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  • LINUX man pages
  • Linux Man Page Viewer


    The following form allows you to view linux man pages.

    Command:

    mdoc.samples

    
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

         A tutorial sampler for writing BSD manual pages with the -mdoc macro
         package, a content-based and domain-based formatting package for
         troff(1).  Its predecessor, the -man(7) package, addressed page layout
         leaving the manipulation of fonts and other typesetting details to the
         individual author.  In -mdoc, page layout macros make up the page
         structure domain which consists of macros for titles, section headers,
         displays and lists.  Essentially items which affect the physical position
         of text on a formatted page.  In addition to the page structure domain,
         there are two more domains, the manual domain and the general text
         domain.  The general text domain is defined as macros which perform tasks
         such as quoting or emphasizing pieces of text.  The manual domain is
         defined as macros that are a subset of the day to day informal language
         used to describe commands, routines and related BSD files.  Macros in the
         manual domain handle command names, command-line arguments and options,
         function names, function parameters, pathnames, variables, cross refer-
         ences to other manual pages, and so on.  These domain items have value
         for both the author and the future user of the manual page.  It is hoped
         the consistency gained across the manual set will provide easier transla-
         tion to future documentation tools.
    
         Throughout the UNIX manual pages, a manual entry is simply referred to as
         a man page, regardless of actual length and without sexist intention.
    
    
    

    GETTING STARTED

         Since a tutorial document is normally read when a person desires to use
         the material immediately, the assumption has been made that the user of
         this document may be impatient.  The material presented in the remained
         of this document is outlined as follows:
    
               1.   TROFF IDIOSYNCRASIES
                          Macro Usage.
                          Passing Space Characters in an Argument.
                          Trailing Blank Space Characters (a warning).
                          Escaping Special Characters.
    
               2.   THE ANATOMY OF A MAN PAGE
                          A manual page template.
    
               3.   TITLE MACROS.
    
               4.   INTRODUCTION OF MANUAL AND GENERAL TEXT DOMAINS.
                          What's in a name....
                          General Syntax.
    
               5.   MANUAL DOMAIN
                          Addresses.
                          Author name.
                          Arguments.
                          Configuration Declarations (section four only).
                          Command Modifier.
    
               6.   GENERAL TEXT DOMAIN
                          AT&T Macro.
                          BSD Macro.
                          FreeBSD Macro.
                          UNIX Macro.
                          Enclosure/Quoting Macros
                                      Angle Bracket Quote/Enclosure.
                                      Bracket Quotes/Enclosure.
                                      Double Quote macro/Enclosure.
                                      Parenthesis Quote/Enclosure.
                                      Single Quotes/Enclosure.
                                      Prefix Macro.
                          No-Op or Normal Text Macro.
                          No Space Macro.
                          Section Cross References.
                          References and Citations.
                          Return Values (sections two and three only)
                          Trade Names (Acronyms and Type Names).
                          Extended  Arguments.
    
               7.   PAGE STRUCTURE DOMAIN
                          Section Headers.
                          Paragraphs and Line Spacing.
                          Keeps.
                          Displays.
                          Font Modes (Emphasis, Literal, and Symbolic).
                          Lists and Columns.
    
               8.   PREDEFINED STRINGS
    
               9.   DIAGNOSTICS
    
               10.  FORMATTING WITH GROFF, TROFF AND NROFF
    
               11.  BUGS
    
    
    

    TROFF IDIOSYNCRASIES

         The -mdoc package attempts to simplify the process of writing a man page.
         Theoretically, one should not have to learn the dirty details of troff(1)
         to use -mdoc; however, there are a few limitations which are unavoidable
         and best gotten out of the way.  And, too, be forewarned, this package is
         not fast.
    
       Macro Usage
         As in troff(1), a macro is called by placing a '.' (dot character) at the
         beginning of a line followed by the two character name for the macro.
         Arguments may follow the macro separated by spaces.  It is the dot char-
         acter at the beginning of the line which causes troff(1) to interpret the
         next two characters as a macro name.  To place a '.' (dot character) at
         the beginning of a line in some context other than a macro invocation,
         precede the '.' (dot) with the '\&' escape sequence.  The '\&' translates
         this manner that many macros are nested; for example the option macro,
         '.Op', may call the flag and argument macros, 'Fl' and 'Ar', to specify
         an optional flag with an argument:
    
               [-s bytes]         is produced by .Op Fl s Ar bytes
    
         To prevent a two character string from being interpreted as a macro name,
         precede the string with the escape sequence '\&':
    
               [Fl s Ar bytes]    is produced by .Op \&Fl s \&Ar bytes
    
         Here the strings 'Fl' and 'Ar' are not interpreted as macros.  Macros
         whose argument lists are parsed for callable arguments are referred to as
         parsed and macros which may be called from an argument list are referred
         to as callable throughout this document and in the companion quick refer-
         ence manual mdoc(7).  This is a technical faux pas as almost all of the
         macros in -mdoc are parsed, but as it was cumbersome to constantly refer
         to macros as being callable and being able to call other macros, the term
         parsed has been used.
    
       Passing Space Characters in an Argument
         Sometimes it is desirable to give as one argument a string containing one
         or more blank space characters.  This may be necessary to defeat the nine
         argument limit or to specify arguments to macros which expect particular
         arrangement of items in the argument list.  For example, the function
         macro '.Fn' expects the first argument to be the name of a function and
         any remaining arguments to be function parameters.  As ANSI C stipulates
         the declaration of function parameters in the parenthesized parameter
         list, each parameter is guaranteed to be at minimum a two word string.
         For example, int foo.
    
