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           #include <curses.h>


           The  ncurses  library  routines  give  the  user a terminal-independent
           method of updating  character  screens  with  reasonable  optimization.
           This  implementation  is  ''new  curses'' (ncurses) and is the approved
           replacement for 4.4BSD classic curses,  which  has  been  discontinued.
           This describes ncurses version 5.9 (patch 20110404).
           The  ncurses  library emulates the curses library of System V Release 4
           UNIX, and XPG4 (X/Open Portability Guide) curses  (also  known  as  XSI
           curses).   XSI  stands  for  X/Open  System  Interfaces Extension.  The
           ncurses library is freely redistributable in source form.   Differences
           from  the SVr4 curses are summarized under the EXTENSIONS and PORTABIL-
           ITY sections below and described in detail  in  the  respective  EXTEN-
           SIONS, PORTABILITY and BUGS sections of individual man pages.
           The  ncurses  library  also provides many useful extensions, i.e., fea-
           tures which cannot be implemented by a simple add-on library but  which
           require access to the internals of the library.
           A  program  using  these  routines  must  be  linked with the -lncurses
           option, or (if it  has  been  generated)  with  the  debugging  library
           -lncurses_g.   (Your  system  integrator  may also have installed these
           libraries under the names  -lcurses  and  -lcurses_g.)   The  ncurses_g
           library  generates  trace logs (in a file called 'trace' in the current
           directory) that describe curses  actions.   See  also  the  section  on
           The  ncurses package supports: overall screen, window and pad manipula-
           tion; output to windows and pads; reading terminal input; control  over
           terminal  and  curses  input and output options; environment query rou-
           tines; color manipulation; use of soft label keys;  terminfo  capabili-
           ties; and access to low-level terminal-manipulation routines.
           The  library uses the locale which the calling program has initialized.
           That is normally done with setlocale:
                 setlocale(LC_ALL, "");
           If the locale is not initialized, the library assumes  that  characters
           are  printable  as in ISO-8859-1, to work with certain legacy programs.
           You should initialize the locale and not rely on  specific  details  of
           the library when the locale has not been setup.
           The  function  initscr  or  newterm  must  be  called to initialize the
           library before any of the other routines that  deal  with  windows  and
           screens are used.  The routine endwin must be called before exiting.
           To  get  character-at-a-time  input  without echoing (most interactive,
           screen oriented programs want this), the following sequence  should  be
           for doing this.  [See terminfo(5) for further details.]
           The  ncurses  library  permits  manipulation of data structures, called
           windows, which can be thought of as two-dimensional arrays  of  charac-
           ters representing all or part of a CRT screen.  A default window called
           stdscr, which is the size of the terminal screen, is supplied.   Others
           may be created with newwin.
           Note  that  curses  does not handle overlapping windows, that's done by
           the panel(3CURSES) library.  This means that you can either use  stdscr
           or  divide  the  screen into tiled windows and not using stdscr at all.
           Mixing the two will result in unpredictable, and undesired, effects.
           Windows are referred to by variables declared as WINDOW *.  These  data
           structures  are  manipulated with routines described here and elsewhere
           in the ncurses manual pages.  Among those, the most basic routines  are
           move  and  addch.  More general versions of these routines are included
           with names beginning with w, allowing the user  to  specify  a  window.
           The routines not beginning with w affect stdscr.
           After using routines to manipulate a window, refresh is called, telling
           curses to make the user's CRT screen look like stdscr.  The  characters
           in a window are actually of type chtype, (character and attribute data)
           so that other information about the character may also be  stored  with
           each character.
           Special windows called pads may also be manipulated.  These are windows
           which are not constrained to the size of the screen and whose  contents
           need  not be completely displayed.  See pad(3NCURSES) for more informa-
           In addition to drawing characters on the screen, video  attributes  and
           colors  may  be  supported,  causing  the characters to show up in such
           modes as underlined, in reverse video, or in color  on  terminals  that
           support  such  display  enhancements.   Line  drawing characters may be
           specified to be output.  On input, curses is  also  able  to  translate
           arrow and function keys that transmit escape sequences into single val-
           ues.  The video attributes, line drawing characters, and  input  values
           use  names,  defined  in  <curses.h>, such as A_REVERSE, ACS_HLINE, and
           If the environment variables LINES and COLUMNS are set, or if the  pro-
           gram  is executing in a window environment, line and column information
           in the environment will override information read  by  terminfo.   This
           would affect a program running in an AT&T 630 layer, for example, where
           the size of a screen is changeable (see ENVIRONMENT).
