue, i.e. the  message  is
                         selected for delivery.
    
                  !      The  message is in the hold queue, i.e. no further deliv-
                         ery attempt will be made until  the  mail  is  taken  off
                         hold.
    
                  This   mode   of  operation  is  implemented  by  executing  the
                  postqueue(1) command.
    
           newaliases
                  Initialize the alias database.  If no input  file  is  specified
                  (with  the  -oA  option,  see  below), the program processes the
                  file(s) specified with the alias_database configuration  parame-
                  ter.   If  no alias database type is specified, the program uses
                  the type specified with the default_database_type  configuration
                  parameter.  This mode of operation is implemented by running the
                  postalias(1) command.
    
                  Note: it may take a minute or so before an alias database update
                  becomes  visible.  Use the "postfix reload" command to eliminate
                  this delay.
    
    
           -bd    Go  into  daemon  mode. This mode of operation is implemented by
                  executing the "postfix start" command.
    
           -bh (ignored)
    
           -bH (ignored)
                  Postfix has no persistent host status database.
    
           -bi    Initialize alias database. See the newaliases command above.
    
           -bm    Read mail from standard input and arrange for delivery.  This is
                  the default mode of operation.
    
           -bp    List the mail queue. See the mailq command above.
    
           -bs    Stand-alone  SMTP  server mode. Read SMTP commands from standard
                  input, and write responses to standard output.   In  stand-alone
                  SMTP  server  mode,  mail relaying and other access controls are
                  disabled by default. To enable them,  run  the  process  as  the
                  mail_owner user.
    
                  This  mode  of  operation is implemented by running the smtpd(8)
                  daemon.
    
           -bv    Do not collect or deliver a  message.  Instead,  send  an  email
                  report  after  verifying each recipient address.  This is useful
                  for testing address rewriting and routing configurations.
    
                  This feature is available in Postfix version 2.1 and later.
    
           -C config_file
    
           -C config_dir
                  The path name of the Postfix main.cf  file,  or  of  its  parent
                  directory.  This  information  is  ignored with Postfix versions
                  before 2.3.
    
                  With all Postfix versions, you can specify a directory  pathname
                  with  the MAIL_CONFIG environment variable to override the loca-
                  tion of configuration files.
    
           -F full_name
                  Set the sender full name. This overrides  the  NAME  environment
                  variable, and is used only with messages that have no From: mes-
                  sage header.
    
           -f sender
                  Set the envelope sender  address.  This  is  the  address  where
                  delivery problems are sent to. With Postfix versions before 2.1,
                  the  Errors-To:  message  header  overrides  the  error   return
                  address.
    
           -i     When  reading  a message from standard input, don?t treat a line
                  with only a . character as the end of input.
    
           -L label (ignored)
                  The logging label. Use the syslog_name  configuration  parameter
                  instead.
    
           -m (ignored)
                  Backwards compatibility.
    
           -N dsn (default: 'delay, failure')
                  Delivery  status  notification  control. Specify either a comma-
                  separated list with one or more of  failure  (send  notification
                  when  delivery fails), delay (send notification when delivery is
                  delayed), or success (send  notification  when  the  message  is
                  delivered);  or  specify  never (don't send any notifications at
                  all).
    
                  This feature is available in Postfix 2.3 and later.
    
           -n (ignored)
                  Backwards compatibility.
    
           -oAalias_database
                  Non-default alias database. Specify pathname  or  type:pathname.
                  See postalias(1) for details.
    
           -O option=value (ignored)
                  Backwards compatibility.
    
           -o7 (ignored)
    
           -o8 (ignored)
                  To  send 8-bit or binary content, use an appropriate MIME encap-
                  sulation and specify the appropriate -B command-line option.
    
           -oi    When reading a message from standard input, don?t treat  a  line
                  with only a . character as the end of input.
    
           -om (ignored)
                  The sender is never eliminated from alias etc. expansions.
    
           -o x value (ignored)
                  Set  option x to value. Use the equivalent configuration parame-
                  ter in main.cf instead.
    
           -r sender
                  Set the envelope sender  address.  This  is  the  address  where
                  delivery problems are sent to. With Postfix versions before 2.1,
                  the  Errors-To:  message  header  overrides  the  error   return
                  address.
    
           -qIqueueid
                  Schedule immediate delivery of mail with the specified queue ID.
                  This option is implemented by executing  the  postqueue(1)  com-
                  mand, and is available with Postfix version 2.4 and later.
    
           -qRsite
                  Schedule  immediate  delivery of all mail that is queued for the
                  named site.  This  option  accepts  only  site  names  that  are
                  eligible  for  the  "fast  flush" service, and is implemented by
                  executing the  postqueue(1)  command.   See  flush(8)  for  more
                  information about the "fast flush" service.
    
           -qSsite
                  This  command  is  not implemented. Use the slower "sendmail -q"
                  command instead.
    
           -t     Extract recipients from message headers. These are added to  any
                  recipients specified on the command line.
    
                  With Postfix versions prior to 2.1, this option requires that no
                  recipient addresses are specified on the command line.
    
           -U (ignored)
                  Initial user submission.
    
           -V envid
                  Specify the envelope ID for notification by servers that support
                  DSN.
    
                  This feature is available in Postfix 2.3 and later.
    
           -XV (Postfix 2.2 and earlier: -V)
                  Variable  Envelope Return Path. Given an envelope sender address
                  of the form owner-listname@origin,  each  recipient  user@domain
                  receives mail with a personalized envelope sender address.
    
