LinuxGuruz
Toll Free Numbers
  • Last 5 Forum Topics
    Replies
    Views
    Last post


The Web Only This Site
  • BOOKMARK

  • ADD TO FAVORITES

  • REFERENCES


  • MARC

    Mailing list ARChives
    - Search by -
     Subjects
     Authors
     Bodies





    FOLDOC

    Computing Dictionary




  • Text Link Ads
  • LINUX man pages
  • Linux Man Page Viewer


    The following form allows you to view linux man pages.

    Command:

    mail

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           mailx [-BDdEFintv~] [-s subject] [-a attachment ] [-c cc-addr] [-b bcc-
                  addr] [-r from-addr] [-h hops] [-A account] [-S vari-
                  able[=value]] to-addr . . .
           mailx [-BDdeEHiInNRv~] [-T name] [-A account] [-S variable[=value]] -f
                  [name]
           mailx [-BDdeEinNRv~] [-A account] [-S variable[=value]] [-u user]
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           Mailx is an intelligent mail processing system,  which  has  a  command
           syntax  reminiscent  of  ed(1)  with lines replaced by messages.  It is
           based on Berkeley Mail 8.1, is intended to provide the functionality of
           the  POSIX  mailx  command, and offers extensions for MIME, IMAP, POP3,
           SMTP, and S/MIME.  Mailx provides  enhanced  features  for  interactive
           use,  such  as  caching  and  disconnected  operation for IMAP, message
           threading, scoring, and filtering.  It is also usable as a  mail  batch
           language, both for sending and receiving mail.
    
           The following options are accepted:
    
           -A name
                  Executes  an  account  command  (see  below)  for name after the
                  startup files have been read.
    
           -a file
                  Attach the given file to the message.
    
           -B     Make standard input and standard output line-buffered.
    
           -b address
                  Send blind carbon copies to list.  List should be a  comma-sepa-
                  rated list of names.
    
           -c address
                  Send carbon copies to list of users.
    
           -D     Start  in disconnected mode; see the description for the discon-
                  nected variable option.
    
           -d     Enables debugging messages and disables the actual  delivery  of
                  messages.  Unlike -v, this option is intended for mailx develop-
                  ment only.
    
           -e     Just check if mail is present in the system  mailbox.   If  yes,
                  return an exit status of zero, else, a non-zero value.
    
           -E     If an outgoing message does not contain any text in its first or
                  only message part, do not  send  it  but  discard  it  silently,
                  effectively   setting  the  skipemptybody  variable  at  program
                  startup.  This is  useful  for  sending  messages  from  scripts
                  started by cron(8).
    
    
           -i     Ignore tty interrupt signals.  This is particularly useful  when
                  using mailx on noisy phone lines.
    
           -I     Shows  the  'Newsgroup:'  or  'Article-Id:' fields in the header
                  summary.  Only applicable in combination with -f.
    
           -n     Inhibits reading /etc/mail.rc upon startup.  This option  should
                  be activated for mailx scripts that are invoked on more than one
                  machine, because the contents of that file  may  differ  between
                  them.
    
           -N     Inhibits  the  initial  display  of message headers when reading
                  mail or editing a mail folder.
    
           -q file
                  Start the message with the contents of the specified file.   May
                  be given in send mode only.
    
           -r address
                  Sets  the From address. Overrides any from variable specified in
                  environment or startup files.  Tilde escapes are disabled.   The
                  -r  address options are passed to the mail transfer agent unless
                  SMTP is used.  This option exists for compatibility only; it  is
                  recommended to set the from variable directly instead.
    
           -R     Opens any folders read-only.
    
           -s subject
                  Specify  subject  on command line (only the first argument after
                  the -s flag is used as a subject; be careful to  quote  subjects
                  containing spaces).
    
           -S variable[=value]
                  Sets  the  internal  option  variable  and,  in case of a string
                  option, assigns value to it.
    
           -T name
                  Writes the 'Message-Id:' and 'Article-Id:' header fields of each
                  message  read  in  the file name.  Implies -I.  Compressed files
                  are handled as described for the folder command below.
    
           -t     The message to be sent is expected to contain a  message  header
                  with  'To:',  'Cc:',  or  'Bcc:'  fields  giving its recipients.
                  Recipients specified on the command line are ignored.
    
           -u user
                  Reads the mailbox of the given user name.
    
           -v     Verbose mode.  The details of  delivery  are  displayed  on  the
                  user's terminal.
    
           out  of the post office, then prints out a one line header of each mes-
           sage found.  The current message is initially the first  message  (num-
           bered 1) and can be printed using the print command which can be abbre-
           viated 'p').  The user can move among the messages  much  as  he  moves
           between  lines in ed(1), with the commands '+' and '-' moving backwards
           and forwards, and simple numbers.
    
