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           postmap -q "string" mysql:/etc/postfix/filename
           postmap -q - mysql:/etc/postfix/filename <inputfile


           The  Postfix  mail system uses optional tables for address rewriting or
           mail routing. These tables are usually in dbm or db format.
           Alternatively, lookup tables can be specified as MySQL  databases.   In
           order  to use MySQL lookups, define a MySQL source as a lookup table in
 , for example:
               alias_maps = mysql:/etc/
           The file /etc/postfix/ has the same format as the Post-
           fix file, and can specify the parameters described below.


           For  compatibility  with  other Postfix lookup tables, MySQL parameters
           can also be defined in  In order to do that, specify as  MySQL
           source  a  name  that  doesn't  begin with a slash or a dot.  The MySQL
           parameters will then be accessible as the name you've given the  source
           in  its  definition, an underscore, and the name of the parameter.  For
           example, if the map is specified as  "mysql:mysqlname",  the  parameter
           "hosts" below would be defined in as "mysqlname_hosts".
           Note:  with  this form, the passwords for the MySQL sources are written
           in, which is normally world-readable.  Support  for  this  form
           will be removed in a future Postfix version.
           Postfix  2.2  has  enhanced  query interfaces for MySQL and PostgreSQL;
           these include features previously available only in  the  Postfix  LDAP
           client.  In  the  new interface the SQL query is specified via a single
           query parameter (described in more detail below).  When the  new  query
           parameter  is  not  specified in the map definition, Postfix reverts to
           the  old  interface,  with  the  SQL   query   constructed   from   the
           select_field,  table, where_field and additional_conditions parameters.
           The old interface will be gradually phased out. To migrate to  the  new
           interface set:
               query = SELECT [select_field]
                   FROM [table]
                   WHERE [where_field] = '%s'
           Insert the value, not the name, of each legacy parameter. Note that the
           additional_conditions parameter is optional  and  if  not  empty,  will
           always start with AND.