         There are two possible ways to pass an argument which contains an embed-
         ded space.  Implementation note: Unfortunately, the most convenient way
         of passing spaces in between quotes by reassigning individual arguments
         before parsing was fairly expensive speed wise and space wise to imple-
         ment in all the macros for AT&T troff.  It is not expensive for groff but
         for the sake of portability, has been limited to the following macros
         which need it the most:
    
               Cd    Configuration declaration (section 4 SYNOPSIS)
               Bl    Begin list (for the width specifier).
               Em    Emphasized text.
               Fn    Functions (sections two and four).
               It    List items.
               Li    Literal text.
               Sy    Symbolic text.
               %B    Book titles.
               %J    Journal names.
               %O    Optional notes for a reference.
               %R    Report title (in a reference).
               %T    Title of article in a book or journal.
    
         the result would be:
    
               fetch(char, *str)
    
         For an example of what happens when the parameter list overlaps a newline
         boundary, see the BUGS section.
    
       Trailing Blank Space Characters
         Troff can be confused by blank space characters at the end of a line.  It
         is a wise preventive measure to globally remove all blank spaces from
         <blank-space><end-of-line> character sequences.  Should the need arise to
         force a blank character at the end of a line, it may be forced with an
         unpaddable space and the '\&' escape character.  For example,
         'string\ \&'.
    
       Escaping Special Characters
         Special characters like the newline character '\n', are handled by
         replacing the '\' with '\e' (e.g., '\en') to preserve the backslash.
    
    
    

    THE ANATOMY OF A MAN PAGE

         The body of a man page is easily constructed from a basic template found
         in the file /usr/share/misc/mdoc.template.  Several example man pages can
         also be found in /usr/share/examples/mdoc.
    
       A manual page template
               .\" The following requests are required for all man pages.
               .Dd Month day, year
               .Os OPERATING_SYSTEM [version/release]
               .Dt DOCUMENT_TITLE [section number] [volume]
               .Sh NAME
               .Nm name
               .Nd one line description of name
               .Sh SYNOPSIS
               .Sh DESCRIPTION
               .\" The following requests should be uncommented and
               .\" used where appropriate.  This next request is
               .\" for sections 2 and 3 function return values only.
               .\" .Sh RETURN VALUE
               .\" This next request is for sections 1, 6, 7 & 8 only
               .\" .Sh ENVIRONMENT
               .\" .Sh FILES
               .\" .Sh EXAMPLES
               .\" This next request is for sections 1, 6, 7 & 8 only
               .\"     (command return values (to shell) and
               .\"       fprintf/stderr type diagnostics)
               .\" .Sh DIAGNOSTICS
               .\" The next request is for sections 2 and 3 error
               .\" and signal handling only.
               .\" .Sh ERRORS
               .\" .Sh SEE ALSO
               .\" .Sh CONFORMING TO
               .\" .Sh HISTORY
    
    
    

    TITLE MACROS

         The title macros are the first portion of the page structure domain, but
         are presented first and separate for someone who wishes to start writing
         a man page yesterday.  Three header macros designate the document title
         or manual page title, the operating system, and the date of authorship.
         These macros are one called once at the very beginning of the document
         and are used to construct the headers and footers only.
    
         .Dt DOCUMENT_TITLE section# [volume]
                 The document title is the subject of the man page and must be in
                 CAPITALS due to troff limitations.  The section number may be
                 1, ..., 8, and if it is specified, the volume title may be omit-
                 ted.  A volume title may be arbitrary or one of the following:
    
                       AMD    UNIX Ancestral Manual Documents
                       SMM    UNIX System Manager's Manual
                       URM    UNIX Reference Manual
                       PRM    UNIX Programmer's Manual
    
                 The default volume labeling is URM for sections 1, 6, and 7; SMM
                 for section 8; PRM for sections 2, 3, 4, and 5.
    
         .Os operating_system release#
                 The name of the operating system should be the common acronym,
                 for example, BSD or FreeBSD or ATT.  The release should be the
                 standard release nomenclature for the system specified, for exam-
                 ple, 4.3, 4.3+Tahoe, V.3, V.4.  Unrecognized arguments are dis-
                 played as given in the page footer.  For instance, a typical
                 footer might be:
    
                       .Os 4.3BSD
    
                 or
                       .Os FreeBSD 2.2
    
                 or for a locally produced set
    
                       .Os CS Department
    
                 The Berkeley default, '.Os' without an argument, has been defined
                 as BSD in the site-specific file /usr/share/tmac/mdoc/doc-common.
                 It really should default to LOCAL.  Note, if the '.Os' macro is
                 not present, the bottom left corner of the page will be ugly.
    
         .Dd month day, year
                 The date should be written formally:
    
                       January 25, 1989
    
    
    

    INTRODUCTION OF MANUAL AND GENERAL TEXT DOMAINS

       What's in a name...
         The '.Va' is a macro command or request, and anything following it is an
         argument to be processed.  In the second case, the description of a UNIX
         command using the content macros is a bit more involved; a typical
         SYNOPSIS command line might be displayed as:
    
               filter [-flag] infile outfile
    
         Here, filter is the command name and the bracketed string -flag is a flag
         argument designated as optional by the option brackets.  In -mdoc terms,
         infile and outfile are called arguments.  The macros which formatted the
         above example:
    
               .Nm filter
               .Op Fl flag
               .Ar infile outfile
    
         In the third case, discussion of commands and command syntax includes
         both examples above, but may add more detail.  The arguments infile and
         outfile from the example above might be referred to as operands or file
         arguments.  Some command-line argument lists are quite long:
    
               make  [-eiknqrstv] [-D variable] [-d flags] [-f makefile]
                     [-I directory] [-j max_jobs] [variable=value] [target ...]
    