       Disposing of mail
           After examining a message the user can delete 'd') the message or reply
           'r') to it.  Deletion causes the mailx program to forget about the mes-
           sage.  This is not irreversible; the message can be undeleted  'u')  by
           giving  its  number,  or the mailx session can be aborted by giving the
           exit 'x') command.  Deleted messages will, however,  usually  disappear
           never to be seen again.
    
       Specifying messages
           Commands  such  as print and delete can be given a list of message num-
           bers as arguments to apply to a  number  of  messages  at  once.   Thus
           'delete  1 2' deletes messages 1 and 2, while 'delete 1-5' deletes mes-
           sages 1 through 5.  In sorted or threaded mode (see the sort and thread
           commands),  'delete  1-5' deletes the messages that are located between
           (and including) messages 1 through 5 in the sorted/threaded  order,  as
           shown  in  the  header  summary.   The  following special message names
           exist:
    
           :n     All new messages.
    
           :o     All old messages (any not in state read or new).
    
           :u     All unread messages.
    
           :d     All deleted messages (for the undelete command).
    
           :r     All read messages.
    
           :f     All 'flagged' messages.
    
           :a     All answered messages (cf. the markanswered variable).
    
           :t     All messages marked as draft.
    
           :k     All 'killed' messages.
    
           :j     All messages classified as junk.
    
           .      The current message.
    
           ;      The message that was previously the current message.
    
           ,      The parent message of the current message, that is  the  message
                  with  the  Message-ID  given  in the 'In-Reply-To:' field or the
                  last entry of the 'References:' field of the current message.
    
           $      The  last message.  In sorted/threaded mode, the last message in
                  the sorted/threaded order.
    
           &x     In threaded mode, selects the message addressed with x, where  x
                  is  any  other  message specification, and all messages from the
                  thread that begins at it.  Otherwise, it is identical to x.   If
                  x  is  omitted, the thread beginning with the current message is
                  selected.
    
           *      All messages.
    
           '      All messages that were included in the message list for the pre-
                  vious command.
    
           /string
                  All  messages  that  contain  string  in the subject field (case
                  ignored).  See also the searchheaders variable.   If  string  is
                  empty,  the  string from the previous specification of that type
                  is used again.
    
           address
                  All messages from address.
    
           (criterion)
                  All messages that satisfy the given IMAP-style SEARCH criterion.
                  This addressing mode is available with all types of folders; for
                  folders not located on IMAP servers, or for  servers  unable  to
                  execute  the  SEARCH  command,  mailx  will  perform  the search
                  locally.  Strings must be enclosed by double quotes '"' in their
                  entirety  if they contain white space or parentheses; within the
                  quotes, only backslash '\' is recognized as an escape character.
                  All  string searches are case-insensitive.  When the description
                  indicates that the 'envelope' representation of an address field
                  is  used,  this  means that the search string is checked against
                  both a list constructed as
    
                  ("real name" "source-route" "local-part" "domain-part")
    
                  for each address, and the addresses without real names from  the
                  respective header field.  Criteria can be nested using parenthe-
                  ses.
    
           (criterion1 criterion2 ... criterionN)
                  All messages that satisfy all of the given criteria.
    
           (or criterion1 criterion2)
                  All messages that satisfy either criterion1  or  criterion2,  or
                  both.  To connect more than two criteria using 'or', (or) speci-
                  fications have to be nested  using  additional  parentheses,  as
                  with  '(or a (or b c))';  '(or a b c)'  means  ((a or b) and c).
                  For a simple 'or' operation of independent criteria on the  low-
                  est  nesting level, it is possible to achieve similar effects by
                  All messages that contain string in the  'envelope'  representa-
                  tion of the From: field.
    
           (subject string)
                  All messages that contain string in the Subject: field.
    
           (to string)
                  All  messages  that contain string in the 'envelope' representa-
                  tion of the To: field.
    
           (header name string)
                  All messages that contain string in the specified Name: field.
    
           (body string)
                  All messages that contain string in their body.
    
           (text string)
                  All messages that contain string in their header or body.
    
           (larger size)
                  All messages that are larger than size (in bytes).
    
           (smaller size)
                  All messages that are smaller than size (in bytes).
    
           (before date)
                  All messages that were received before date; date must be in the
                  form d[d]-mon-yyyy, where d[d] is the day of the month as one or
                  two digits, mon is the name of the month--one  of  'Jan',  'Feb',
                  'Mar',  'Apr',  'May', 'Jun', 'Jul', 'Aug', 'Sep', 'Oct', 'Nov',
                  or  'Dec',  and  yyyy  is  the  year  as   four   digits;   e.g.
                  "30-Aug-2004".
    