           If the environment variable TERMINFO  is  defined,  any  program  using
           curses  checks  for  a local terminal definition before checking in the
           standard place.  For example, if TERM is set to att4424, then the  com-
           piled terminal definition is found in
           The integer variables LINES and COLS are defined in <curses.h> and will
           be  filled  in  by  initscr with the size of the screen.  The constants
           TRUE and FALSE have the values 1 and 0, respectively.
           The curses routines also define the WINDOW * variable curscr  which  is
           used  for  certain  low-level  operations like clearing and redrawing a
           screen containing garbage.  The curscr can be used in only a  few  rou-
       Routine and Argument Names
           Many  curses routines have two or more versions.  The routines prefixed
           with w require a window argument.  The routines prefixed with p require
           a pad argument.  Those without a prefix generally use stdscr.
           The  routines  prefixed with mv require a y and x coordinate to move to
           before performing the appropriate action.  The mv routines imply a call
           to  move before the call to the other routine.  The coordinate y always
           refers to the row (of the window), and x always refers to  the  column.
           The upper left-hand corner is always (0,0), not (1,1).
           The  routines prefixed with mvw take both a window argument and x and y
           coordinates.  The window argument is always specified before the  coor-
           In  each case, win is the window affected, and pad is the pad affected;
           win and pad are always pointers to type WINDOW.
           Option setting routines require a Boolean flag bf with the  value  TRUE
           or  FALSE;  bf  is always of type bool.  Most of the data types used in
           the library routines, such as WINDOW,  SCREEN,  bool,  and  chtype  are
           defined  in  <curses.h>.   Types used for the terminfo routines such as
           TERMINAL are defined in <term.h>.
           This manual page describes functions which may appear in any configura-
           tion  of  the  library.   There  are  two  common configurations of the
                       the "normal" library, which handles 8-bit characters.   The
                       normal  (8-bit)  library  stores  characters  combined with
                       attributes in chtype data.
                       Attributes alone (no corresponding character) may be stored
                       in  chtype  or the equivalent attr_t data.  In either case,
                       the data is stored in something like an integer.
                       Each cell (row and column) in  a  WINDOW  is  stored  as  a
                       the so-called "wide" library, which handles multibyte char-
                            stores  a  "wide" character.  Like chtype, this may be
                            an integer.
                            stores a wchar_t or WEOF - not the same,  though  both
                            may have the same size.
                       The  "wide" library provides new functions which are analo-
                       gous to functions in the "normal" library.  There is a nam-
                       ing  convention which relates many of the normal/wide vari-
                       ants: a "_w" is inserted into the name.  For example,  wad-
                       dch becomes wadd_wch.
       Routine Name Index
           The  following table lists each curses routine and the name of the man-
           ual page on which it is  described.   Routines  flagged  with  '*'  are
           ncurses-specific, not described by XPG4 or present in SVr4.
                      curses Routine Name     Manual Page Name
                      COLOR_PAIR              color(3NCURSES)
                      PAIR_NUMBER             attr(3NCURSES)
                      _nc_free_and_exit       memleaks(3NCURSES)*
                      _nc_freeall             memleaks(3NCURSES)*
                      _nc_tracebits           trace(3NCURSES)*
                      _traceattr              trace(3NCURSES)*
                      _traceattr2             trace(3NCURSES)*
                      _tracechar              trace(3NCURSES)*
                      _tracechtype            trace(3NCURSES)*
                      _tracechtype2           trace(3NCURSES)*
                      _tracedump              trace(3NCURSES)*
                      _tracef                 trace(3NCURSES)*
                      _tracemouse             trace(3NCURSES)*
                      add_wch                 add_wch(3NCURSES)
                      add_wchnstr             add_wchstr(3NCURSES)
                      add_wchstr              add_wchstr(3NCURSES)
                      addch                   addch(3NCURSES)
                      addchnstr               addchstr(3NCURSES)
                      addchstr                addchstr(3NCURSES)
                      addnstr                 addstr(3NCURSES)
                      addnwstr                addwstr(3NCURSES)
                      addstr                  addstr(3NCURSES)
                      addwstr                 addwstr(3NCURSES)
                      assume_default_colors   default_colors(3NCURSES)*
                      attr_get                attr(3NCURSES)
                      attr_off                attr(3NCURSES)
                      attr_on                 attr(3NCURSES)
                      box_set                 border_set(3NCURSES)
                      can_change_color        color(3NCURSES)
                      cbreak                  inopts(3NCURSES)
                      chgat                   attr(3NCURSES)
                      clear                   clear(3NCURSES)
                      clearok                 outopts(3NCURSES)
                      clrtobot                clear(3NCURSES)
                      clrtoeol                clear(3NCURSES)
                      color_content           color(3NCURSES)
                      color_set               attr(3NCURSES)
                      copywin                 overlay(3NCURSES)
                      curs_set                kernel(3NCURSES)
                      curses_version          extensions(3NCURSES)*
                      def_prog_mode           kernel(3NCURSES)
                      def_shell_mode          kernel(3NCURSES)
                      define_key              define_key(3NCURSES)*
