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         device ndis
         device wlan


         The ndis driver is a wrapper designed to allow binary Windows(R) NDIS mini-
         port network drivers to be used with FreeBSD.  The ndis driver is pro-
         vided in source code form and must be combined with the Windows(R) driver
         supplied with your network adapter.  The ndis driver uses the ndisapi
         kernel subsystem to relocate and link the Windows(R) binary so that it can
         be used in conjunction with native code.  The ndisapi subsystem provides
         an interface between the NDIS API and the FreeBSD networking infrastruc-
         ture.  The Windows(R) driver is essentially fooled into thinking it is run-
         ning on Windows(R).  Note that this means the ndis driver is only useful on
         x86 machines.
         To build a functional driver, the user must have a copy of the driver
         distribution media for his or her card.  From this distribution, the user
         must extract two files: the .SYS file containing the driver binary code,
         and its companion .INF file, which contains the definitions for driver-
         specific registry keys and other installation data such as device identi-
         fiers.  These two files can be converted into a kernel module file using
         the ndisgen(8) utility.  This file contains a binary image of the driver
         plus registry key data.  When the ndis driver loads, it will create
         sysctl(3) nodes for each registry key extracted from the .INF file.
         The ndis driver is designed to support mainly Ethernet and wireless net-
         work devices with PCI, PCMCIA and USB bus attachments.  (Cardbus devices
         are also supported as a subset of PCI.)  It can support many different
         media types and speeds.  One limitation however, is that there is no con-
         sistent way to learn if an Ethernet device is operating in full or half
         duplex mode.  The NDIS API allows for a generic means for determining
         link state and speed, but not the duplex setting.  There may be driver-
         specific registry keys to control the media setting which can be config-
         ured via the sysctl(8) command.


         ndis%d: watchdog timeout  A packet was queued for transmission and a
         transmit command was issued, however the device failed to acknowledge the
         transmission before a timeout expired.


         altq(4), arp(4), netintro(4), ng_ether(4), ifconfig(8), ndis_events(8),
         ndiscvt(8), ndisgen(8), wpa_supplicant(8)
         NDIS 5.1 specification,


         The ndis device driver first appeared in FreeBSD 5.3.


         The ndis driver was written by Bill Paul <>.

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