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           nam [ -g geometry ] [ -t graphInput ][ -i interval ] [ -P peerName ] [
           -N appName ] [ -c cacheSize ] [ -f configfile ] [ -S ] tracefile


           Nam is a Tcl/TK based animation tool  for  viewing  network  simulation
           traces and real world packet trace data.
           The first step to use nam is to produce the trace file.  The trace file
           should contain topology information, e.g., nodes,  links,  as  well  as
           packet  traces. The detailed format is described in the TRACE FILE sec-
           tion. Usually, the trace file is generated by ns(1). During an ns simu-
           lation,  user  can produce topology configurations, layout information,
           and packet traces using tracing  events  in  ns.  Refer  to  ns(1)  for
           detailed information.
           When  the  trace  file is generated, it is ready to be animated by nam.
           Upon startup, nam will read the trace file, create topology, pop  up  a
           window,  do  layout  if  necessary, then pause at the time of the first
           packet in the trace file. Through its user interface, nam provides con-
           trol  over  many  aspects  of  animation. These functionalities will be
           described in detail in the USER INTERFACE section.
           This version of nam is highly  experimental  -  there  will  be  bugs!.
           Please  mail  if  you encounter any
           bugs, or with suggestions for desired functionality.


           -g     Specify geometry of the  window  upon  startup.  The  format  is
                  described in X(1)
           -t     [Information  incomplete] Instruct nam to use tkgraph, and spec-
                  ify input file nam for tkgraph.
           -i     [Information for this option may not be accurate]  Specify  rate
                  (real) milliseconds as the screen update rate.  The default rate
                  is 50ms (i.e., 20 frames per second).  Note that  the  X  server
                  may  not  be  able  to keep up with this rate, in which case the
                  animation will run as fast as the X server allows it to (at 100%
                  cpu utilization).
           -N     Specify the application name of this nam instance. This applica-
                  tion name may later be used in peer synchronization.
           -P     Specify the application name of the peer nam instance whose exe-
                  cution  will  be  synchronized  with  the  execution of this nam
                  instance. Refer to the above  option  (-N)  as  how  to  specify
                  application names.
                  General  usage  is:  (1) starting the first nam instance (slave)
                  nam -N <name #1> <trace file name #1>
                  Then start the second nam instance (which will be the master):
           -f     Name of the initialization files to be loaded during startup. In
                  this file, user can define functions which will be called in the
                  trace file. An example for this is the 'link-up' and 'link-down'
                  events of dynamic links in ns. (Refer to $ns rtmodel for detail,
                  and  tcl/ex/simple-dyn.tcl  in  your  ns directory for example).
                  Example initialization files can be found  at  ex/sample.nam.tcl
                  and ex/dynamic-nam.conf.
           -S     Enable  synchronous  X  behavior  so  it  is easier for graphics
                  debugging. For UNIX system running X only.
           tracefile is the name of the file containing the trace data to be  ani-
           mated  (format  described  in  TRACE FILE section below).  If tracefile
           cannot be read, nam will try to open tracefile.nam.