           (on date)
                  All messages that were received on the specified date.
    
           (since date)
                  All messages that were received since the specified date.
    
           (sentbefore date)
                  All messages that were sent on the specified date.
    
           (senton date)
                  All messages that were sent on the specified date.
    
           (sentsince date)
                  All messages that were sent since the specified date.
    
           ()     The  same criterion as for the previous search.  This specifica-
                  tion cannot be used as part of another criterion.  If the previ-
                  ous  command line contained more than one independent criterion,
                  the last of those criteria is used.
    
           attach files to it and allow the user to escape to an editor to  revise
           the  message  or  to  a shell to run some commands.  (These options are
           given in the summary below.)
    
       Ending a mail processing session
           The user can end a mailx session with the quit ('q') command.  Messages
           which  have  been  examined go to the user's mbox file unless they have
           been deleted in which case they are discarded.  Unexamined messages  go
           back to the post office.  (See the -f option above).
    
       Personal and systemwide distribution lists
           It  is  also  possible to create a personal distribution lists so that,
           for instance, the user can send mail to 'cohorts' and have it go  to  a
           group of people.  Such lists can be defined by placing a line like
    
                   alias cohorts bill ozalp jkf mark kridle@ucbcory
    
           in  the file .mailrc in the user's home directory.  The current list of
           such aliases can be displayed with the alias command in mailx.   System
           wide  distribution  lists  can  be created by editing /etc/aliases, see
           aliases(5) and sendmail(8); these are kept in a different  syntax.   In
           mail  the user sends, personal aliases will be expanded in mail sent to
           others so that they will be able to reply to  the  recipients.   System
           wide  aliases  are  not  expanded  when the mail is sent, but any reply
           returned to the machine will have the system wide alias expanded as all
           mail goes through sendmail.
    
       Recipient address specifications
           If  the expandaddr option is not set (the default), recipient addresses
           must be names of local mailboxes or Internet mail addresses.
    
           If the expandaddr option is set, the following  rules  apply:  When  an
           address  is  used to name a recipient (in any of To, Cc, or Bcc), names
           of local mail folders and pipes to external commands can also be speci-
           fied;  the  message  text  is then written to them.  The rules are: Any
           name which starts with a '|' character specifies a  pipe,  the  command
           string  following  the  '|'  is executed and the message is sent to its
           standard input; any other  name  which  contains  a  '@'  character  is
           treated as a mail address; any other name which starts with a '+' char-
           acter specifies a folder name; any other  name  which  contains  a  '/'
           character  but  no '!'  or '%' character before also specifies a folder
           name; what remains is treated as a mail  address.   Compressed  folders
           are handled as described for the folder command below.
    
       Network mail (Internet / ARPA, UUCP, Berknet)
           See  mailaddr(7)  for  a description of network addresses.  Mailx has a
           number of options which can be set in the .mailrc  file  to  alter  its
           behavior;  thus  'set askcc' enables the askcc feature.  (These options
           are summarized below).
    
       MIME types
           For any outgoing attachment, mailx tries to determine the content type.
    
       Character sets
           Mailx normally detects the character set  of  the  terminal  using  the
           LC_CTYPE  locale  setting.  If the locale cannot be used appropriately,
           the ttycharset variable should be set to  provide  an  explicit  value.
           When  reading messages, their text is converted to the terminal charac-
           ter set if possible.  Unprintable characters and illegal byte sequences
           are  detected and replaced by Unicode substitute characters or question
           marks unless the print-all-chars is set at initialization time.
    
           The character set for outgoing messages is not necessarily the same  as
           the  one  used  on  the terminal.  If an outgoing text message contains
           characters not representable in US-ASCII, the character set being  used
           must be declared within its header.  Permissible values can be declared
           using the sendcharsets variable, separated by commas; mailx tries  each
           of the values in order and uses the first appropriate one.  If the mes-
           sage contains characters that cannot be represented in any of the given
           character  sets,  the  message  will  not be sent, and its text will be
           saved to the 'dead.letter' file.  Messages that contain NUL  bytes  are
           not converted.
    
           Outgoing  attachments  are  converted  if  they are plain text.  If the
           sendcharsets variable contains more than one character set name, the ~@
           tilde escape will ask for the character sets for individual attachments
           if it is invoked without arguments.
    
           Best results are usually achieved when mailx is run in a  UTF-8  locale
           on  a  UTF-8  capable terminal.  In this setup, characters from various
           countries can be displayed, while it is still possible to use more sim-
           ple  character  sets  for  sending to retain maximum compatibility with
           older mail clients.
    
