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    Command:

    mcs

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           mcs [option] [source-files]
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           mcs is the Mono C# compiler, an implementation of the ECMA-334 language
           specification.  You can pass one or more options to drive the compiler,
           and  a set of source files.  Extra options or arguments can be provided
           in a response file.  Response files are referenced by prepending the  @
           symbol to the response file name.
    
           The  mcs compiler is used to compile against the 1.x profile and imple-
           ments C# 1.0 and parts of C# 2.0 and C# 3.0 specification which do  not
           depend on generics.
    
           The gmcs compiler is used to compile against the 2.0 profile and imple-
           ments the complete C# 3.0 specification.
    
           The smcs compiler is used to compile against the  Silverlight/Moonlight
           profile.   This  profile  is  designed  to  be  used  for creating Sil-
           verlight/Moonlight applications that will run on a web  browser.    The
           API  exposed  by this profile is a small subset of the 3.5 API (even if
           it is commonly referred as the 2.1 API, this API is a small  subset  of
           2.0 with a few extensions).
    
           See the section on packages for more information.
    
           The  Mono  C#  compiler  accepts the same command line options that the
           Microsoft C# compiler does.  Those options can start with a slash or  a
           dash  (/checked  is  the same as -checked).  Additionally some GNU-like
           options are supported, those begin with "--".  All  MCS-specific  flags
           which are not available in the Microsoft C# compiler are available only
           with the GNU-style options.
    
           C# source files must end with a ".cs"  extension.   Compilation  of  C#
           source  code  requires  all the files that make up a library, module or
           executable to be provided on the command line.  There is no support for
           partial  compilation.   To achieve the benefits of partial compilation,
           you should compile programs into their own assemblies, and later refer-
           ence them with the "-r" flag.
    
           The  Mono  C#  compiler  generates images (.exe files) that contain CIL
           byte code that can be executed by any system that implements  a  Common
           Language Infrastructure virtual machine such as the Microsoft .NET run-
           time engine on Windows or the Mono  runtime  engine  on  Unix  systems.
           Executables are not bound to a specific CPU or operating system.
    
           The  Mono  C#  compiler  by  default  only references three assemblies:
           mscorlib.dll, System.dll and System.Xml.dll.   If you want to reference
           extra  libraries you must manually specify them using the -pkg: command
           line option or the -r: command line option.  Alternatively if you  want
           to get all of the System libraries, you can use the -pkg:dotnet command
           line option.
    
           -checked-
                  Sets  the  default  compilation mode to 'unchecked'.  This makes
                  all the math operations unchecked (this is the default).
    
           -clscheck-, -clscheck+
                  Disables or enables  the  Common  Language  Specification  (CLS)
                  checks (it is enabled by default).
    
                  The Common Language Specification (CLS) defines an interoperable
                  subset of types as well as conventions that compilers (CLS  pro-
                  ducers)  and developers must follow to expose code to other pro-
                  gramming languages (CLS consumers).
    
           -codepage:ID
                  Specifies the code page used to process the input files from the
                  point it is specified on.  By default files will be processed in
                  the environment-dependent native code page.  The  compiler  will
                  also  automatically  detect  Unicode files that have an embedded
                  byte mark at the beginning.
    
                  Other popular encodings are 28591  (Latin1),  1252  (iso-8859-1)
                  and 65001 (UTF-8).
    
                  MCS supports a couple of shorthands: "utf8" can be used to spec-
                  ify utf-8  instead  of  using  the  cryptic  65001  and  "reset"
                  restores the automatic handling of code pages.  These shorthands
                  are not available on the Microsoft compiler.
    
           -define:SYMLIST, -d:SYMLIST
                  Defines the symbol listed by the semi-colon separated list  SYM-
                  LIST  SYMBOL.  This can be tested in the source code by the pre-
                  processor, or can be used by methods that have been tagged  with
                  the Conditional attribute.
    
           -debug, -debug+
                  Generate  debugging  information.   To  obtain stack traces with
                  debugging information, you need to invoke the mono runtime  with
                  the '--debug' flag.  This debugging information is stored inside
                  the assembly as a resource.
    
           -debug-
                  Do not generate debugging information.
    