         Here one might talk about the command make and qualify the argument
         makefile, as an argument to the flag, -f, or discuss the optional file
         operand target.  In the verbal context, such detail can prevent confu-
         sion, however the -mdoc package does not have a macro for an argument to
         a flag.  Instead the 'Ar' argument macro is used for an operand or file
         argument like target as well as an argument to a flag like variable.  The
         make command line was produced from:
    
               .Nm make
               .Op Fl eiknqrstv
               .Op Fl D Ar variable
               .Op Fl d Ar flags
               .Op Fl f Ar makefile
               .Op Fl I Ar directory
               .Op Fl j Ar max_jobs
               .Op Ar variable=value
               .Bk -words
               .Op Ar target ...
               .Ek
    
         The '.Bk' and '.Ek' macros are explained in Keeps.
    
       General Syntax
         The manual domain and general text domain macros share a similar syntax
         with a few minor deviations: '.Ar', '.Fl', '.Nm', and '.Pa' differ only
         when called without arguments; '.Fn' and '.Xr' impose an order on their
         argument lists and the '.Op' and '.Fn' macros have nesting limitations.
         All content macros are capable of recognizing and properly handling punc-
         The result is:
    
               sptr, ptr),
    
         The punctuation is now recognized and is output in the default font dis-
         tinguishing it from the strings in literal font.
    
         To remove the special meaning from a punctuation character escape it with
         '\&'.  Troff is limited as a macro language, and has difficulty when pre-
         sented with a string containing a member of the mathematical, logical or
         quotation set:
    
                     {+,-,/,*,%,<,>,<=,>=,=,==,&,',',"}
    
         The problem is that troff may assume it is supposed to actually perform
         the operation or evaluation suggested by the characters.  To prevent the
         accidental evaluation of these characters, escape them with '\&'.  Typi-
         cal syntax is shown in the first content macro displayed below, '.Ad'.
    
    
    

    MANUAL DOMAIN

       Address Macro
         The address macro identifies an address construct of the form
         addr1[,addr2[,addr3]].
    
               Usage: .Ad address ... [.,:;()[]?!]
                       .Ad addr1           addr1
                       .Ad addr1 .         addr1.
                       .Ad addr1 , file2   addr1, file2
                       .Ad f1 , f2 , f3 :  f1, f2, f3:
                       .Ad addr ) ) ,      addr)),
    
         It is an error to call '.Ad' without arguments.  '.Ad' is callable by
         other macros and is parsed.
    
       Author Name
         The '.An' macro is used to specify the name of the author of the item
         being documented, or the name of the author of the actual manual page.
         Any remaining arguments after the name information are assumed to be
         punctuation.
    
               Usage: .An author_name [.,:;()[]?!]
                       .An Joe Author        Joe Author
                       .An Joe Author ,      Joe Author,
                       .An Joe Author Aq nobody@FreeBSD.ORG
                                             Joe Author <nobody@FreeBSD.ORG>
                       .An Joe Author ) ) ,  Joe Author)),
    
         The '.An' macro is parsed and is callable.  It is an error to call '.An'
         without any arguments.
    
       Argument Macro
         The '.Ar' argument macro may be used whenever a command-line argument is
         The '.Cd' macro is used to demonstrate a config(8) declaration for a
         device interface in a section four manual.  This macro accepts quoted
         arguments (double quotes only).
    
               device le0 at scode?  produced by: '.Cd device le0 at scode?'.
    
       Command Modifier
         The command modifier is identical to the '.Fl' (flag) command with the
         exception the '.Cm' macro does not assert a dash in front of every argu-
         ment.  Traditionally flags are marked by the preceding dash, some com-
         mands or subsets of commands do not use them.  Command modifiers may also
         be specified in conjunction with interactive commands such as editor com-
         mands.  See Flags.
    
       Defined Variables
         A variable which is defined in an include file is specified by the macro
         '.Dv'.
    
               Usage: .Dv defined_variable ... [.,:;()[]?!]
                       .Dv MAXHOSTNAMELEN  MAXHOSTNAMELEN
                       .Dv TIOCGPGRP )     TIOCGPGRP)
    
         It is an error to call '.Dv' without arguments.  '.Dv' is parsed and is
         callable.
    
       Errno's (Section two only)
         The '.Er' errno macro specifies the error return value for section two
         library routines.  The second example below shows '.Er' used with the
         '.Bq' general text domain macro, as it would be used in a section two
         manual page.
    
               Usage: .Er ERRNOTYPE ... [.,:;()[]?!]
                       .Er ENOENT      ENOENT
                       .Er ENOENT ) ;  ENOENT);
                       .Bq Er ENOTDIR  [ENOTDIR]
    
         It is an error to call '.Er' without arguments.  The '.Er' macro is
         parsed and is callable.
    
       Environment Variables
         The '.Ev' macro specifies an environment variable.
    
               Usage: .Ev argument ... [.,:;()[]?!]
                       .Ev DISPLAY        DISPLAY
                       .Ev PATH .         PATH.
                       .Ev PRINTER ) ) ,  PRINTER)),
    
         It is an error to call '.Ev' without arguments.  The '.Ev' macro is
         parsed and is callable.
    
       Function Argument
         The '.Fa' macro is used to refer to function arguments (parameters) out-
         functions.  The '.Fd' macro does not call other macros and is not
         callable by other macros.
    
               Usage: .Fd include_file (or defined variable)
    
         In the SYNOPSIS section a '.Fd' request causes a line break if a function
         has already been presented and a break has not occurred.  This leaves a
         nice vertical space in between the previous function call and the decla-
         ration for the next function.
    