       Commands
           Each command is typed on a line by itself, and may take arguments  fol-
           lowing the command word.  The command need not be typed in its entirety
           - the first command which matches the typed prefix is used.   For  com-
           mands  which  take  message  lists  as arguments, if no message list is
           given, then the next message  forward  which  satisfies  the  command's
           requirements  is used.  If there are no messages forward of the current
           message, the search proceeds backwards, and if there are no  good  mes-
           sages at all, mailx types 'applicable messages' and aborts the command.
           If the command begins with a # sign, the line is ignored.
    
           The arguments to commands can be quoted, using the following methods:
    
           ?      An argument can be enclosed between paired double-quotes  ""  or
                  single-quotes  '';  any  white  space,  shell word expansion, or
                  backslash characters within the quotes are treated literally  as
                  part  of the argument.  A double-quote will be treated literally
                  within single-quotes and vice versa. These special properties of
                  the quote marks occur only when they are paired at the beginning
                  and end of the argument.
                  folder variable is unset or is set to null, the filename will be
                  unchanged.
    
           ?      Shell word expansions are applied to the filename.  If more than
                  a single pathname results from this expansion and the command is
                  expecting one file, an error results.
    
           The following commands are provided:
    
           -      Print out the preceding message.  If given a numeric argument n,
                  goes to the n'th previous message and prints it.
    
           ?      Prints a brief summary of commands.
    
           !      Executes the shell (see sh(1) and csh(1)) command which follows.
    
           |      A synonym for the pipe command.
    
           account
                  (ac) Creates, selects or lists an email account.  An account  is
                  formed  by  a group of commands, primarily of those to set vari-
                  ables.  With two arguments, of which the second is  a  '{',  the
                  first  argument  gives  an account name, and the following lines
                  create a group of commands for that account until  a  line  con-
                  taining a single '}' appears.  With one argument, the previously
                  created group of commands for the account name is executed,  and
                  a  folder command is executed for the system mailbox or inbox of
                  that account.  Without arguments, the list of accounts and their
                  contents are printed.  As an example,
    
                      account myisp {
                          set folder=imaps://mylogin@imap.myisp.example
                          set record=+Sent
                          set from="myname@myisp.example (My Name)"
                          set smtp=smtp.myisp.example
                      }
    
                  creates  an account named 'myisp' which can later be selected by
                  specifying 'account myisp'.
    
           alias  (a) With no arguments, prints out all currently-defined aliases.
                  With  one  argument,  prints out that alias.  With more than one
                  argument, creates a new alias or changes an old one.
    
           alternates
                  (alt) The alternates command is useful if the user has  accounts
                  on  several  machines.   It can be used to inform mailx that the
                  listed addresses all belong  to  the  invoking  user.   When  he
                  replies  to  messages, mailx will not send a copy of the message
                  to any of the addresses listed on the alternates list.   If  the
                  alternates command is given with no argument, the current set of
                  alternate names is displayed.
    
           certsave
                  Only applicable to S/MIME signed messages.  Takes a message list
                  and  a file name and saves the certificates contained within the
                  message signatures to the named file in both human-readable  and
                  PEM  format.   The  certificates  can  later  be  used  to  send
                  encrypted messages to the messages' originators by  setting  the
                  smime-encrypt-user@host variable.
    
           chdir  (ch)  Changes the user's working directory to that specified, if
                  given.  If no directory is given, then  changes  to  the  user's
                  login directory.
    
           classify
                  (cl)  Takes  a  list of messages and examines their contents for
                  characteristics of junk mail using Bayesian filtering.  Messages
                  considered  to  be  junk are then marked as such.  The junk mail
                  database is not changed.
    
           collapse
                  (coll) Only applicable to threaded mode.  Takes a  message  list
                  and makes all replies to these messages invisible in header sum-
                  maries, unless they are in state 'new'.
    
           connect
                  (conn) If operating in disconnected mode  on  an  IMAP  mailbox,
                  switch  to  online  mode  and  connect  to the mail server while
                  retaining the mailbox status.  See the description of  the  dis-
                  connected variable for more information.
    
           copy   (c)  The copy command does the same thing that save does, except
                  that it does not mark the messages it is used  on  for  deletion
                  when  the  user  quits.  Compressed files and IMAP mailboxes are
                  handled as described for the folder command.
    
           Copy   (C) Similar to copy, but saves the  messages  in  a  file  named
                  after the local part of the sender address of the first message.
    
           decrypt
                  (dec) For unencrypted messages, this  command  is  identical  to
                  copy.   Encrypted messages are first decrypted, if possible, and
                  then copied.
    