           -delaysign+
                  Only embed the strongname public  key  into  the  assembly.  The
                  actual  signing must be done in a later stage using the SN tool.
                  This is useful to protect the private  key  during  development.
                  Note  that delay signing can only be done using a strongname key
                  file (not a key container). The option is equivalent to  includ-
                  ing  [assembly:  AssemblyDelaySign  (true)] in your source code.
                  Compiler option takes precedence over the attributes.
    
           --fatal
                  This is used for debugging the compiler.  This makes  the  error
                  emission generate an exception that can be caught by a debugger.
    
           -filealign
                  This flag is ignored by Mono's C# compiler and is  present  only
                  to allow MCS to be used as a CSC replacement for msbuild/xbuild.
    
           -keyfile:KEYFILE
                  Strongname (sign) the output assembly using the key pair present
                  in  the specified strong name key file (snk). A full key pair is
                  required by default (or when using delaysign-). A file  contain-
                  ing  only the public key can be used with delaysign+. The option
                  is equivalent to  including  [assembly:  AssemblyKeyFile  ("KEY-
                  FILE")]  in  your source code.  Compiler option takes precedence
                  over the attributes.
    
           -keycontainer:CONTAINER
                  Strongname (sign) the output assembly using the key pair present
                  in the specified container. Note that delaysign+ is ignored when
                  using key containers. The  option  is  equivalent  to  including
                  [assembly:  AssemblyKeyName  ("CONTAINER")] in your source code.
                  Compiler option takes precedence over the attributes.
    
           -langversion:TEXT
                  The option specifies the version of the  language  to  use.  The
                  feature  set is different in each C# version. This switch can be
                  used to force the compiler to allow only a subset  of  the  fea-
                  tures.  The possible values are:
    
                  Default
                         Instruct  compiler  to use the latest version. Equivalent
                         is to omit the switch (this currently defaults to the  C#
                         3.0 language specification).
    
                  ISO-1  Restrict compiler to use only first ISO standardized fea-
                         tures.  The usage of features such  as  generics,  static
                         classes, anonymous methods will lead to error.
    
                  ISO-2  Restrict compiler to use only the second ISO standardized
                         features.   This  allows  the  use  of  generics,  static
                         classes, iterators and anonymous methods for example.
    
                  3      Restrict  the compiler to use only the features available
                         in C# 3.0 (a superset of ISO-1 and ISO-2).
    
                  future Enables features from upcoming versions of the  language.
                         As of May 2009 this includes support for C# 4 as released
                         in Visual Studio 2010 beta 1.
    
                  Notice that this flag only controls the language features avail-
                  Tells the compiler which CLASS contains the entry point.  Useful
                  when you are compiling several classes with a Main method.
    
           -nostdlib, -nostdlib+
                  Use  this  flag  if  you want to compile the core library.  This
                  makes the compiler load its internal  types  from  the  assembly
                  being compiled.
    
           -noconfig, -noconfig+
                  Disables  the  default compiler configuration to be loaded.  The
                  compiler by default has references to the system assemblies.
    
           -nowarn:WARNLIST
                  Makes the compiler ignore warnings specified in the  comma-sepa-
                  rated list WARNLIST>
    
           -optimize, -optimize+, -optimize-
                  Controls  whether to perform optimizations on the code.   -opti-
                  mize and -optimize+ will turn on optimizations, -optimize-  will
                  turn it off.  The default in mcs is to optimize+.
    
           -out:FNAME, -o FNAME
                  Names the output file to be generated.
    
           --parse
                  Used  for  benchmarking.  The compiler will only parse its input
                  files.
    
           -pkg:package1[,packageN]
                  Reference assemblies for the given packages.
    
                  The compiler will invoke pkg-config --libs on the set  of  pack-
                  ages  specified  on  the  command  line  to obtain libraries and
                  directories to compile the code.
    
                  This is typically used with third party components, like this:
    
                            $ mcs -pkg:gtk-sharp demo.cs
    
                  -pkg:dotnet
                         This will instruct the compiler to reference the System.*
                         libraries available on a typical dotnet framework instal-
                         lation, notice that this does not include all of the Mono
                         libraries,  only the System.* ones.  This is a convenient
                         shortcut for those porting code.
    