           When  using  SQL  to  store  lists such as $mynetworks, $mydestination,
           $relay_domains, $local_recipient_maps, etc., it is important to  under-
                  (default).  Example:
                      hosts = host1.some.domain host2.some.domain
                      hosts = unix:/file/name
                  The hosts are tried in random order, with all  connections  over
                  UNIX domain sockets being tried before those over TCP.  The con-
                  nections are automatically closed after being idle for  about  1
                  minute, and are re-opened as necessary. Postfix versions 2.0 and
                  earlier do not randomize the host order.
                  NOTE: if you specify localhost as a hostname (even if you prefix
                  it  with  inet:),  MySQL will connect to the default UNIX domain
                  socket.  In order to instruct MySQL to connect to localhost over
                  TCP you have to specify
                      hosts =
           user, password
                  The  user name and password to log into the mysql server.  Exam-
                      user = someone
                      password = some_password
           dbname The database name on the servers. Example:
                      dbname = customer_database
           query  The SQL query template used to search the database, where %s  is
                  a  substitute for the address Postfix is trying to resolve, e.g.
                      query = SELECT replacement FROM aliases WHERE mailbox = '%s'
                  This parameter supports the following '%' expansions:
                  %%     This is replaced by a literal '%' character.
                  %s     This is replaced by the input key.  SQL quoting  is  used
                         to  make  sure that the input key does not add unexpected
                  %u     When the input key is an address of the form user@domain,
                         %u  is  replaced  by  the  SQL  quoted  local part of the
                         address.  Otherwise, %u is replaced by the entire  search
                         string.   If  the  localpart  is empty, the query is sup-
                         pressed and returns no results.
                  %d     When the input key is an address of the form user@domain,
                         %d  is  replaced  by  the  SQL  quoted domain part of the
                         address.  Otherwise, the query is suppressed and  returns
                         no results.
                  %[SUD] The upper-case equivalents of the above expansions behave
                         in the query parameter identically  to  their  lower-case
                         counter-parts.   With  the  result_format  parameter (see
                         below), they expand the input key rather than the  result
                  This parameter is available with Postfix 2.2. In prior  releases
                  the   SQL   query   was  built  from  the  separate  parameters:
                  select_field, table, where_field and additional_conditions.  The
                  mapping from the old parameters to the equivalent query is:
                      SELECT [select_field]
                      FROM [table]
                      WHERE [where_field] = '%s'
                  The  '%s'  in  the  WHERE  clause  expands to the escaped search
                  string.  With Postfix 2.2 these legacy parameters  are  used  if
                  the query parameter is not specified.
                  NOTE: DO NOT put quotes around the query parameter.
           result_format (default: %s)
                  Format template applied to result attributes. Most commonly used
                  to append (or prepend) text to the result. This  parameter  sup-
                  ports the following '%' expansions:
                  %%     This is replaced by a literal '%' character.
                  %s     This  is  replaced  by the value of the result attribute.
                         When result is empty it is skipped.
                  %u     When the result attribute value is an address of the form
                         user@domain,  %u  is  replaced  by  the local part of the
                         address. When the result has an  empty  localpart  it  is
                  %d     When  a  result attribute value is an address of the form
                         user@domain, %d is replaced by the  domain  part  of  the
                         attribute  value.  When  the  result is unqualified it is
                         The upper-case and decimal digit  expansions  interpolate
                         the  parts of the input key rather than the result. Their
                         behavior is identical to that described with  query,  and
                         in  fact  because  the  input  key  is  known in advance,
                         queries whose key does not contain  all  the  information
                         specified  in  the  result  template  are  suppressed and
                         return no results.
                  For example, using "result_format = smtp:[%s]" allows one to use
                  a mailHost attribute as the basis of a transport(5) table. After
                  applying the result format, multiple values are concatenated  as
                  comma  separated  strings.  The  expansion_limit  and  parameter
                  explained below allows one to restrict the number of  values  in
                  the result, which is especially useful for maps that must return
                  not  performed.  This can significantly reduce the query load on
                  the MySQL server.
                      domain =, hash:/etc/postfix/searchdomains
                  It is best not to use SQL to store the domains eligible for  SQL
                  This parameter is available with Postfix 2.2 and later.
                  NOTE: DO NOT define this parameter for local(8) aliases, because
                  the input keys are always unqualified.
           expansion_limit (default: 0)
                  A limit on the total number of result elements  returned  (as  a
                  comma separated list) by a lookup against the map.  A setting of
                  zero disables the limit. Lookups fail with a temporary error  if
                  the  limit  is  exceeded.   Setting  the limit to 1 ensures that
                  lookups do not return multiple values.


           This section describes an interface that is deprecated  as  of  Postfix
           2.2.  It  is  replaced  by  the  more general query interface described
           above.  If the  query  parameter  is  defined,  the  legacy  parameters
           described  here  ignored.   Please  migrate to the new interface as the
           legacy interface may be removed in a future release.
           The following parameters can be used  to  fill  in  a  SELECT  template
           statement of the form:
               SELECT [select_field]
               FROM [table]
               WHERE [where_field] = '%s'
           The specifier %s is replaced by the search string, and is escaped so if
           it contains single quotes or other odd characters, it will not cause  a
           parse error, or worse, a security problem.
                  The SQL "select" parameter. Example:
                      select_field = forw_addr
           table  The SQL "select .. from" table name. Example:
                      table = mxaliases
                  The SQL "select .. where" parameter. Example:
                      where_field = alias
                  Additional conditions to the SQL query. Example:
                      additional_conditions = AND status = 'paid'
           The Secure Mailer license must be distributed with this software.


           MySQL support was introduced with Postfix version 1.0.


           Original implementation by:
           Scott Cotton, Joshua Marcus
           IC Group, Inc.
           Further enhancements by:
           Liviu Daia
           Institute of Mathematics of the Romanian Academy
           P.O. BOX 1-764
           RO-014700 Bucharest, ROMANIA

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