                      del_curterm             terminfo(3NCURSES)
                      delay_output            util(3NCURSES)
                      delch                   delch(3NCURSES)
                      deleteln                deleteln(3NCURSES)
                      delscreen               initscr(3NCURSES)
                      delwin                  window(3NCURSES)
                      derwin                  window(3NCURSES)
                      doupdate                refresh(3NCURSES)
                      dupwin                  window(3NCURSES)
                      echo                    inopts(3NCURSES)
                      echo_wchar              add_wch(3NCURSES)
                      echochar                addch(3NCURSES)
                      endwin                  initscr(3NCURSES)
                      erase                   clear(3NCURSES)
                      erasechar               termattrs(3NCURSES)
                      erasewchar              termattrs(3NCURSES)
                      filter                  util(3NCURSES)
                      flash                   beep(3NCURSES)
                      flushinp                util(3NCURSES)
                      get_wch                 get_wch(3NCURSES)
                      get_wstr                get_wstr(3NCURSES)
                      getattrs                attr(3NCURSES)
                      getbegx                 legacy(3NCURSES)*
                      getbegy                 legacy(3NCURSES)*
                      getbegyx                getyx(3NCURSES)
                      getbkgd                 bkgd(3NCURSES)
                      getbkgrnd               bkgrnd(3NCURSES)
                      getcchar                getcchar(3NCURSES)
                      getch                   getch(3NCURSES)
                      getcurx                 legacy(3NCURSES)*
                      getcury                 legacy(3NCURSES)*
                      getmaxx                 legacy(3NCURSES)*
                      getmaxy                 legacy(3NCURSES)*
                      getmaxyx                getyx(3NCURSES)
                      getmouse                mouse(3NCURSES)*
                      getn_wstr               get_wstr(3NCURSES)
                      hline                   border(3NCURSES)
                      hline_set               border_set(3NCURSES)
                      idcok                   outopts(3NCURSES)
                      idlok                   outopts(3NCURSES)
                      immedok                 outopts(3NCURSES)
                      in_wch                  in_wch(3NCURSES)
                      in_wchnstr              in_wchstr(3NCURSES)
                      in_wchstr               in_wchstr(3NCURSES)
                      inch                    inch(3NCURSES)
                      inchnstr                inchstr(3NCURSES)
                      inchstr                 inchstr(3NCURSES)
                      init_color              color(3NCURSES)
                      init_pair               color(3NCURSES)
                      initscr                 initscr(3NCURSES)
                      innstr                  instr(3NCURSES)
                      innwstr                 inwstr(3NCURSES)
                      ins_nwstr               ins_wstr(3NCURSES)
                      ins_wch                 ins_wch(3NCURSES)
                      ins_wstr                ins_wstr(3NCURSES)
                      insch                   insch(3NCURSES)
                      insdelln                deleteln(3NCURSES)
                      insertln                deleteln(3NCURSES)
                      insnstr                 insstr(3NCURSES)
                      insstr                  insstr(3NCURSES)
                      instr                   instr(3NCURSES)
                      intrflush               inopts(3NCURSES)
                      inwstr                  inwstr(3NCURSES)
                      is_cleared              opaque(3NCURSES)*
                      is_idcok                opaque(3NCURSES)*
                      is_idlok                opaque(3NCURSES)*
                      is_immedok              opaque(3NCURSES)*
                      is_keypad               opaque(3NCURSES)*
                      is_leaveok              opaque(3NCURSES)*
                      is_linetouched          touch(3NCURSES)
                      is_nodelay              opaque(3NCURSES)*
                      is_notimeout            opaque(3NCURSES)*
                      is_scrollok             opaque(3NCURSES)*
                      is_syncok               opaque(3NCURSES)*
                      is_term_resized         resizeterm(3NCURSES)*
                      is_wintouched           touch(3NCURSES)
                      isendwin                initscr(3NCURSES)
                      key_defined             key_defined(3NCURSES)*
                      key_name                util(3NCURSES)
                      keybound                keybound(3NCURSES)*
                      keyname                 util(3NCURSES)
                      keyok                   keyok(3NCURSES)*
                      keypad                  inopts(3NCURSES)
                      killchar                termattrs(3NCURSES)
                      killwchar               termattrs(3NCURSES)
                      leaveok                 outopts(3NCURSES)
                      longname                termattrs(3NCURSES)
                      mcprint                 print(3NCURSES)*
                      mvaddstr                addstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvaddwstr               addwstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvchgat                 attr(3NCURSES)
                      mvcur                   terminfo(3NCURSES)
                      mvdelch                 delch(3NCURSES)
                      mvderwin                window(3NCURSES)
                      mvget_wch               get_wch(3NCURSES)
                      mvget_wstr              get_wstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvgetch                 getch(3NCURSES)
                      mvgetn_wstr             get_wstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvgetnstr               getstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvgetstr                getstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvhline                 border(3NCURSES)