                  -pkg:olive
                         Use this to reference the "Olive" libraries (the 3.0  and
                         3.5 extended libraries).
    
                  -pkg:silver
                         References  the  assemblies  for  creating Moonlight/Sil-
    
                  For more details see the PACKAGE section in this document
    
           -platform:ARCH
                  Used to specify the target platform. The  possible  values  are:
                  anycpu,  x86,  x64 or itanium. As of June 2009, the Mono runtime
                  only have support to emit anycpu and x86 assemblies.
    
           -resource:RESOURCE[,ID]
                  Embeds to the given resource file.  The optional ID can be  used
                  to give a different name to the resource.  If not specified, the
                  resource name will be the file name.
    
           -linkresource:RESOURCE[,ID]
                  Links to the specified RESOURCE.  The optional ID can be used to
                  give a name to the linked resource.
    
           -r:ASSEMBLY1[,ASSEMBLY2], -reference ASSEMBLY1[,ASSEMBLY2]
                  Reference  the  named  assemblies.  Use this to use classes from
                  the named assembly in your program.  The assembly will be loaded
                  from  either the system directory where all the assemblies live,
                  or from the path explicitly given with the -L option.
    
                  You can also use a semicolon to separate the assemblies  instead
                  of a comma.
    
           -reference:ALIAS=ASSEMBLY
                  Extern alias reference support for C#.
    
                  If  you  have  different assemblies that provide the same types,
                  the extern alias support allows you to provide names  that  your
                  software  can use to tell those appart.    The types from ASSEM-
                  BLY will be exposed as ALIAS, then on the C#  source  code,  you
                  need to do:
    
                       extern alias ALIAS;
                  To bring it into your namespace.   For example, to cope with two
                  graphics  libraries  that  define   "Graphics.Point",   one   in
                  "OpenGL.dll"  and  one in "Postscript.dll", you would invoke the
                  compiler like this:
    
                       mcs -r:Postscript=Postscript.dll -r:OpenGL=OpenGL.dll
    
                  And in your source code, you would write:
    
                       extern alias Postscript;
                       extern alias OpenGL;
    
                       class X {
                            // This is a Graphics.Point from Postscrip.dll
                            Postscript.Point p = new Postscript.Point ();
    
                  means which .NET version should the produced assembly be compat-
                  ible with.
    
           --shell
                  Starts up the compiler in interactive mode, providing a C# shell
                  for statements and expressions.    A  shortcut  is  to  use  the
                  csharp command directly.
    
           --stacktrace
                  Generates  a stack trace at the time the error is reported, use-
                  ful for debugging the compiler.
    
           -target:KIND, -t:KIND
                  Used to specify the desired target.  The  possible  values  are:
                  exe   (plain  executable),  winexe  (Windows.Forms  executable),
                  library (component libraries) and module (partial library).
    
           --timestamp
                  Another debugging flag.  Used to display the  times  at  various
                  points in the compilation process.
    
           -unsafe, -unsafe+
                  Enables compilation of unsafe code.
    
           -v     Debugging. Turns on verbose yacc parsing.
    
           --version
                  Shows the compiler version.
    
           -warnaserror, -warnaserror+
                  All compilers warnings will be reported as errors.
    
           -warnaserror:W1,[Wn], -warnaserror+:W1,[Wn]
                  Treats one or more compiler warnings as errors.
    
           -warnaserror-:W1,[Wn]
                  Sets  one  or  more  compiler  warnings to be always threated as
                  warnings.  Becomes useful when used together with  -warnaserror.
    
           -warn:LEVEL
                  Sets the warning level.  0 is the lowest warning level, and 4 is
                  the highest.  The default is 4.
    
           -win32res:FILE
                  Specifies a Win32 resource file (.res) to be  bundled  into  the
                  resulting assembly.
    
           -win32icon:FILE
                  Attaches  the  icon  specified  in  FILE  on the output into the
                  resulting assembly.
    
           --     Use this to stop option parsing, and allow option-looking param-
    
           The compiler uses the library path to locate libraries, and is able  to
           reference  libraries  from  a  particular  package if that directory is
           used.  To simplify the use of packages, the C#  compiler  includes  the
           -pkg:  command line option that is used to load specific collections of
           libraries.
    