       Flags
         The '.Fl' macro handles command-line flags.  It prepends a dash, '-', to
         the flag.  For interactive command flags, which are not prepended with a
         dash, the '.Cm' (command modifier) macro is identical, but without the
         dash.
    
               Usage: .Fl argument ... [.,:;()[]?!]
                       .Fl           -
                       .Fl cfv       -cfv
                       .Fl cfv .     -cfv.
                       .Fl s v t     -s -v -t
                       .Fl - ,       --,
                       .Fl xyz ) ,   -xyz),
    
         The '.Fl' macro without any arguments results in a dash representing
         stdin/stdout.  Note that giving '.Fl' a single dash, will result in two
         dashes.  The '.Fl' macro is parsed and is callable.
    
       Functions (library routines)
         The .Fn macro is modeled on ANSI C conventions.
    
         Usage: .Fn [type] function [[type] parameters ... [ .,:;()[]?! ]]
         .Fn getchar                             getchar()
         .Fn strlen ) ,                          strlen()),
         .Fn "int align" "const * char *sptrs",  int align(const * char *sptrs),
    
         It is an error to call '.Fn' without any arguments.  The '.Fn' macro is
         parsed and is callable, note that any call to another macro signals the
         end of the '.Fn' call (it will close-parenthesis at that point).
    
         For functions that have more than eight parameters (and this is rare),
         the macros '.Fo' (function open) and '.Fc' (function close) may be used
         with '.Fa' (function argument) to get around the limitation.  For exam-
         ple:
    
               .Fo "int res_mkquery"
               .Fa "int op"
               .Fa "char *dname"
               .Fa "int class"
               .Fa "int type"
               .Fa "char *data"
               .Fa "int datalen"
    
         vertical space between the current function name and the one prior.  At
         the moment, '.Fn' does not check its word boundaries against troff line
         lengths and may split across a newline ungracefully.  This will be fixed
         in the near future.
    
       Function Type
         This macro is intended for the SYNOPSIS section.  It may be used anywhere
         else in the man page without problems, but its main purpose is to present
         the function type in kernel normal form for the SYNOPSIS of sections two
         and three (it causes a line break allowing the function name to appear on
         the next line).
    
               Usage: .Ft type ... [.,:;()[]?!]
                       .Ft struct stat  struct stat
    
         The '.Ft' request is not callable by other macros.
    
       Interactive Commands
         The '.Ic' macro designates an interactive or internal command.
    
               Usage: .Ic argument ... [.,:;()[]?!]
                       .Ic :wq                  :wq
                       .Ic do while {...}       do while {...}
                       .Ic setenv , unsetenv    setenv, unsetenv
    
         It is an error to call '.Ic' without arguments.  The '.Ic' macro is
         parsed and is callable.
    
       Name Macro
         The '.Nm' macro is used for the document title or subject name.  It has
         the peculiarity of remembering the first argument it was called with,
         which should always be the subject name of the page.  When called without
         arguments, '.Nm' regurgitates this initial name for the sole purpose of
         making less work for the author.  Note: a section two or three document
         function name is addressed with the '.Nm' in the NAME section, and with
         '.Fn' in the SYNOPSIS and remaining sections.  For interactive commands,
         such as the 'while' command keyword in csh(1), the '.Ic' macro should be
         used.  While the '.Ic' is nearly identical to '.Nm', it can not recall
         the first argument it was invoked with.
    
               Usage: .Nm argument ... [.,:;()[]?!]
                       .Nm mdoc.sample  mdoc.sample
                       .Nm \-mdoc       -mdoc.
                       .Nm foo ) ) ,    foo)),
                       .Nm              mdoc.samples
    
         The '.Nm' macro is parsed and is callable.
    
       Options
         The '.Op' macro places option brackets around the any remaining arguments
         on the command line, and places any trailing punctuation outside the
         brackets.  The macros '.Oc' and '.Oo' may be used across one or more
               .Oo
               .Op Fl k Ar kilobytes
               .Op Fl i Ar interval
               .Op Fl c Ar count
               .Oc
    
         Produce: [[-k kilobytes] [-i interval] [-c count]]
    
         The macros '.Op', '.Oc' and '.Oo' are parsed and are callable.
    
       Pathnames
         The '.Pa' macro formats pathnames or filenames.
    
               Usage: .Pa pathname [.,:;()[]?!]
                       .Pa /usr/share         /usr/share
                       .Pa /tmp/fooXXXXX ) .  /tmp/fooXXXXX).
    
         The '.Pa' macro is parsed and is callable.
    
       Variables
         Generic variable reference:
    
               Usage: .Va variable ... [.,:;()[]?!]
                       .Va count           count
                       .Va settimer,       settimer,
                       .Va int *prt ) :    int *prt):
                       .Va char s ] ) ) ,  char s])),
    
         It is an error to call '.Va' without any arguments.  The '.Va' macro is
         parsed and is callable.
    
       Manual Page Cross References
         The '.Xr' macro expects the first argument to be a manual page name, and
         the second argument, if it exists, to be either a section page number or
         punctuation.  Any remaining arguments are assumed to be punctuation.
    
               Usage: .Xr man_page [1,...,8] [.,:;()[]?!]
                       .Xr mdoc          mdoc
                       .Xr mdoc ,        mdoc,
                       .Xr mdoc 7        mdoc(7)
                       .Xr mdoc 7 ) ) ,  mdoc(7))),
    
         The '.Xr' macro is parsed and is callable.  It is an error to call '.Xr'
         without any arguments.
    
    
    

    GENERAL TEXT DOMAIN

       AT&T Macro
               Usage: .At [v6 | v7 | 32v | V.1 | V.4] ... [ .,:;()[]?! ]
                       .At         AT&T UNIX
                       .At v6 .    Version 6 AT&T UNIX.
    