                      mvhline_set             border_set(3NCURSES)
                      mvin_wch                in_wch(3NCURSES)
                      mvin_wchnstr            in_wchstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvin_wchstr             in_wchstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvinch                  inch(3NCURSES)
                      mvinchnstr              inchstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvinchstr               inchstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvinnstr                instr(3NCURSES)
                      mvinnwstr               inwstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvins_nwstr             ins_wstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvins_wch               ins_wch(3NCURSES)
                      mvins_wstr              ins_wstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvinsch                 insch(3NCURSES)
                      mvinsnstr               insstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvinsstr                insstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvinstr                 instr(3NCURSES)
                      mvinwstr                inwstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvprintw                printw(3NCURSES)
                      mvscanw                 scanw(3NCURSES)
                      mvvline                 border(3NCURSES)
                      mvvline_set             border_set(3NCURSES)
                      mvwadd_wch              add_wch(3NCURSES)
                      mvwadd_wchnstr          add_wchstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvwadd_wchstr           add_wchstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvwaddch                addch(3NCURSES)
                      mvwaddchnstr            addchstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvwaddchstr             addchstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvwaddnstr              addstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvwaddnwstr             addwstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvwaddstr               addstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvwaddwstr              addwstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvwchgat                attr(3NCURSES)
                      mvwdelch                delch(3NCURSES)
                      mvwget_wch              get_wch(3NCURSES)
                      mvwget_wstr             get_wstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvwgetch                getch(3NCURSES)
                      mvwgetn_wstr            get_wstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvwgetnstr              getstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvwgetstr               getstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvwins_wstr             ins_wstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvwinsch                insch(3NCURSES)
                      mvwinsnstr              insstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvwinsstr               insstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvwinstr                instr(3NCURSES)
                      mvwinwstr               inwstr(3NCURSES)
                      mvwprintw               printw(3NCURSES)
                      mvwscanw                scanw(3NCURSES)
                      mvwvline                border(3NCURSES)
                      mvwvline_set            border_set(3NCURSES)
                      napms                   kernel(3NCURSES)
                      newpad                  pad(3NCURSES)
                      newterm                 initscr(3NCURSES)
                      newwin                  window(3NCURSES)
                      nl                      outopts(3NCURSES)
                      nocbreak                inopts(3NCURSES)
                      nodelay                 inopts(3NCURSES)
                      noecho                  inopts(3NCURSES)
                      nofilter                util(3NCURSES)*
                      nonl                    outopts(3NCURSES)
                      noqiflush               inopts(3NCURSES)
                      noraw                   inopts(3NCURSES)
                      notimeout               inopts(3NCURSES)
                      overlay                 overlay(3NCURSES)
                      overwrite               overlay(3NCURSES)
                      pair_content            color(3NCURSES)
                      pechochar               pad(3NCURSES)
                      pnoutrefresh            pad(3NCURSES)
                      prefresh                pad(3NCURSES)
                      printw                  printw(3NCURSES)
                      putp                    terminfo(3NCURSES)
                      putwin                  util(3NCURSES)
                      qiflush                 inopts(3NCURSES)
                      raw                     inopts(3NCURSES)
                      redrawwin               refresh(3NCURSES)
                      refresh                 refresh(3NCURSES)
                      reset_prog_mode         kernel(3NCURSES)
                      reset_shell_mode        kernel(3NCURSES)
                      resetty                 kernel(3NCURSES)
                      resizeterm              resizeterm(3NCURSES)*
                      restartterm             terminfo(3NCURSES)
                      ripoffline              kernel(3NCURSES)
                      savetty                 kernel(3NCURSES)
                      scanw                   scanw(3NCURSES)
                      scr_dump                scr_dump(3NCURSES)
                      scr_init                scr_dump(3NCURSES)
                      scr_restore             scr_dump(3NCURSES)
                      scr_set                 scr_dump(3NCURSES)
                      scrl                    scroll(3NCURSES)
                      scroll                  scroll(3NCURSES)
                      scrollok                outopts(3NCURSES)
                      set_curterm             terminfo(3NCURSES)
                      slk_clear               slk(3NCURSES)
                      slk_color               slk(3NCURSES)
                      slk_init                slk(3NCURSES)
                      slk_label               slk(3NCURSES)
                      slk_noutrefresh         slk(3NCURSES)
                      slk_refresh             slk(3NCURSES)