           Libraries visible to the compiler are stored relative to the  installa-
           tion  prefix  under  PREFIX/lib/mono/  called  the  PACKAGEBASE and the
           defaults for mcs, gmcs and smcs are as follows:
    
           mcs    References the PACKAGEBASE/1.0 directory
    
           gmcs   References the PACKAGEBASE/2.0 directory
    
           smcs   References the PACKAGEBASE/2.1 directory
    
           Those are the only runtime profiles that exist.  Although other  direc-
           tories  exist (like 3.0 and 3.5) those are not really runtime profiles,
           they are merely placeholders for extra libraries that build on the  2.0
           foundation.
    
           Software  providers will distribute software that is installed relative
           to the PACKAGEBASE directory.  This is integrated into the gacutil tool
           that not only installs public assemblies into the Global Assembly Cache
           (GAC) but also installs them into the PACKAGEBASE/PKG directory  (where
           PKG is the name passed to the -package flag to gacutil).
    
           As  a  developer,  if you want to consume the Gtk# libraries, you would
           invoke the compiler like this:
    
                $ mcs -pkg:gtk-sharp-2.0 main.cs
    
           The -pkg: option instructs the compiler to fetch  the  definitions  for
           gtk-sharp-2.0  from pkg-config, this is equivalent to passing to the C#
           compiler the output of:
    
                $ pkg-config --libs gtk-sharp-2.0
    
           Usually this merely references the libraries from PACKAGEBASE/PKG.
    
           Although there are directory names for 3.0 and 3.5, that does not  mean
           that  there  are 3.0 and 3.5 compiler editions or profiles.   Those are
           merely new libraries that must be manually referenced either  with  the
           proper -pkg: invocation, or by referencing the libraries directly.
    
    
    

    SPECIAL DEFINES

           The TRACE and DEBUG defines have a special meaning to the compiler.
    
           By  default  calls  to  methods  and  properties in the System.Diagnos-
           tics.Trace class are not generated unless the TRACE symbol  is  defined
           sion  .mdb  that  contains  the debugging information for the generated
           assembly.  This file is consumed by the Mono debugger (mdb).
    
    
    

    ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

           MCS_COLORS
                  If this variable is set, it contains a string in the form "fore-
                  ground,background"  that specifies which color to use to display
                  errors on some terminals.
    
                  The background is optional and defaults to your terminal current
                  background.    The  possible  colors  for foreground are: black,
                  red, brightred, green, brightgreen, yellow, brightyellow,  blue,
                  brightblue,  magenta,  brightmagenta,  cyan,  brightcyan,  grey,
                  white and brightwhite.
    
                  The possible colors for background are: black, red, green,  yel-
                  low, blue, magenta, cyan, grey and white.
    
                  For example, you could set these variable from your shell:
                       export MCS_COLORS
                       MCS_COLORS=errors=brightwhite,red
    
                  You  can disable the built-in color scheme by setting this vari-
                  able to "disable".
    
    
    

    NOTES

           During compilation the MCS compiler defines the __MonoCS__ symbol, this
           can  be  used by pre-processor instructions to compile Mono C# compiler
           specific code.   Please note that this symbol is only to test  for  the
           compiler,  and  is  not useful to distinguish compilation or deployment
           platforms.
    
    
    

    AUTHORS

           The Mono C# Compiler was written by Miguel de Icaza, Ravi Pratap,  Mar-
           tin  Baulig, Marek Safar and Raja Harinath.  The development was funded
           by Ximian, Novell and Marek Safar.
    
    
    

    LICENSE

           The Mono Compiler Suite is released under the terms of the GNU  GPL  or
           the  MIT X11.  Please read the accompanying 'COPYING' file for details.
           Alternative licensing for the compiler is available from Novell.
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           csharp(1), mdb(1), mono(1), mopen(1), mint(1), pkg-config(1),sn(1)
    
    
    

    BUGS

           To report bugs in the compiler, you must file them on our bug  tracking
           system, at: http://www.mono-project.com/Bugs
    
                                    6 January 2001                          mcs(1)
    
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