         The '.At' macro is not parsed and not callable It accepts at most two
         arguments.
    
       UNIX Macro
               Usage: .Ux ... [.,:;()[]?!]
                       .Ux          UNIX
    
         The '.Ux' macro is parsed and is callable.
    
       Enclosure and Quoting Macros
         The concept of enclosure is similar to quoting.  The object being to
         enclose one or more strings between a pair of characters like quotes or
         parentheses.  The terms quoting and enclosure are used interchangeably
         throughout this document.  Most of the one line enclosure macros end in
         small letter 'q' to give a hint of quoting, but there are a few irregu-
         larities.  For each enclosure macro there is also a pair of open and
         close macros which end in small letters 'o' and 'c' respectively.  These
         can be used across one or more lines of text and while they have nesting
         limitations, the one line quote macros can be used inside of them.
    
                Quote    Close    Open   Function                  Result
               .Aq      .Ac      .Ao     Angle Bracket Enclosure   <string>
               .Bq      .Bc      .Bo     Bracket Enclosure         [string]
               .Dq      .Dc      .Do     Double Quote              ''string''
                        .Ec      .Eo     Enclose String (in XX)    XXstringXX
               .Pq      .Pc      .Po     Parenthesis Enclosure     (string)
               .Ql                       Quoted Literal            'st' or string
               .Qq      .Qc      .Qo     Straight Double Quote     "string"
               .Sq      .Sc      .So     Single Quote              'string'
    
         Except for the irregular macros noted below, all of the quoting macros
         are parsed and callable.  All handle punctuation properly, as long as it
         is presented one character at a time and separated by spaces.  The quot-
         ing macros examine opening and closing punctuation to determine whether
         it comes before or after the enclosing string This makes some nesting
         possible.
    
         .Ec, .Eo  These macros expect the first argument to be the opening and
                   closing strings respectively.
    
         .Ql       The quoted literal macro behaves differently for troff than
                   nroff.  If formatted with nroff, a quoted literal is always
                   quoted.  If formatted with troff, an item is quoted only if the
                   width of the item is less than three constant width characters.
                   This is to make short strings more visible where the font
                   change to literal (constant width) is less noticeable.
    
         .Pf       The prefix macro is not callable, but it is parsed:
    
                         .Pf ( Fa name2
                                  becomes (name2.
    
                   The '.Ns' (no space) macro performs the analogous suffix func-
    
               .Sq                         ''
               .Sq string                  'string'
    
         For a good example of nested enclosure macros, see the '.Op' option
         macro.  It was created from the same underlying enclosure macros as those
         presented in the list above.  The '.Xo' and '.Xc' extended argument list
         macros were also built from the same underlying routines and are a good
         example of -mdoc macro usage at its worst.
    
       No-Op or Normal Text Macro
         The macro '.No' is a hack for words in a macro command line which should
         not be formatted and follows the conventional syntax for content macros.
    
       Space Macro
         The '.Ns' macro eliminates unwanted spaces in between macro requests.  It
         is useful for old style argument lists where there is no space between
         the flag and argument:
    
               .Op Fl I Ns Ar directory    produces [-Idirectory]
    
         Note: the '.Ns' macro always invokes the '.No' macro after eliminating
         the space unless another macro name follows it.  The macro '.Ns' is
         parsed and is callable.
    
       Section Cross References
         The '.Sx' macro designates a reference to a section header within the
         same document.  It is parsed and is callable.
    
                       .Sx FILES     FILES
    
       References and Citations
         The following macros make a modest attempt to handle references.  At
         best, the macros make it convenient to manually drop in a subset of refer
         style references.
    
               .Rs     Reference Start.  Causes a line break and begins collection
                       of reference information until the reference end macro is
                       read.
               .Re     Reference End.  The reference is printed.
               .%A     Reference author name, one name per invocation.
               .%B     Book title.
               .%C     City/place.
               .%D     Date.
               .%J     Journal name.
               .%N     Issue number.
               .%O     Optional information.
               .%P     Page number.
               .%R     Report name.
               .%T     Title of article.
               .%V     Volume(s).
    
         The macros beginning with '%' are not callable, and are parsed only for
    
         The -std option is valid only for manual page sections 2 and 3.
    
       Trade Names (or Acronyms and Type Names)
         The trade name macro is generally a small caps macro for all uppercase
         words longer than two characters.
    
               Usage: .Tn symbol ... [.,:;()[]?!]
                       .Tn DEC    DEC
                       .Tn ASCII  ASCII
    
         The '.Tn' macro is parsed and is callable by other macros.
    
       Extended Arguments
         The '.Xo' and '.Xc' macros allow one to extend an argument list on a
         macro boundary.  Argument lists cannot be extended within a macro which
         expects all of its arguments on one line such as '.Op'.
    
         Here is an example of '.Xo' using the space mode macro to turn spacing
         off:
    
               .Sm off
               .It Xo Sy I Ar operation
               .No \en Ar count No \en
               .Xc
               .Sm on
    
         Produces
    
               Ioperation\ncount\n
    
         Another one:
    
               .Sm off
               .It Cm S No / Ar old_pattern Xo
               .No / Ar new_pattern
               .No / Op Cm g
               .Xc
               .Sm on
    
         Produces
    
               S/old_pattern/new_pattern/[g]
    
         Another example of '.Xo' and using enclosure macros: Test the value of a
         variable.
    
               .It Xo
               .Ic .ifndef
               .Oo \&! Oc Ns Ar variable
               .Op Ar operator variable ...
               .Xc
    
         '.Ns' (no space macro) must not occur as the first or last macro on a
         line in this situation.  Out of 900 manual pages (about 1500 actual
         pages) currently released with BSD only fifteen use the '.Xo' macro.
    
