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           make [ -f makefile ] [ options ] ... [ targets ] ...


           This  man  page  is an extract of the documentation of GNU make.  It is
           updated only occasionally, because the GNU project does not use  nroff.
           For  complete,  current documentation, refer to the Info file
           which is made from the Texinfo source file make.texi.


           The purpose of the make utility is  to  determine  automatically  which
           pieces of a large program need to be recompiled, and issue the commands
           to recompile them.  The manual  describes  the  GNU  implementation  of
           make,  which was written by Richard Stallman and Roland McGrath, and is
           currently maintained by Paul Smith.   Our  examples  show  C  programs,
           since  they  are most common, but you can use make with any programming
           language whose compiler can be run with a shell command.  In fact, make
           is  not limited to programs.  You can use it to describe any task where
           some files must be updated automatically from others whenever the  oth-
           ers change.
           To  prepare to use make, you must write a file called the makefile that
           describes the relationships among files in your program, and the states
           the  commands for updating each file.  In a program, typically the exe-
           cutable file is updated from object files, which are in  turn  made  by
           compiling source files.
           Once  a  suitable  makefile  exists,  each  time you change some source
           files, this simple shell command:
           suffices to perform all necessary  recompilations.   The  make  program
           uses  the  makefile  data  base  and the last-modification times of the
           files to decide which of the files need to be  updated.   For  each  of
           those files, it issues the commands recorded in the data base.
           make  executes  commands  in  the makefile to update one or more target
           names, where name is typically a program.  If no -f option is  present,
           make  will  look for the makefiles GNUmakefile, makefile, and Makefile,
           in that order.
           Normally you should call your makefile  either  makefile  or  Makefile.
           (We  recommend  Makefile because it appears prominently near the begin-
           ning of a directory listing, right near other important files  such  as
           README.)   The  first name checked, GNUmakefile, is not recommended for
           most makefiles.  You should use this name if you have a  makefile  that
           is  specific  to GNU make, and will not be understood by other versions
           of make.  If makefile is '-', the standard input is read.
           make updates a target if it depends on  prerequisite  files  that  have
           been modified since the target was last modified, or if the target does
                -C /etc.  This is typically used  with  recursive  invocations  of
           -d   Print debugging information in addition to normal processing.  The
                debugging information says which files are  being  considered  for
                remaking,  which  file-times  are  being  compared  and  with what
                results, which files actually need to be  remade,  which  implicit
                rules  are considered and which are applied---everything interest-
                ing about how make decides what to do.
                Print debugging information in addition to normal processing.   If
                the  FLAGS are omitted, then the behavior is the same as if -d was
                specified.  FLAGS may be a for all debugging output (same as using
                -d),  b for basic debugging, v for more verbose basic debugging, i
                for showing implicit rules, j for details on  invocation  of  com-
                mands, and m for debugging while remaking makefiles.
           -e, --environment-overrides
                Give  variables  taken  from the environment precedence over vari-
                ables from makefiles.
           +-f file, --file=file, --makefile=FILE
                Use file as a makefile.
           -i, --ignore-errors
                Ignore all errors in commands executed to remake files.
           -I dir, --include-dir=dir
                Specifies a directory dir to search for  included  makefiles.   If
                several  -I  options  are used to specify several directories, the
                directories are searched in the order specified.  Unlike the argu-
                ments  to other flags of make, directories given with -I flags may
                come directly after the flag: -Idir is allowed, as well as -I dir.
                This syntax is allowed for compatibility with the C preprocessor's
                -I flag.
           -j [jobs], --jobs[=jobs]
                Specifies the number of jobs (commands) to run simultaneously.  If
                there  is  more than one -j option, the last one is effective.  If
                the -j option is given without an argument, make  will  not  limit
                the number of jobs that can run simultaneously.
           -k, --keep-going
                Continue  as  much  as  possible after an error.  While the target
                that failed, and those that depend on it, cannot  be  remade,  the
                other dependencies of these targets can be processed all the same.
           -l [load], --load-average[=load]
                Specifies that no new jobs (commands) should be started  if  there
                are  others  jobs running and the load average is at least load (a
                floating-point number).  With no argument, removes a previous load
           -p, --print-data-base
                Print  the data base (rules and variable values) that results from
                reading the makefiles; then execute as usual or as otherwise spec-
                ified.   This  also prints the version information given by the -v
                switch (see below).  To print the  data  base  without  trying  to
                remake any files, use make -p -f/dev/null.
           -q, --question
                ''Question  mode''.   Do  not run any commands, or print anything;
                just return an exit status that is zero if the  specified  targets
                are already up to date, nonzero otherwise.
           -r, --no-builtin-rules
                Eliminate  use of the built-in implicit rules.  Also clear out the
                default list of suffixes for suffix rules.
           -R, --no-builtin-variables
                Don't define any built-in variables.
           -s, --silent, --quiet
                Silent operation; do not print the commands as they are  executed.
           -S, --no-keep-going, --stop
                Cancel  the  effect  of  the  -k  option.  This is never necessary
                except in a recursive make where -k might be  inherited  from  the
                top-level make via MAKEFLAGS or if you set -k in MAKEFLAGS in your
           -t, --touch
                Touch files (mark them up to date without  really  changing  them)
                instead  of  running their commands.  This is used to pretend that
                the commands were done, in order to  fool  future  invocations  of
           -v, --version
                Print  the version of the make program plus a copyright, a list of
                authors and a notice that there is no warranty.
           -w, --print-directory
                Print a message containing the working directory before and  after
                other  processing.   This  may  be useful for tracking down errors
                from complicated nests of recursive make commands.
                Turn off -w, even if it was turned on implicitly.
           -W file, --what-if=file, --new-file=file, --assume-new=file
                Pretend that the target file has just been  modified.   When  used
                with  the -n flag, this shows you what would happen if you were to
                modify that file.  Without -n, it is almost the same as running  a
                touch  command  on the given file before running make, except that


           See the chapter 'Problems and Bugs' in The GNU Make Manual.


           This  manual  page  contributed by Dennis Morse of Stanford University.
           It has been reworked by Roland McGrath.  Further updates contributed by
           Mike Frysinger.


           Copyright  (C)  1992,  1993,  1996, 1999 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
           This file is part of GNU make.
           GNU make is free software; you can redistribute  it  and/or  modify  it
           under  the  terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the
           Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or  (at  your  option)  any
           later version.
           GNU make is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
           ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of  MERCHANTABILITY  or
           FITNESS  FOR  A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
           for more details.
           You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
           with  GNU  make; see the file COPYING.  If not, write to the Free Soft-
           ware  Foundation,  Inc.,  51  Franklin  St,  Fifth  Floor,  Boston,  MA
           02110-1301, USA.

    GNU 22 August 1989 MAKE(1)


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