                  By  default,  the personalized envelope sender address is owner-
                  listname+user=domain@origin. The default + and = characters  are
                  configurable   with  the  default_verp_delimiters  configuration
                  parameter.
    
           -XVxy (Postfix 2.2 and earlier: -Vxy)
                  As -XV, but uses x and  y  as  the  VERP  delimiter  characters,
                  instead of the characters specified with the default_verp_delim-
                  iters configuration parameter.
    
           -v     Send an email report of the first delivery attempt (Postfix ver-
                  sions  2.1 and later). Mail delivery always happens in the back-
                  ground. When multiple -v options are given, enable verbose  log-
                  ging for debugging purposes.
    
           -X log_file (ignored)
    
           MAIL_VERBOSE (value does not matter)
                  Enable verbose logging for debugging purposes.
    
           MAIL_DEBUG (value does not matter)
                  Enable debugging with an external command, as specified with the
                  debugger_command configuration parameter.
    
           NAME   The  sender full name. This is used only with messages that have
                  no From: message header. See also the -F option above.
    
    
    

    CONFIGURATION PARAMETERS

           The following main.cf parameters are especially relevant to  this  pro-
           gram.    The   text  below  provides  only  a  parameter  summary.  See
           postconf(5) for more details including examples.
    
    
    

    TROUBLE SHOOTING CONTROLS

           The DEBUG_README file gives examples of how to trouble shoot a  Postfix
           system.
    
           debugger_command (empty)
                  The external command to execute when a Postfix daemon program is
                  invoked with the -D option.
    
           debug_peer_level (2)
                  The increment in verbose logging level when a remote  client  or
                  server matches a pattern in the debug_peer_list parameter.
    
           debug_peer_list (empty)
                  Optional  list  of  remote  client or server hostname or network
                  address  patterns  that  cause  the  verbose  logging  level  to
                  increase by the amount specified in $debug_peer_level.
    
    
    

    ACCESS CONTROLS

           Available in Postfix version 2.2 and later:
    
           authorized_flush_users (static:anyone)
                  List of users who are authorized to flush the queue.
    
           authorized_mailq_users (static:anyone)
                  List of users who are authorized to view the queue.
    
           authorized_submit_users (static:anyone)
                  List  of  users who are authorized to submit mail with the send-
                  mail(1) command (and with the privileged postdrop(1) helper com-
                  mand).
    
    
    

    RESOURCE AND RATE CONTROLS

           bounce_size_limit (50000)
                  The  maximal  amount  of original message text that is sent in a
                  non-delivery notification.
    
    
    

    FAST FLUSH CONTROLS

           The ETRN_README file describes configuration and operation details  for
           the Postfix "fast flush" service.
    
           fast_flush_domains ($relay_domains)
                  Optional list of destinations that are eligible for per-destina-
                  tion logfiles with mail that is queued to those destinations.
    
    
    

    VERP CONTROLS

           The VERP_README file describes configuration and operation  details  of
           Postfix support for variable envelope return path addresses.
    
           default_verp_delimiters (+=)
                  The two default VERP delimiter characters.
    
           verp_delimiter_filter (-=+)
                  The  characters  Postfix accepts as VERP delimiter characters on
                  the Postfix sendmail(1) command line and in SMTP commands.
    
    
    

    MISCELLANEOUS CONTROLS

           alias_database (see 'postconf -d' output)
                  The alias databases for local(8) delivery that are updated  with
                  "newaliases" or with "sendmail -bi".
    
           command_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
                  The location of all postfix administrative commands.
    
           config_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
                  The  default  location of the Postfix main.cf and master.cf con-
                  figuration files.
    
           daemon_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
                  The directory with Postfix support programs and daemon programs.
    
           default_database_type (see 'postconf -d' output)
                  The default database type for use in newaliases(1), postalias(1)
                  and postmap(1) commands.
    
           delay_warning_time (0h)
                  The time after which the sender receives the message headers  of
                  mail that is still queued.
    
           enable_errors_to (no)
                  Report  mail  delivery  errors to the address specified with the
                  non-standard Errors-To: message header, instead of the  envelope
                  sender  address  (this  feature  is removed with Postfix version
                  2.2, is turned off by default with Postfix version 2.1,  and  is
                  always turned on with older Postfix versions).
    
           mail_owner (postfix)
                  The  UNIX  system  account  that owns the Postfix queue and most
                  Postfix daemon processes.
                  syslog  records,  so  that  "smtpd" becomes, for example, "post-
                  fix/smtpd".
    
    
    

    FILES

           /var/spool/postfix, mail queue
           /etc/postfix, configuration files
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           pickup(8), mail pickup daemon
           qmgr(8), queue manager
           smtpd(8), SMTP server
           flush(8), fast flush service
           postsuper(1), queue maintenance
           postalias(1), create/update/query alias database
           postdrop(1), mail posting utility
           postfix(1), mail system control
           postqueue(1), mail queue control
           syslogd(8), system logging
    
    
    

    README_FILES

           Use "postconf readme_directory" or "postconf html_directory" to  locate
           this information.
           DEBUG_README, Postfix debugging howto
           ETRN_README, Postfix ETRN howto
           VERP_README, Postfix VERP howto
    
    
    

    LICENSE

           The Secure Mailer license must be distributed with this software.
    
    
    

    AUTHOR(S)

           Wietse Venema
           IBM T.J. Watson Research
           P.O. Box 704
           Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA
    
                                                                       SENDMAIL(1)
    
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