    
    

    PAGE STRUCTURE DOMAIN

       Section Headers
         The first three '.Sh' section header macros list below are required in
         every man page.  The remaining section headers are recommended at the
         discretion of the author writing the manual page.  The '.Sh' macro can
         take up to nine arguments.  It is parsed and but is not callable.
    
         .Sh NAME      The '.Sh NAME' macro is mandatory.  If not specified, the
                       headers, footers and page layout defaults will not be set
                       and things will be rather unpleasant.  The NAME section
                       consists of at least three items.  The first is the '.Nm'
                       name macro naming the subject of the man page.  The second
                       is the Name Description macro, '.Nd', which separates the
                       subject name from the third item, which is the description.
                       The description should be the most terse and lucid possi-
                       ble, as the space available is small.
    
         .Sh SYNOPSIS  The SYNOPSIS section describes the typical usage of the
                       subject of a man page.  The macros required are either
                       '.Nm', '.Cd', '.Fn', (and possibly '.Fo', '.Fc', '.Fd',
                       '.Ft' macros).  The function name macro '.Fn' is required
                       for manual page sections 2 and 3, the command and general
                       name macro '.Nm' is required for sections 1, 5, 6, 7, 8.
                       Section 4 manuals require a '.Nm', '.Fd' or a '.Cd' config-
                       uration device usage macro.  Several other macros may be
                       necessary to produce the synopsis line as shown below:
    
               cat [-benstuv] [-] file ...
    
         The following macros were used:
    
               .Nm cat
               .Op Fl benstuv
               .Op Fl
               .Ar
    
         Note: The macros '.Op', '.Fl', and '.Ar' recognize the pipe bar character
         '|', so a command line such as:
    
               .Op Fl a | Fl b
    
         will not go orbital.  Troff normally interprets a | as a special opera-
         tor.  See PREDEFINED STRINGS for a usable | character in other situa-
         tions.
    
         .Sh DESCRIPTION
                       In most cases the first text in the DESCRIPTION section is
                       a brief paragraph on the command, function or file, fol-
    
                   There are several ways to create examples.  See the EXAMPLES
                   section below for details.
    
         .Sh FILES
                   Files which are used or created by the man page subject should
                   be listed via the '.Pa' macro in the FILES section.
    
         .Sh SEE ALSO
                   References to other material on the man page topic and cross
                   references to other relevant man pages should be placed in the
                   SEE ALSO section.  Cross references are specified using the
                   '.Xr' macro.  Cross references in the SEE ALSO section should
                   be sorted by section number, and then placed in alphabetical
                   order and comma separated.  For example:
    
                   ls(1), ps(1), group(5), passwd(5).
    
                   At this time refer(1) style references are not accommodated.
    
         .Sh CONFORMING TO
                   If the command, library function or file adheres to a specific
                   implementation such as IEEE Std 1003.2 ("POSIX.2") or ANSI
                   X3.159-1989 ("ANSI C") this should be noted here.  If the com-
                   mand does not adhere to any standard, its history should be
                   noted in the HISTORY section.
    
         .Sh HISTORY
                   Any command which does not adhere to any specific standards
                   should be outlined historically in this section.
    
         .Sh AUTHORS
                   Credits, if need be, should be placed here.
    
         .Sh DIAGNOSTICS
                   Diagnostics from a command should be placed in this section.
    
         .Sh ERRORS
                   Specific error handling, especially from library functions (man
                   page sections 2 and 3) should go here.  The '.Er' macro is used
                   to specify an errno.
    
         .Sh BUGS  Blatant problems with the topic go here...
    
         User specified '.Sh' sections may be added, for example, this section was
         set with:
    
                       .Sh PAGE STRUCTURE DOMAIN
    
       Paragraphs and Line Spacing.
         .Pp     The '.Pp' paragraph command may be used to specify a line space
                 where necessary.  The macro is not necessary after a '.Sh' or
                 '.Ss' macro or before a '.Bl' macro.  (The '.Bl' macro asserts a
    
       Examples and Displays
         There are five types of displays, a quickie one line indented display
         '.D1', a quickie one line literal display '.Dl', and a block literal,
         block filled and block ragged which use the '.Bd' begin-display and '.Ed'
         end-display macros.
    
         .D1    (D-one) Display one line of indented text.  This macro is parsed,
                but it is not callable.
    
                      -ldghfstru
    
                The above was produced by: .Dl -ldghfstru.
    
         .Dl    (D-ell) Display one line of indented literal text.  The '.Dl'
                example macro has been used throughout this file.  It allows the
                indent (display) of one line of text.  Its default font is set to
                constant width (literal) however it is parsed and will recognized
                other macros.  It is not callable however.
    
                      % ls -ldg /usr/local/bin
    
                The above was produced by .Dl % ls -ldg /usr/local/bin.
    
         .Bd    Begin-display.  The '.Bd' display must be ended with the '.Ed'
                macro.  Displays may be nested within displays and lists.  '.Bd'
                has the following syntax:
    
                      .Bd display-type [-offset offset_value] [-compact]
    
                The display-type must be one of the following four types and may
                have an offset specifier for indentation: '.Bd'.
    