           Decrypt
                  (Dec) Similar to decrypt, but saves the messages in a file named
                  after the local part of the sender address of the first message.
    
           define (def) Defines a macro.  A macro definition is a sequence of com-
                  mands in the following form:
    
                      define name {
                          command1
                          command2
    
           discard
                  Same as ignore.
    
           disconnect
                  (disco)  If  operating in online mode on an IMAP mailbox, switch
                  to disconnected mode while retaining the  mailbox  status.   See
                  the  description  of the disconnected variable for more informa-
                  tion.  A list of messages may optionally be given  as  argument;
                  the  respective messages are then read into the cache before the
                  connection is closed.  Thus 'disco *' makes the  entire  current
                  mailbox available for disconnected use.
    
           dp or dt
                  Deletes  the  current  message  and prints the next message.  If
                  there is no next message, mailx says 'at EOF'.
    
           draft  Takes a message list and marks each message as  a  draft.   This
                  mark has no technical meaning in the mail system; it just causes
                  messages to be marked in the header summary, and makes them spe-
                  cially addressable.
    
           echo   Echoes  its arguments, resolving special names as documented for
                  the folder command.  The  escape  sequences  '\a',  '\b',  '\c',
                  '\f',  '\n', '\r', '\t', '\v', '\\', and '\0num' are interpreted
                  as with the echo(1) command.
    
           edit   (e) Takes a list of messages and points the text editor at  each
                  one  in turn.  Modified contents are discarded unless the write-
                  backedited variable is set.
    
           else   Marks the end of the then-part of an if statement and the begin-
                  ning  of  the  part  to  take  effect if the condition of the if
                  statement is false.
    
           endif  Marks the end of an if statement.
    
           exit   (ex or x) Effects an immediate return to the Shell without modi-
                  fying the user's system mailbox, his mbox file, or his edit file
                  in -f.
    
           file   (fi) The same as folder.
    
           flag   (fl) Takes a message list and marks the  messages  as  'flagged'
                  for  urgent/special attention.  This mark has no technical mean-
                  ing in the mail system; it just  causes  messages  to  be  high-
                  lighted in the header summary, and makes them specially address-
                  able.
    
           folders
                  With no arguments, list the names of the folders in  the  folder
                  directory.   With  an existing folder as an argument, lists then
                  the mbox and save commands.  If the  name  matches  one  of  the
                  strings defined with the shortcut command, it is replaced by its
                  long form and expanded.  If the name ends with .gz or  .bz2,  it
                  is treated as compressed with gzip(1) or bzip2(1), respectively.
                  Likewise, if name does not exist, but either name.gz or name.bz2
                  exists, the compressed file is used.  If name refers to a direc-
                  tory with the subdirectories 'tmp',  'new',  and  'cur',  it  is
                  treated as a folder in maildir format.  A name of the form
    
                         protocol://[user@]host[:port][/file]
    
                  is  taken  as  an Internet mailbox specification.  The supported
                  protocols are currently  imap  (IMAP  v4r1),  imaps  (IMAP  with
                  SSL/TLS  encryption),  pop3 (POP3), and pop3s (POP3 with SSL/TLS
                  encryption).  If user contains special characters, in particular
                  '/'  or  '%',  they must be escaped in URL notation, as '%2F' or
                  '%25'.  The optional file part applies to IMAP only;  if  it  is
                  omitted,  the default 'INBOX' is used.  If mailx is connected to
                  an IMAP server, a name of the form @mailbox refers to the  mail-
                  box  on that server.  If the 'folder' variable refers to an IMAP
                  account, the special  name  '%'  selects  the  'INBOX'  on  that
                  account.
    
           Followup
                  (F)  Similar  to  Respond, but saves the message in a file named
                  after the local part of the first recipient's address.
    
           followup
                  (fo) Similar to respond, but saves the message in a  file  named
                  after the local part of the first recipient's address.
    
           followupall
                  Similar  to  followup, but responds to all recipients regardless
                  of the flipr and Replyall variables.
    
           followupsender
                  Similar to Followup, but responds to the sender only  regardless
                  of the flipr and Replyall variables.
    
           forward
                  (fwd)  Takes  a  message and the address of a recipient and for-
                  wards the message to him.  The text of the original  message  is
                  included  in the new one, with the value of the fwdheading vari-
                  able printed before.  The fwdignore and fwdretain commands spec-
                  ify  which  header fields are included in the new message.  Only
                  the first part of a multipart message  is  included  unless  the
                  forward-as-attachment option is set.
    