                      slk_restore             slk(3NCURSES)
                      slk_set                 slk(3NCURSES)
                      slk_touch               slk(3NCURSES)
                      standend                attr(3NCURSES)
                      standout                attr(3NCURSES)
                      start_color             color(3NCURSES)
                      subpad                  pad(3NCURSES)
                      subwin                  window(3NCURSES)
                      syncok                  window(3NCURSES)
                      term_attrs              termattrs(3NCURSES)
                      termattrs               termattrs(3NCURSES)
                      termname                termattrs(3NCURSES)
                      tgetent                 termcap(3NCURSES)
                      tgetflag                termcap(3NCURSES)
                      tgetnum                 termcap(3NCURSES)
                      tgetstr                 termcap(3NCURSES)
                      tgoto                   termcap(3NCURSES)
                      tigetflag               terminfo(3NCURSES)
                      tigetnum                terminfo(3NCURSES)
                      tigetstr                terminfo(3NCURSES)
                      timeout                 inopts(3NCURSES)
                      touchline               touch(3NCURSES)
                      touchwin                touch(3NCURSES)
                      tparm                   terminfo(3NCURSES)
                      tputs                   termcap(3NCURSES)
                      tputs                   terminfo(3NCURSES)
                      trace                   trace(3NCURSES)*
                      typeahead               inopts(3NCURSES)
                      unctrl                  util(3NCURSES)
                      unget_wch               get_wch(3NCURSES)
                      ungetch                 getch(3NCURSES)
                      ungetmouse              mouse(3NCURSES)*
                      untouchwin              touch(3NCURSES)
                      use_default_colors      default_colors(3NCURSES)*
                      use_env                 util(3NCURSES)
                      use_extended_names      extensions(3NCURSES)*
                      use_legacy_coding       legacy_coding(3NCURSES)*
                      vid_attr                terminfo(3NCURSES)
                      vid_puts                terminfo(3NCURSES)
                      vidattr                 terminfo(3NCURSES)
                      vidputs                 terminfo(3NCURSES)
                      vline                   border(3NCURSES)
                      vline_set               border_set(3NCURSES)
                      vw_printw               printw(3NCURSES)
                      vw_scanw                scanw(3NCURSES)
                      vwprintw                printw(3NCURSES)
                      wattr_on                attr(3NCURSES)
                      wattr_set               attr(3NCURSES)
                      wattroff                attr(3NCURSES)
                      wattron                 attr(3NCURSES)
                      wattrset                attr(3NCURSES)
                      wbkgd                   bkgd(3NCURSES)
                      wbkgdset                bkgd(3NCURSES)
                      wbkgrnd                 bkgrnd(3NCURSES)
                      wbkgrndset              bkgrnd(3NCURSES)
                      wborder                 border(3NCURSES)
                      wborder_set             border_set(3NCURSES)
                      wchgat                  attr(3NCURSES)
                      wclear                  clear(3NCURSES)
                      wclrtobot               clear(3NCURSES)
                      wclrtoeol               clear(3NCURSES)
                      wcolor_set              attr(3NCURSES)
                      wcursyncup              window(3NCURSES)
                      wdelch                  delch(3NCURSES)
                      wdeleteln               deleteln(3NCURSES)
                      wecho_wchar             add_wch(3NCURSES)
                      wechochar               addch(3NCURSES)
                      wenclose                mouse(3NCURSES)*
                      werase                  clear(3NCURSES)
                      wget_wch                get_wch(3NCURSES)
                      wget_wstr               get_wstr(3NCURSES)
                      wgetbkgrnd              bkgrnd(3NCURSES)
                      wgetch                  getch(3NCURSES)
                      wgetn_wstr              get_wstr(3NCURSES)
                      wgetnstr                getstr(3NCURSES)
                      wgetstr                 getstr(3NCURSES)
                      whline                  border(3NCURSES)
                      whline_set              border_set(3NCURSES)
                      win_wch                 in_wch(3NCURSES)
                      win_wchnstr             in_wchstr(3NCURSES)
                      win_wchstr              in_wchstr(3NCURSES)
                      winch                   inch(3NCURSES)
                      winchnstr               inchstr(3NCURSES)
                      winchstr                inchstr(3NCURSES)
                      winnstr                 instr(3NCURSES)
                      winnwstr                inwstr(3NCURSES)
                      wins_nwstr              ins_wstr(3NCURSES)
                      wins_wch                ins_wch(3NCURSES)
                      wins_wstr               ins_wstr(3NCURSES)
                      winsch                  insch(3NCURSES)
                      winsdelln               deleteln(3NCURSES)
                      winsertln               deleteln(3NCURSES)
                      winsnstr                insstr(3NCURSES)
                      winsstr                 insstr(3NCURSES)
                      winstr                  instr(3NCURSES)
                      winwstr                 inwstr(3NCURSES)
                      wmouse_trafo            mouse(3NCURSES)*
                      wmove                   move(3NCURSES)
                      wunctrl                 util(3NCURSES)
                      wvline                  border(3NCURSES)
                      wvline_set              border_set(3NCURSES)


           Routines  that return an integer return ERR upon failure and an integer
           value other than ERR upon successful completion, unless otherwise noted
           in the routine descriptions.