           nam does animation using the following  building  blocks:  node,  link,
           queue, packet, agent, monitor. They are defined below:
           node   Nodes  are created from 'n' trace event in trace file. It repre-
                  sents a source/host/router, etc. nam will terminate if there are
                  duplicate  definition  for  the  same  node.  Node may have many
                  shapes, (circle, square, and hexagon), but once created it  can-
                  not  change  its  shape.  Node may also have many colors, it can
                  change its color during animation.  Refer to ns(1)  for  related
                  tracing events.
           link   Links  are created between nodes to form a network topology. nam
                  links are internally simplex, but it is invisible to the  users.
                  The  trace  event 'l' creates two simplex links and other neces-
                  sary setups, hence it looks to users identical to a duplex link.
                  Link may have many colors, it can change its color during anima-
                  tion.  Refer to ns(1) for related tracing events.
           queue  Queue needs to be constructed in nam between two  nodes.  Unlike
                  link, nam queue is associated to a simplex link. The trace event
                  'q' only creates a queue for a simplex link. In nam, queues  are
                  visualized  as  stacked  packets.   Packets  are stacked along a
                  line, the angle between the line and the horizontal line can  be
                  specified in the trace event 'q'.
           packet Packet  is visualized as a block with an arrow. The direction of
                  the arrow shows the flow direction of the packet. Queued packets
                  are  shown  as  little  squares.  A packet may be dropped from a
                  queue or a link. Dropped packets are shown as rotating  squares,
                  and  disappear at the end of the screen. Dropped packets are not
                  visible during backward animation.
           agent  Agents are used to separate protocol states from nodes. They are
                  always  associated  with  nodes. An agent has a name, which is a
           Second,  when  we are dealing with randomly generated topologies, be it
           small or large, we may want to do layout  automatically.  An  automatic
           graph  layout algorithm ([1] [2]) is adapted and implemented. The basic
           idea of the algorithm is to model the graph as balls (nodes)  connected
           by  springs  (edges). Balls will repulse each other, while springs pull
           them together.  This system will (hopefully) converge after some itera-
           tions.  In  practice,  after a small number of iterations (tens or hun-
           dreds), most graphs will converge to a visually  comprehensible  struc-
           There are 3 parameters to tune the automatic layout process:
           Ca     Attractive   force  constant,  which  controls  springs's  force
                  between balls.  Default value is 0.15
           Cr     Repulsive force constant, which  controls  the  repulsive  force
                  between balls.  Default value is 0.15
           Number of iterations
                  Self explained. Default value is 10.
                  For  small  topologies  with  tens  of  nodes, using the default
                  parameters (perhaps with 20 to 30 more iterations) will  suffice
                  to  produce  a  nice  layout.   But for larger topology, careful
                  parameter tuning is necessary. Following is a  empirical  method
                  to  layout  a 100 node random transit stub topology generated by
                  Georgia Tech's ITM internet topology modeler.  First,   set  Ca_
                  and Cr_ to 0.2, do about 30 iterations, then set Cr_ to 1.0, Ca_
                  to about 0.01, then do about 10 iterations, then set Ca_ to 0.5,
                  Cr_ to 1.0, do about 6 iterations.