           Forward
                  (Fwd)  Similar to forward, but saves the message in a file named
                  after the local part of the recipient's address.
    
           good   (go) Takes a list of messages and marks all of them as not being
                  junk  mail.   Data from these messages is then inserted into the
                  junk mail database for future classification.
    
           headers
                  (h) Lists the current range of headers, which is  an  18-message
                  group.   If  a  '+'  argument is given, then the next 18-message
                  group is printed, and if a '-' argument is given,  the  previous
                  18-message group is printed.
    
           help   A synonym for ?.
    
           hold   (ho,  also preserve) Takes a message list and marks each message
                  therein to be saved in the user's system mailbox instead  of  in
                  mbox.   Does  not  override  the delete command.  mailx deviates
                  from the POSIX standard with this command, as a  'next'  command
                  issued  after 'hold' will display the following message, not the
                  current one.
    
           if     Commands in mailx's startup files can be executed  conditionally
                  depending  on whether the user is sending or receiving mail with
                  the if command.  For example:
    
                          if receive
                                  commands . . .
                          endif
    
                  An else form is also available:
    
                          if receive
                                  commands . . .
                          else
                                  commands . . .
                          endif
    
                  Note that the only allowed conditions  are  receive,  send,  and
                  term (execute command if standard input is a tty).
    
           ignore Add the list of header fields named to the ignored list.  Header
                  fields in the ignore list are not printed on the terminal when a
                  message  is printed.  This command is very handy for suppression
                  of certain machine-generated header fields.  The Type and  Print
                  commands can be used to print a message in its entirety, includ-
                  ing ignored fields.  If ignore is executed with no arguments, it
                  lists the current set of ignored fields.
    
           imap   Sends  command  strings  directly  to  the  current IMAP server.
                  Mailx operates always in IMAP  selected  state  on  the  current
                  mailbox;  commands  that  change  this  will produce undesirable
                  results and should be avoided.  Useful IMAP commands are:
    
                  create Takes the name of an IMAP mailbox as an argument and cre-
                         servers support this command.
    
           inc    Same as newmail.
    
           junk   (j) Takes a list of messages and marks all of them as junk mail.
                  Data from these messages is then inserted  into  the  junk  mail
                  database for future classification.
    
           kill   (k)  Takes a list of messages and 'kills' them.  Killed messages
                  are not printed in header summaries, and are ignored by the next
                  command.   The  kill command also sets the score of the messages
                  to negative infinity, so that subsequent score commands will not
                  unkill  them  again.   Killing is only effective for the current
                  session on a folder; when it is quit, all messages are automati-
                  cally unkilled.
    
           list   Prints the names of all available commands.
    
           Mail   (M) Similar to mail, but saves the message in a file named after
                  the local part of the first recipient's address.
    
           mail   (m) Takes as argument login names and distribution  group  names
                  and sends mail to those people.
    
           mbox   Indicate  that  a list of messages be sent to mbox in the user's
                  home directory when mailx is quit.  This is the  default  action
                  for  messages  if unless the hold option is set.  mailx deviates
                  from the POSIX standard with this command, as a  'next'  command
                  issued  after 'mbox' will display the following message, not the
                  current one.
    
           move   (mv) Acts like copy, but marks the messages for deletion if they
                  were transferred successfully.
    
           Move   (Mv)  Similar  to  move,  but moves the messages to a file named
                  after the local part of the sender address of the first message.
    
           newmail
                  Checks for new mail in the current folder without committing any
                  changes before.  If new mail is present, a message  is  printed.
                  If  the  header variable is set, the headers of each new message
                  are also printed.
    
           next   (n) like + or CR) Goes to the next message in sequence and types
                  it.  With an argument list, types the next matching message.
    
           New    Same as unread.
    
           new    Same as unread.
    
           online Same as connect.
    
    
           Print  (P) Like print but also prints out ignored header fields and all
                  parts of MIME multipart/alternative messages.  See  also  print,
                  ignore, and retain.
    
           print  (p)  Takes  a  message  list  and  types out each message on the
                  user's terminal.  If the message is a  MIME  multipart  message,
                  all  parts with a content type of 'text' or 'message' are shown,
                  the other are hidden except for  their  headers.   Messages  are
                  decrypted  and converted to the terminal character set if neces-
                  sary.
    
           probability
                  (prob) For each word given as argument, the contents of its junk
                  mail database entry are printed.
    
           quit   (q)  Terminates  the session, saving all undeleted, unsaved mes-
                  sages in the user's mbox file in his login directory, preserving
                  all messages marked with hold or preserve or never referenced in
                  his system mailbox, and removing all  other  messages  from  his
                  system mailbox.  If new mail has arrived during the session, the
                  message 'You have new mail' is given.  If given while editing  a
                  mailbox  file with the -f flag, then the edit file is rewritten.
                  A return to the Shell is effected, unless the  rewrite  of  edit
                  file fails, in which case the user can escape with the exit com-
                  mand.
    
           redirect
                  (red) Same as resend.
    