           All  macros  return  the  value  of  the  w  version, except setscrreg,
           wsetscrreg, getyx,  getbegyx,  and  getmaxyx.   The  return  values  of
           setscrreg,  wsetscrreg,  getyx,  getbegyx,  and  getmaxyx are undefined
           (i.e., these should not be used as the right-hand  side  of  assignment
           Routines that return pointers return NULL on error.


           The  following  environment symbols are useful for customizing the run-
           time behavior of the ncurses library.  The  most  important  ones  have
           been already discussed in detail.
                The  debugging  library  checks  this  environment symbol when the
                application has redirected output to a file.  The symbol's numeric
                value  is  used  for  the baudrate.  If no value is found, ncurses
                uses 9600.  This allows testers to construct repeatable test-cases
                that take into account costs that depend on baudrate.
           CC   When  set,  change occurrences of the command_character (i.e., the
                cmdch capability) of the loaded terminfo entries to the  value  of
                this symbol.  Very few terminfo entries provide this feature.
                Because this name is also used in development environments to rep-
                resent the C compiler's name, ncurses ignores it if  it  does  not
                happen to be a single character.
                Specify  the width of the screen in characters.  Applications run-
                ning in a windowing environment usually are  able  to  obtain  the
                width  of  the window in which they are executing.  If neither the
                COLUMNS value nor the terminal's screen size is available, ncurses
                uses  the  size  which  may  be specified in the terminfo database
                (i.e., the cols capability).
                It is important that your application use a correct size  for  the
                screen.   This is not always possible because your application may
                be running on a host which does not honor NAWS (Negotiations About
                Window  Size),  or  because you are temporarily running as another
                user.   However,  setting  COLUMNS  and/or  LINES  overrides   the
                library's  use of the screen size obtained from the operating sys-
                await  a  character  sequence,  e.g., a function key.  The default
                value, 1000 milliseconds, is enough for most uses.  However, it is
                made a variable to accommodate unusual applications.
                The  most  common instance where you may wish to change this value
                is to work with slow hosts, e.g., running on a  network.   If  the
                host  cannot read characters rapidly enough, it will have the same
                effect as if the terminal did not send characters rapidly  enough.
                The library will still see a timeout.
                Note that xterm mouse events are built up from character sequences
                received from the xterm.  If your application makes heavy  use  of
                multiple-clicking,  you  may  wish  to lengthen this default value
                because the timeout applies to the composed multi-click  event  as
                well as the individual clicks.
                In  addition to the environment variable, this implementation pro-
                vides a global variable with the same name.  Portable applications
                should  not rely upon the presence of ESCDELAY in either form, but
                setting the environment variable rather than the  global  variable
                does not create problems when compiling an application.
           HOME Tells  ncurses where your home directory is.  That is where it may
                read and write auxiliary terminal descriptions:
                Like COLUMNS, specify the height of the screen in characters.  See
                COLUMNS for a detailed description.
                This applies only to the OS/2 EMX port.  It specifies the order of
                buttons on the mouse.  OS/2 numbers  a  3-button  mouse  inconsis-
                tently from other platforms:
                1 = left
                2 = right
                3 = middle.
                This  symbol  lets  you  customize  the mouse.  The symbol must be
                three numeric digits 1-3 in any order, e.g., 123 or 321.  If it is
                not specified, ncurses uses 132.
                Override  the  compiled-in  assumption that the terminal's default
                colors are white-on-black (see default_colors(3NCURSES)).  You may
                set  the foreground and background color values with this environ-
                ment variable by proving a 2-element list:  foreground,background.