           The top of the nam nam window is a menu bar.  Two pulldown menus are on
           the left of the menu bar. The 'File' menu  currently  only  contains  a
           'Quit'  button.  It  has  a  'Open...'  button as well, but that is not
           implemented yet. The 'View' menu has 4 buttons:
           -      New view button: Creates a new view of the same animation.  User
                  can  scroll and zoom on the new view. All views will be animated
           -      Show monitors checkbox: If checked, will  show  a  pane  at  the
                  lower half of window, where monitors will be displayed.
           -      Show  autolayout  checkbox:  If checked, will show a pane at the
                  lower half of window, which contains input boxes  and  a  button
                  for  automatic  layout  adjusts.   This  box  may  not always be
                  enabled. When a trace file has its  own  layout  specifications,
                  this  box  will  be disabled. If and only if the trace file does
                  not have complete layout specification (i.e., each link has ori-
                  entation specified in the traces), will this box be enabled.
                  Below the menu bar, there is a control bar containing 6 buttons,
                  a  label,  and a small scrollbar (scale). They can be clicked in
                  any order.  We will explain them from left to right.
           Button 1 (<<)
                  Rewind. When clicked, animation time will go back at the rate of
                  25 times the current screen update rate.
           Button 2 (<)
                  Backward  play.  When clicked, animation will be played backward
                  in time.
           Button 3 (square)
                  Stop. When clicked, animation will pause.
           Button 4 (>)
                  Forward play. When clicked, animation will  be  played  in  time
                  ascending order.
           Button 5 (>>)
                  Fast  Forward.  When  clicked, animation time will go forward at
                  the rate of 25 times the current screen update rate.
           Button 6 (Chevron logo)
           Time label
                  Show the current animation time (i.e., simulation time as in the
                  trace file).
           Rate slider
                  Controls  the  screen  update  rate (animation granularity). The
                  current rate is displayed in the label above the slider.
           Below the first control bar, there is Main Display,  which  contains  a
           tool  bar  and  a  main view pane with two panning scroll bars. All new
           views created by menu button 'File/new view' will have these three com-
           The  tool  bar  contains  two zoom buttons. The button with an up arrow
           zooms in, the button with a down arrrow zooms out. The two scroll  bars
           are used to pan the main animation view.
           Clicking  the  left  button on any of the objects in the main view pane
           will pop up a information window at the clicking point. For packet  and
           agent  objects, there is a 'monitor' button in the popup window. Click-
           ing that button will bring out the monitor pane (if it is  not  there),
           and  add  a  monitor  to  the  object. For link object, there will be a
           'Graph' button. Clink that button will bring out another popup  window,
           where  user can select drawing bandwidth utilization graph or link loss
           graph of one of the two simplex links of the duplex  link  clicked  on.
           These  functionalities  are  also  available  in  the  views created by
           'File/new view'. NOTE: These functionalities  are  HIGHLY  EXPERIMENTAL
           Below  the  monitor  pane  (or  in  its place if the monitor pane isn't
           there), there is a Time Slider.  It looks like a scaled  rule,  with  a
           tag  'TIME'  which can be dragged along the rule. It is used to set the
           current animation time.  As you drag the 'TIME' tag, current  animation
           time  will be displayed in the time label in the control bar above. The
           left edge of the slider represents the earliest event time in the trace
           file and the right edge represents the last event time.
           Clicking  left  button on the rule (not the tag) has the same effect as
           Rewind or Fast Forward, depending on the clicking position.
           The Automatic Layout Pane can be visible or hidden. If visible,  it  is
           below  the time slider.  It has three input boxes and one relayout but-
           ton. The labeled input boxes let user adjust two automatic layout  con-
           stants,  and  the  number  of  iterations during next layout. When user
           press ENTER in any of the input boxes, or click the 'relayout'  button,
           that  number  of  iterations  will be performed. Refer to the AUTOMATIC
           LAYOUT section for details of usage.
           The bottom component of the nam window is a Annotation  Listbox,  where
           annotations  are  displayed.  An  annotation  is a (time, string) pair,
           which describes a event occuring at that time. Refer to ns(1) for func-
           tions  to  generate  annotations.  Double-click on an annotation in the
           listbox will bring nam to the time when that annotation is recorded.
           When pointer is within the listbox, clicking  right  button  will  stop
           animation  and bring up a popup menu with 3 options: Add, Delete, Info.
           'Add' will bring up a dialog box with a text input and add a new  anno-
           tation  entry which has the current animation time. User can type anno-
           tation string in the dialog box. 'Delete' will  delete  the  annotation
           entry  pointed by the pointer. 'Info' will bring out a pane which shows
           both the annotation time and the annotation string.


           [Incompelete, but accurate] Most of the buttons have  keyboard  equiva-
           lents. Note they only function when mouse cursor is inside the nam win-
           Typing a space or return will pause nam if it's not already paused.  If
           nam  is  paused,  space or return will step the animation one simulated
           clock tick.  (If your keyboard autorepeats, holding  down  space  is  a
           good way to slow-step through some part of the animation.)
           'p' or 'P'
                  Pause but not step if paused.
           'c' or 'C'
                  Continue after a pause.
           'b' or 'B'
                  Descrease animation time for one screen update interval.
           'r' or 'R'
           '<' or ','
                  Decrease the granularity (slow down) by 5%.
           SPACE  Toggle the pause state of nam.
           'q', 'Q' or Control-c


           To  record nam animations, select the ''Record Animation'' option under
           the file menu.  A series of namXXX.xwd files will  be  produced  (where
           XXX  is  the frame number), one per time-step.  These files can then be
           assembled into animated GIFs or MPEGs with  the  appropriate  post-pro-
           cessing tools.