           Redirect
                  (Red) Same as Resend.
    
           remove (rem) Removes the named folders.  The user is asked for  confir-
                  mation in interactive mode.
    
           rename (ren)  Takes the name of an existing folder and the name for the
                  new folder and renames the first to the second one.  Both  fold-
                  ers  must be of the same type and must be located on the current
                  server for IMAP.
    
           Reply  (R) Reply to originator.  Does not reply to other recipients  of
                  the original message.
    
           reply  (r)  Takes  a  message list and sends mail to the sender and all
                  recipients of the specified message.  The default  message  must
                  not be deleted.
    
           replyall
                  Similar  to  reply, but responds to all recipients regardless of
                  the flipr and Replyall variables.
    
    
           respond
                  Same as reply.
    
           respondall
                  Same as replyall.
    
           respondsender
                  Same as replysender.
    
           retain Add  the list of header fields named to the retained list.  Only
                  the header fields in the retain list are shown on  the  terminal
                  when  a  message  is  printed.  All other header fields are sup-
                  pressed.  The Type and Print commands can be  used  to  print  a
                  message  in  its  entirety.  If retain is executed with no argu-
                  ments, it lists the current set of retained fields.
    
           Save   (S) Similar to save, but saves the  messages  in  a  file  named
                  after  the local part of the sender of the first message instead
                  of taking a filename argument.
    
           save   (s) Takes a message list and a filename and appends each message
                  in  turn  to  the end of the file.  If no filename is given, the
                  mbox file is used.  The filename in quotes, followed by the line
                  count  and character count is echoed on the user's terminal.  If
                  editing a system mailbox, the messages are marked for  deletion.
                  Compressed files and IMAP mailboxes are handled as described for
                  the -f command line option above.
    
           savediscard
                  Same as saveignore.
    
           saveignore
                  Saveignore is to save what ignore is to print and type.   Header
                  fields  thus  marked  are  filtered out when saving a message by
                  save or when automatically saving to mbox.  This command  should
                  only be applied to header fields that do not contain information
                  needed to decode the message, as MIME  content  fields  do.   If
                  saving  messages  on  an  IMAP account, ignoring fields makes it
                  impossible to copy the data directly on the server, thus  opera-
                  tion usually becomes much slower.
    
           saveretain
                  Saveretain  is to save what retain is to print and type.  Header
                  fields thus marked are the only ones saved with a  message  when
                  saving by save or when automatically saving to mbox.  Saveretain
                  overrides saveignore.  The use of this command is strongly  dis-
                  couraged  since  it  may  strip header fields that are needed to
                  decode the message correctly.
    
           score  (sc) Takes a message list and a floating point number  and  adds
                  the  number  to  the  score of each given message.  All messages
                  able ('unset save').
    
           seen   Takes a message list and marks all messages as having been read.
    
           shell  (sh) Invokes an interactive version of the shell.
    
           shortcut
                  Defines  a  shortcut  name  and  its  string  for  expansion, as
                  described for the folder command.  With no arguments, a list  of
                  defined shortcuts is printed.
    
           show   (Sh)  Like print, but performs neither MIME decoding nor decryp-
                  tion so that the raw message text is shown.
    
           size   Takes a message list and prints out the size  in  characters  of
                  each message.
    
           sort   Create a sorted representation of the current folder, and change
                  the next command and the addressing modes such that  they  refer
                  to  messages  in the sorted order.  Message numbers are the same
                  as in regular mode.  If the header variable  is  set,  a  header
                  summary in the new order is also printed.  Possible sorting cri-
                  teria are:
    
                  date   Sort the messages by their 'Date:' field, that is by  the
                         time they were sent.
    
                  from   Sort  messages  by the value of their 'From:' field, that
                         is by the address of the sender.  If the  showname  vari-
                         able is set, the sender's real name (if any) is used.
    
                  size   Sort the messages by their size.
    
                  score  Sort the messages by their score.
    
                  status Sort  the  messages  by  their message status (new, read,
                         old, etc.).
    
                  subject
                         Sort the messages by their subject.
    
                  thread Create a threaded order, as with the thread command.
    
                  to     Sort messages by the value of their 'To:' field, that  is
                         by  the  address of the recipient.  If the showname vari-
                         able is set, the recipient's real name (if any) is  used.
    
                  If  no  argument  is  given,  the  current  sorting criterion is
                  printed.
    
           source The source command reads commands from a file.
    
                  command, as a 'next' command issued after  'mbox'  will  display
                  the following message, not the current one.
    