         -ragged           Display a block of text as typed, right (and left) mar-
                           gin edges are left ragged.
         -filled           Display a filled (formatted) block.  The block of text
                           is formatted (the edges are filled - not left unjusti-
                           fied).
         -literal          Display a literal block, useful for source code or sim-
                           ple tabbed or spaced text.
         -file file_name   The filename following the -file flag is read and dis-
                           played.  Literal mode is asserted and tabs are set at 8
                           constant width character intervals, however any
                           troff/-mdoc commands in file will be processed.
         -offset string    If -offset is specified with one of the following
                           strings, the string is interpreted to indicate the
                           level of indentation for the forthcoming block of text:
    
                           left        Align block on the current left margin,
                                       this is the default mode of '.Bd'.
                           center      Supposedly center the block.  At this time
                                       unfortunately, the block merely gets left
                                       aligned about an imaginary center margin.
    
       Font Modes
         There are five macros for changing the appearance of the manual page
         text:
    
         .Em    Text may be stressed or emphasized with the '.Em' macro.  The
                usual font for emphasis is italic.
    
                      Usage: .Em argument ... [.,:;()[]?!]
                              .Em does not          does not
                              .Em exceed 1024 .     exceed 1024.
                              .Em vide infra ) ) ,  vide infra)),
    
                The '.Em' macro is parsed and is callable.  It is an error to call
                '.Em' without arguments.
    
         .Li    The '.Li' literal macro may be used for special characters, vari-
                able constants, anything which should be displayed as it would be
                typed.
    
                      Usage: .Li argument ... [.,:;()[]?!]
                              .Li \en          \n
                              .Li M1 M2 M3 ;   M1 M2 M3;
                              .Li cntrl-D ) ,  cntrl-D),
                              .Li 1024 ...     1024 ...
    
                The '.Li' macro is parsed and is callable.
    
         .Sy    The symbolic emphasis macro is generally a boldface macro in
                either the symbolic sense or the traditional English usage.
    
                      Usage: .Sy symbol ... [.,:;()[]?!]
                              .Sy Important Notice   Important Notice
    
                                                     The '.Sy' macro is parsed and
                                                     is callable.  Arguments to
                                                     '.Sy' may be quoted.
    
         .Bf    Begin font mode.  The '.Bf' font mode must be ended with the '.Ef'
                macro.  Font modes may be nested within other font modes.  '.Bf'
                has the following syntax:
    
                      .Bf font-mode
    
                The font-mode must be one of the following three types: '.Bf'.
    
                Em | -emphasis    Same as if the '.Em' macro was used for the
                                  entire block of text.
                Li | -literal     Same as if the '.Li' macro was used for the
                                  entire block of text.
                Sy | -symbolic    Same as if the '.Sy' macro was used for the
                                  entire block of text.
    
         list is quite popular with TeX users, but might look a bit funny after
         having read many pages of tagged lists.  The following list types are
         accepted by '.Bl':
    
         -bullet
         -item
         -enum
         These three are the simplest types of lists.  Once the '.Bl' macro has
         been given, items in the list are merely indicated by a line consisting
         solely of the '.It' macro.  For example, the source text for a simple
         enumerated list would look like:
    
                     .Bl -enum -compact
                     .It
                     Item one goes here.
                     .It
                     And item two here.
                     .It
                     Lastly item three goes here.
                     .El
    
         The results:
    
                   1.   Item one goes here.
                   2.   And item two here.
                   3.   Lastly item three goes here.
    
         A simple bullet list construction:
    
                     .Bl -bullet -compact
                     .It
                     Bullet one goes here.
                     .It
                     Bullet two here.
                     .El
    
         Produces:
                   ?   Bullet one goes here.
                   ?   Bullet two here.
    
         -tag
         -diag
         -hang
         -ohang
         -inset
         These list-types collect arguments specified with the '.It' macro and
         create a label which may be inset into the forthcoming text, hanged from
         the forthcoming text, overhanged from above and not indented or tagged.
         This list was constructed with the 'Fl ohang' list-type.  The '.It' macro
         is parsed only for the inset, hang and tag list-types and is not
         callable.  Here is an example of inset labels:
    
    
               .Bl -inset -offset indent
               .It Em Tag
               The tagged list (also called a tagged paragraph) is the
               most common type of list used in the Berkeley manuals.
               .It Em Diag
               Diag lists create section four diagnostic lists
               and are similar to inset lists except callable
               macros are ignored.
               .It Em Hang
               Hanged labels are a matter of taste.
               .It Em Ohang
               Overhanging labels are nice when space is constrained.
               .It Em Inset
               Inset labels are useful for controlling blocks of
               paragraphs and are valuable for converting
               .Nm -mdoc
               manuals to other formats.
               .El
    
         Here is a hanged list with two items:
    
               Hanged  labels appear similar to tagged lists when the label is
                       smaller than the label width.
    
               Longer hanged list labels blend in to the paragraph unlike tagged
                       paragraph labels.
    
         And the unformatted text which created it:
    
               .Bl -hang -offset indent
               .It Em Hanged
               labels appear similar to tagged lists when the
               label is smaller than the label width.
               .It Em Longer hanged list labels
               blend in to the paragraph unlike
               tagged paragraph labels.
               .El
    
         The tagged list which follows uses an optional width specifier to control
         the width of the tag.
    
               SL      sleep time of the process (seconds blocked)
               PAGEIN  number of disk I/O's resulting from references by the pro-
                       cess to pages not loaded in core.
               UID     numerical user-id of process owner
               PPID    numerical ID of parent of process process priority (nonpos-
                       itive when in noninterruptible wait)
    
         The raw text:
    
               .Bl -tag -width "PAGEIN" -compact -offset indent
    
         Acceptable width specifiers:
    
               -width Fl     sets the width to the default width for a flag.  All
                             callable macros have a default width value.  The
                             '.Fl', value is presently set to ten constant width
                             characters or about five sixth of an inch.
    