           The  trace  file  events  can  be divided into 6 types, depending on to
           which object the event is associated. Below, we discuss them in detail.
           Packet Basic packet events are a type character, followed by some tags:
                          <type> -t <time> -e <extent> -s <src_addr> -d <dst_addr>
                  -c <conv> -i <id>
                  <type> is one of:
                  'h' - Hop. The packet started to be transmitted on the link from
                  src_addr to dst_addr
                  'r' - Receive. The packet finished transmission and  started  to
                  be received at the destination.
                  'd'  -  Drop.  The  packet  was  dropped from queue or link from
                  src_addr to dst_addr.
                  '+' - Enter queue. The packet entered the queue from src_addr to
                  '-'  -  Leave  queue. The packet left the queue from src_addr to
                  Drop here doesn't distinguish between  dropping  from  queue  or
                  link. This is decided by the drop time.
                  The flags have the following meanings:
                  -t <time> is the time the event occurred.
                  -e <extent> is the size (in bytes) of the packet.
                  -s <src> is the originating node.
                  -d <dst> is the destination node.
                  -c <conv> is the conversation id.
                  -i <id> is the packet id in the conversation.
                  -a  <attr>  is  the packet attribute, which is currently used as
                  color id.
                  q -t <time> -s <src> -d <dst> -a <attr>
                  <state>  gives the link state transition. It has 3 possible val-
                  ues: UP and DOWN marks link failure and  recovery,  COLOR  marks
                  link  color change. If COLOR is given, a following -c <color> is
                  expected which gives the new color value.  In  link  event,  [-r
                  <bw> -D<delay>] gives link bandwidth and delay, respectively. It
                  is only used when nam creates the link, i.e., loading the  trace
                  <attr> specifies the queue position, i.e., the angle between the
                  link along which queued packets are displayed and the horizontal
           Node State
                  n  -t  <time>  -s <src> -S <state> [-c <color>] [-o <color>] [-A
                  Flags '-t', '-S' and '-c' have the  same  meaning  as  those  in
                  Link.  Flag  '-A' is used to add a arbitrary string to the label
                  of the node. It can be used to display explainations of a node's
                  state. Flag '-o' is used in backtracing to restore old colors of
                  a node.
           Node Mark
                  Node marks are colored circles around nodes.  They  are  created
                  m  -t  <time> -n <mark name> -s <node> -c <color> -h <shape> [-o
                  and can be deleted by:
                  m -t <time> -n <mark name> -s <node> -X
                  Note that once created, a node mark cannot change its shape. The
                  possible  choices  for  shapes are, circle, square, and hexagon.
                  They are defined as lower-case strings exactly as above.
           Protocol State
                  Agents can be constructed by:
                  a -t <time> -n <agent name> -s <src> -d <dst>
                  They can be destructed by:
                  a -t <time> -n <agent name> -s <src> -d <dst> -X
                  counting timer.
                  -v  <value> gives the new value of the variable. Variable values
                  are  simple  ASCII  strings  obeying  the  TCL  string   quoting
                  conventions.  List  values  obey the TCL list conventions. Timer
                  values are ASCII numeric values.
                  -o <prev value> gives the previous value of the  variable.  This
                  is to allow backward play of animation.
                  Features may be deleted using:
                  f -t <time> -a <agent name> -n <var name> -o <prev value> -X
           Misc   v -t <time> TCL script string
                  is  used for annotation, it may includes an arbitrary tcl script
                  to be executed at a given time, as long as the script is in  one
                  line  (no  more  than 256 characters). The order of flag and the
                  string is important.
                  c -t <time> -i <color id> -n <color name>
                  defines a color. The color name  should  be  one  of  the  names
                  listed  in  color  database in X11 (/usr/X11/lib/rgb.txt). After
                  this definition, the color can be referenced using its id.






           [1]    Fruchterman, T.M.J. and Reingold, E.M., Graph Drawing by  Force-
                  directed  Placement,  Software  -  Practice and Experience, vol.
                  21(11), 1129-1164, (November 1991).
           [2]    Amir, E., Carta: A Network Topology Presentation  Tool,  Project
                  Report,  EECS  Dept.,  UC Berkeley, 1993.  http://http.cs.berke-
           Mailing lists for nam users and announcements are the same as those for
           ns  users.  Send  email to or ns-
  to  join.   Questions  should  be
           forwarded  to,  ns-announce will be low-
           traffic announcements only.


           This manual page is incomplete.

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