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    Command:

    named

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           named [-4] [-6] [-c config-file] [-d debug-level] [-E engine-name] [-f]
                 [-g] [-m flag] [-n #cpus] [-p port] [-s] [-S #max-socks]
                 [-t directory] [-u user] [-v] [-V] [-x cache-file]
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           named is a Domain Name System (DNS) server, part of the BIND 9
           distribution from ISC. For more information on the DNS, see RFCs 1033,
           1034, and 1035.
    
           When invoked without arguments, named will read the default
           configuration file /etc/named.conf, read any initial data, and listen
           for queries.
    
    
    

    OPTIONS

           -4
               Use IPv4 only even if the host machine is capable of IPv6.  -4 and
               -6 are mutually exclusive.
    
           -6
               Use IPv6 only even if the host machine is capable of IPv4.  -4 and
               -6 are mutually exclusive.
    
           -c config-file
               Use config-file as the configuration file instead of the default,
               /etc/named.conf. To ensure that reloading the configuration file
               continues to work after the server has changed its working
               directory due to to a possible directory option in the
               configuration file, config-file should be an absolute pathname.
    
           -d debug-level
               Set the daemon's debug level to debug-level. Debugging traces from
               named become more verbose as the debug level increases.
    
           -E engine-name
               Use a crypto hardware (OpenSSL engine) for the crypto operations it
               supports, for instance re-signing with private keys from a secure
               key store. When compiled with PKCS#11 support engine-name defaults
               to pkcs11, the empty name resets it to no engine.
    
           -f
               Run the server in the foreground (i.e. do not daemonize).
    
           -g
               Run the server in the foreground and force all logging to stderr.
    
           -m flag
               Turn on memory usage debugging flags. Possible flags are usage,
               trace, record, size, and mctx. These correspond to the
               ISC_MEM_DEBUGXXXX flags described in <isc/mem.h>.
    
           -n #cpus
           -S #max-socks
               Allow named to use up to #max-socks sockets.
                      Warning: This option should be unnecessary for the vast
                      majority of users. The use of this option could even be
                      harmful because the specified value may exceed the
                      limitation of the underlying system API. It is therefore set
                      only when the default configuration causes exhaustion of
                      file descriptors and the operational environment is known to
                      support the specified number of sockets. Note also that the
                      actual maximum number is normally a little fewer than the
                      specified value because named reserves some file descriptors
                      for its internal use.
    
           -t directory
               Chroot to directory after processing the command line arguments,
               but before reading the configuration file.
                      Warning: This option should be used in conjunction with the
                      -u option, as chrooting a process running as root doesn't
                      enhance security on most systems; the way chroot(2) is
                      defined allows a process with root privileges to escape a
                      chroot jail.
    
           -u user
               Setuid to user after completing privileged operations, such as
               creating sockets that listen on privileged ports.
                      Note: On Linux, named uses the kernel's capability mechanism
                      to drop all root privileges except the ability to bind(2) to
                      a privileged port and set process resource limits.
                      Unfortunately, this means that the -u option only works when
                      named is run on kernel 2.2.18 or later, or kernel
                      2.3.99-pre3 or later, since previous kernels did not allow
                      privileges to be retained after setuid(2).
    
           -v
               Report the version number and exit.
    
           -V
               Report the version number and build options, and exit.
    
           -x cache-file
               Load data from cache-file into the cache of the default view.
                      Warning: This option must not be used. It is only of
                      interest to BIND 9 developers and may be removed or changed
                      in a future release.
    
    
    

    SIGNALS

           In routine operation, signals should not be used to control the
           nameserver; rndc should be used instead.
    
           SIGHUP
               Force a reload of the server.
    
    
    
    

    FILES

           /etc/named.conf
               The default configuration file.
    
           /var/run/named/named.pid
               The default process-id file.
    
    
    

    NOTES

           Red Hat SELinux BIND Security Profile:
    
           By default, Red Hat ships BIND with the most secure SELinux policy that
           will not prevent normal BIND operation and will prevent exploitation of
           all known BIND security vulnerabilities . See the selinux(8) man page
           for information about SElinux.
    
           It is not necessary to run named in a chroot environment if the Red Hat
           SELinux policy for named is enabled. When enabled, this policy is far
           more secure than a chroot environment. Users are recommended to enable
           SELinux and remove the bind-chroot package.
    
           With this extra security comes some restrictions:
    
           By default, the SELinux policy does not allow named to write any master
           zone database files. Only the root user may create files in the
           $ROOTDIR/var/named zone database file directory (the options {
           "directory" } option), where $ROOTDIR is set in /etc/sysconfig/named.
    
           The "named" group must be granted read privelege to these files in
           order for named to be enabled to read them.
    
           Any file created in the zone database file directory is automatically
           assigned the SELinux file context named_zone_t .
    
           By default, SELinux prevents any role from modifying named_zone_t
           files; this means that files in the zone database directory cannot be
           modified by dynamic DNS (DDNS) updates or zone transfers.
    
           The Red Hat BIND distribution and SELinux policy creates three
           directories where named is allowed to create and modify files:
           /var/named/slaves, /var/named/dynamic /var/named/data. By placing files
           you want named to modify, such as slave or DDNS updateable zone files
           and database / statistics dump files in these directories, named will
           work normally and no further operator action is required. Files in
           these directories are automatically assigned the 'named_cache_t' file
           context, which SELinux allows named to write.
    
           Red Hat BIND SDB support:
    
           Red Hat ships named with compiled in Simplified Database Backend
           modules that ISC provides in the "contrib/sdb" directory. Install bind-
    
    
    

    AUTHOR

           Internet Systems Consortium
    
    
    

    COPYRIGHT

           Copyright (C) 2004-2009 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")
           Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2003 Internet Software Consortium.
    
    
    

    BIND9 May 21, 2009 NAMED(8)

    
    
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