                For example, to tell ncurses to not assume anything about the col-
                ors, set this to "-1,-1".  To make it green-on-black,  set  it  to
                Ncurses  may use tabs as part of the cursor movement optimization.
                In some cases, your terminal driver may not handle these properly.
                Set  this  environment  variable  to disable the feature.  You can
                also adjust your stty settings to avoid the problem.
                Some terminals use a magic-cookie feature which  requires  special
                handling  to  make highlighting and other video attributes display
                properly.  You can suppress the highlighting  entirely  for  these
                terminals by setting this environment variable.
                Most  of  the  terminal  descriptions in the terminfo database are
                written for real "hardware" terminals.  Many people  use  terminal
                emulators  which  run  in  a windowing environment and use curses-
                based applications.  Terminal emulators can duplicate all  of  the
                important aspects of a hardware terminal, but they do not have the
                same limitations.  The chief limitation  of  a  hardware  terminal
                from  the  standpoint  of  your  application  is the management of
                dataflow, i.e., timing.  Unless a hardware terminal is  interfaced
                into  a  terminal  concentrator  (which does flow control), it (or
                your application) must manage dataflow, preventing overruns.   The
                cheapest  solution  (no  hardware  cost) is for your program to do
                this by pausing after operations that the  terminal  does  slowly,
                such as clearing the display.
                As a result, many terminal descriptions (including the vt100) have
                delay times embedded.  You may wish to use these descriptions, but
                not want to pay the performance penalty.
                Set  the  NCURSES_NO_PADDING  symbol  to disable all but mandatory
                padding.  Mandatory padding is used as a part of  special  control
                sequences such as flash.
                Normally  ncurses enables buffered output during terminal initial-
                ization.  This is done (as in SVr4 curses)  for  performance  rea-
                sons.   For testing purposes, both of ncurses and certain applica-
                tions, this feature is made optional.  Setting the NCURSES_NO_SET-
                BUF  variable disables output buffering, leaving the output in the
                original (usually line buffered) mode.
                During initialization, the  ncurses  library  checks  for  special
                cases  where  VT100  line-drawing (and the corresponding alternate
                character set capabilities) described in the terminfo are known to
                be  missing.   Specifically,  when  running in a UTF-8 locale, the
                Linux console emulator and the GNU screen  program  ignore  these.
                Ncurses checks the TERM environment variable for these.  For other
                special cases, you should set this  environment  variable.   Doing
                this  tells  ncurses to use Unicode values which correspond to the
                                     U8#0, use=linux,
                # uxterm with vt100Graphics resource set to false
                xterm-utf8|xterm relying on UTF-8 line-graphics,
                                     U8#1, use=xterm,
                The  name  "U8" is chosen to be two characters, to permit it to be
                used by applications that use ncurses' termcap interface.
                During initialization, the ncurses debugging  library  checks  the
                NCURSES_TRACE  symbol.   If  it  is  defined,  to a numeric value,
                ncurses calls the trace function, using that value  as  the  argu-
                The  argument  values, which are defined in curses.h, provide sev-
                eral types of information.  When running with traces enabled, your
                application will write the file trace to the current directory.
           TERM Denotes  your  terminal  type.   Each  terminal  type is distinct,
                though many are similar.
                If the ncurses library has been configured with  termcap  support,
                ncurses will check for a terminal's description in termcap form if
                it is not available in the terminfo database.
                The TERMCAP symbol contains either a  terminal  description  (with
                newlines  stripped out), or a file name telling where the informa-
                tion denoted by the TERM symbol exists.  In either  case,  setting
                it directs ncurses to ignore the usual place for this information,
                e.g., /etc/termcap.
                Overrides the directory in which ncurses searches for your  termi-
                nal  description.   This  is the simplest, but not the only way to
                change the list of directories.  The complete list of  directories
                in order follows:
                ?   the last directory to which ncurses wrote, if any, is searched
                ?   the directory specified by the TERMINFO symbol
                ?   $HOME/.terminfo
                ?   directories listed in the TERMINFO_DIRS symbol
                ?   one or more directories whose names are  configured  and  com-
                    piled into the ncurses library, e.g., /usr/share/terminfo
           the current user is the superuser (root), or if  the  application  uses
           setuid  or setgid permissions: $TERMINFO, $TERMINFO_DIRS, $TERMPATH, as
           well as $HOME.