               -width 24n    sets the width to 24 constant width characters or
                             about two inches.  The 'n' is absolutely necessary
                             for the scaling to work correctly.
    
               -width ENAMETOOLONG
                             sets width to the constant width length of the string
                             given.
    
               -width "int mkfifo"
                             again, the width is set to the constant width of the
                             string given.
    
         If a width is not specified for the tag list type, the first time '.It'
         is invoked, an attempt is made to determine an appropriate width.  If the
         first argument to '.It' is a callable macro, the default width for that
         macro will be used as if the macro name had been supplied as the width.
         However, if another item in the list is given with a different callable
         macro name, a new and nested list is assumed.
    
    
    

    PREDEFINED STRINGS

         The following strings are predefined as may be used by preceding with the
         troff string interpreting sequence '\*(xx' where xx is the name of the
         defined string or as '\*x' where x is the name of the string.  The inter-
         preting sequence may be used any where in the text.
    
               String     Nroff     Troff
               <=         <=        <=
               >=         >=        >=
               Rq         ''        "
               Lq         ''        "
               ua         ^         ?
               aa         '         ?
               ga         `         `
               q          "         "
               Pi         pi        ?
               Ne         !=        ?
               Le         <=        <=
               Ge         >=        >=
               Lt         <         >
               Gt         >         <
               Pm         +-        ?
               If         infinity  ?
               Na         NaN       NaN
               Ba         |         |
    
         pretation of a macro name with the escape sequence '\&'.  This is suffi-
         cient for the internal register names also.
    
         If a nonescaped register name is given in the argument list of a request
         unpredictable behavior will occur.  In general, any time huge portions of
         text do not appear where expected in the output, or small strings such as
         list tags disappear, chances are there is a misunderstanding about an
         argument type in the argument list.  Your mother never intended for you
         to remember this evil stuff - so here is a way to find out whether or not
         your arguments are valid: The '.Db' (debug) macro displays the interpre-
         tation of the argument list for most macros.  Macros such as the '.Pp'
         (paragraph) macro do not contain debugging information.  All of the
         callable macros do, and it is strongly advised whenever in doubt, turn on
         the '.Db' macro.
    
               Usage: .Db [on | off]
    
         An example of a portion of text with the debug macro placed above and
         below an artificially created problem (a flag argument 'aC' which should
         be '\&aC' in order to work):
    
               .Db on
               .Op Fl aC Ar file )
               .Db off
    
         The resulting output:
    
               DEBUGGING ON
               DEBUG(argv) MACRO: '.Op'  Line #: 2
                       Argc: 1  Argv: 'Fl'  Length: 2
                       Space: ''  Class: Executable
                       Argc: 2  Argv: 'aC'  Length: 2
                       Space: ''  Class: Executable
                       Argc: 3  Argv: 'Ar'  Length: 2
                       Space: ''  Class: Executable
                       Argc: 4  Argv: 'file'  Length: 4
                       Space: ' '  Class: String
                       Argc: 5  Argv: ')'  Length: 1
                       Space: ' '  Class: Closing Punctuation or suffix
                       MACRO REQUEST: .Op Fl aC Ar file )
               DEBUGGING OFF
    
         The first line of information tells the name of the calling macro, here
         '.Op', and the line number it appears on.  If one or more files are
         involved (especially if text from another file is included) the line num-
         ber may be bogus.  If there is only one file, it should be accurate.  The
         second line gives the argument count, the argument ('Fl') and its length.
         If the length of an argument is two characters, the argument is tested to
         see if it is executable (unfortunately, any register which contains a
         nonzero value appears executable).  The third line gives the space allot-
         ted for a class, and the class type.  The problem here is the argument aC
         should not be executable.  The four types of classes are string, exe-
                       Argc: 3  Argv: 'aC'  Length: 2
                       Space: ' '  Class: String
                       MACRO REQUEST: .Em An escaped &aC
               DEBUGGING OFF
    
         The argument '\&aC' shows up with the same length of 2 as the '\&'
         sequence produces a zero width, but a register named '\&aC' was not found
         and the type classified as string.
    
         Other diagnostics consist of usage statements and are self explanatory.
    
    
    

    GROFF, TROFF AND NROFF

         The -mdoc package does not need compatibility mode with groff.
    
         The package inhibits page breaks, and the headers and footers which nor-
         mally occur at those breaks with nroff, to make the manual more efficient
         for viewing on-line.  At the moment, groff with -Tascii does eject the
         imaginary remainder of the page at end of file.  The inhibiting of the
         page breaks makes nroff'd files unsuitable for hardcopy.  There is a reg-
         ister named 'cR' which can be set to zero in the site dependent style
         file /usr/src/share/tmac/doc-nroff to restore the old style behavior.
    
    
    

    FILES

         /usr/share/tmac/doc.tmac      manual macro package
         /usr/share/misc/mdoc.template
                                       template for writing a man page
         /usr/share/examples/mdoc/*    several example man pages
    
    
    

    BUGS

         Undesirable hyphenation on the dash of a flag argument is not yet
         resolved, and causes occasional mishaps in the DESCRIPTION section.
         (line break on the hyphen).
    
         Predefined strings are not declared in documentation.
    
         Section 3f has not been added to the header routines.
    
         '.Nm' font should be changed in NAME section.
    
         '.Fn' needs to have a check to prevent splitting up if the line length is
         too short.  Occasionally it separates the last parenthesis, and sometimes
         looks ridiculous if a line is in fill mode.
    
         The method used to prevent header and footer page breaks (other than the
         initial header and footer) when using nroff occasionally places an
         unsightly partially filled line (blank) at the would be bottom of the
         page.
    
         The list and display macros to not do any keeps and certainly should be
         able to.
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

    
    
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