           Several different configurations are possible, depending on the config-
           ure  script  options  used when building ncurses.  There are a few main
           options whose effects are visible to the applications  developer  using
                The standard include for ncurses is as noted in SYNOPSIS:
                #include <curses.h>
                This  option  is  used to avoid filename conflicts when ncurses is
                not the main implementation of curses of the computer.  If ncurses
                is  installed disabling overwrite, it puts its headers in a subdi-
                rectory, e.g.,
                #include <ncurses/curses.h>
                It also omits a  symbolic  link  which  would  allow  you  to  use
                -lcurses to build executables.
                The  configure  script  renames  the  library  and  (if the --dis-
                able-overwrite option is used) puts the header files in a  differ-
                ent subdirectory.  All of the library names have a "w" appended to
                them, i.e., instead of
                you link with
                You must also define _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED when compiling for the
                wide-character  library to use the extended (wide-character) func-
                tions.  The curses.h file which is installed for the  wide-charac-
                ter library is designed to be compatible with the normal library's
                header.  Only the size of the WINDOW structure differs,  and  very
                few  applications  require more than a pointer to WINDOWs.  If the
                headers  are  installed  allowing  overwrite,  the  wide-character
                library's  headers should be installed last, to allow applications
                to be built using either library from the same set of headers.
                directory containing initialization files for the  terminal  capa-
                bility database /usr/share/terminfo terminal capability database


           terminfo(5)  and  related  pages whose names begin "curs_" for detailed
           routine descriptions.


           The ncurses library can be compiled with an option (-DUSE_GETCAP)  that
           falls  back  to  the  old-style /etc/termcap file if the terminal setup
           code cannot find a terminfo entry corresponding to TERM.  Use  of  this
           feature  is not recommended, as it essentially includes an entire term-
           cap compiler in the ncurses startup code, at significant cost  in  core
           and startup cycles.
           The  ncurses  library includes facilities for capturing mouse events on
           certain terminals (including xterm).  See  the  mouse(3NCURSES)  manual
           page for details.
           The ncurses library includes facilities for responding to window resiz-
           ing   events,   e.g.,   when   running   in   an   xterm.    See    the
           resizeterm(3NCURSES)  and  wresize(3NCURSES)  manual pages for details.
           In addition, the library may be configured with a SIGWINCH handler.
           The ncurses library extends the fixed set of function key  capabilities
           of  terminals by allowing the application designer to define additional
           key   sequences   at    runtime.     See    the    define_key(3NCURSES)
           key_defined(3NCURSES), and keyok(3NCURSES) manual pages for details.
           The  ncurses  library  can  exploit the capabilities of terminals which
           implement the ISO-6429 SGR 39 and  SGR  49  controls,  which  allow  an
           application  to reset the terminal to its original foreground and back-
           ground colors.  From the users' perspective, the application is able to
           draw  colored  text  on  a background whose color is set independently,
           providing better control over color contrasts.   See  the  default_col-
           ors(3NCURSES) manual page for details.
           The  ncurses library includes a function for directing application out-
           put  to  a  printer  attached  to  the  terminal   device.    See   the
           print(3NCURSES) manual page for details.


           The  ncurses  library  is intended to be BASE-level conformant with XSI
           Curses.  The EXTENDED XSI Curses functionality  (including  color  sup-
           port) is supported.
           A  small  number  of local differences (that is, individual differences
           between the XSI Curses and ncurses calls) are described in  PORTABILITY
           sections of the library man pages.
               mentation.  See the print(3NCURSES) manual page for details.
           ?   The routine wresize is not part of XPG4, nor is it present in SVr4.
               See the wresize(3NCURSES) manual page for details.
           ?   The WINDOW structure's internal details can be hidden from applica-
               tion   programs.    See  opaque(3NCURSES)  for  the  discussion  of
               is_scrollok, etc.
           ?   This implementation can be configured to provide  rudimentary  sup-
               port  for  multi-threaded  applications.  See threads(3NCURSES) for
           ?   This implementation can also be configured  to  provide  a  set  of
               functions  which  improve  the  ability to manage multiple screens.
               See sp_funcs(3NCURSES) for details.
           In historic curses versions, delays embedded in  the  capabilities  cr,
           ind,  cub1,  ff  and tab activated corresponding delay bits in the UNIX
           tty driver.  In this implementation, all padding is done by sending NUL
           bytes.   This method is slightly more expensive, but narrows the inter-
           face to the UNIX  kernel  significantly  and  increases  the  package's
           portability correspondingly.


           The  header  file  <curses.h>  automatically  includes the header files
           <stdio.h> and <unctrl.h>.
           If standard output from a ncurses program is re-directed  to  something
           which  is not a tty, screen updates will be directed to standard error.
           This was an undocumented feature of AT&T System V Release 3 curses.


           Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses
           by Pavel Curtis.

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