           Type   (T) Identical to the Print command.
    
           type   (t) A synonym for print.
    
           unalias
                  Takes a list of names defined by alias commands and discards the
                  remembered groups of users.  The group names no longer have  any
                  significance.
    
           unanswered
                  Takes  a  message list and marks each message as not having been
                  answered.
    
           uncollapse
                  (unc) Only applicable to threaded mode.  Takes  a  message  list
                  and  makes  the  message and all replies to it visible in header
                  summaries again.  When a message becomes the current message, it
                  is  automatically  made  visible.  Also when a message with col-
                  lapsed replies is printed, all of these are automatically uncol-
                  lapsed.
    
           undef  Undefines each of the named macros.  It is not an error to use a
                  name that does not  belong  to  one  of  the  currently  defined
                  macros.
    
           undelete
                  (u)  Takes  a  message  list and marks each message as not being
                  deleted.
    
           undraft
                  Takes a message list and marks each message as a draft.
    
           unflag Takes a message  list  and  marks  each  message  as  not  being
                  'flagged'.
    
           unfwdignore
                  Removes  the  header field names from the list of ignored fields
                  for the forward command.
    
           unfwdretain
                  Removes the header field names from the list of retained  fields
                  for the forward command.
    
           ungood Takes  a  message  list  and undoes the effect of a good command
                  that was previously applied on exactly these messages.
    
           unignore
                  Removes the header field names from the list of ignored  fields.
    
           unsaveignore
                  Removes  the  header field names from the list of ignored fields
                  for saving.
    
           unsaveretain
                  Removes the header field names from the list of retained  fields
                  for saving.
    
           unset  Takes  a list of option names and discards their remembered val-
                  ues; the inverse of set.
    
           unshortcut
                  Deletes the shortcut names given as arguments.
    
           unsort Disable sorted or threaded mode (see the sort  and  thread  com-
                  mands),  return to normal message order and, if the header vari-
                  able is set, print a header summary.
    
           unthread
                  (unth) Same as unsort.
    
           verify (verif) Takes a message list and verifies each  message.   If  a
                  message  is not an S/MIME signed message, verification will fail
                  for it.  The verification process  checks  if  the  message  was
                  signed  using a valid certificate, if the message sender's email
                  address matches one of those contained within  the  certificate,
                  and if the message content has been altered.
    
           visual (v)  Takes a message list and invokes the display editor on each
                  message.  Modified contents  are  discarded  unless  the  write-
                  backedited variable is set.
    
           write  (w)  For  conventional messages, the body without all headers is
                  written.  The output is decrypted and converted  to  its  native
                  format,  if  necessary.   If the output file exists, the text is
                  appended.--If a message is in MIME multipart  format,  its  first
                  part  is  written to the specified file as for conventional mes-
                  sages, and the user is asked for a filename to save  each  other
                  part;  if  the  contents  of the first part are not to be saved,
                  'write /dev/null' can be used.  For the  second  and  subsequent
                  parts,  if  the  filename given starts with a '|' character, the
                  part is piped through the remainder of the filename  interpreted
                  as  a shell command.  In non-interactive mode, only the parts of
                  the multipart message that have a filename  given  in  the  part
                  header  are written, the other are discarded.  The original mes-
                  sage is never  marked  for  deletion  in  the  originating  mail
                  folder.   For  attachments, the contents of the destination file
                  are overwritten if the file previously existed.  No special han-
                  dling of compressed files is performed.
    
           xit    (x) A synonym for exit.
    
           nized at the beginning of lines.  The name 'tilde escape'  is  somewhat
           of  a  misnomer  since  the  actual  escape character can be set by the
           option escape.
    
           ~!command
                  Execute the indicated shell command, then return to the message.
    
           ~.     Same effect as typing the end-of-file character.
    
           ~<filename
                  Identical to ~r.
    
           ~<!command
                  Command  is  executed  using  the shell.  Its standard output is
                  inserted into the message.
    
           ~@ [filename . . . ]
                  With no arguments, edit the attachment list.   First,  the  user
                  can  edit all existing attachment data.  If an attachment's file
                  name is left empty, that attachment is deleted  from  the  list.
                  When  the  end of the attachment list is reached, mailx will ask
                  for further attachments, until an empty file name is given.   If
                  filename  arguments  are  specified, all of them are appended to
                  the end of the attachment list.  Filenames which  contain  white
                  space  can  only be specified with the first method (no filename
                  arguments).
    
           ~A     Inserts the string contained in the Sign variable (same  as  '~i
                  Sign').   The  escape  sequences '\t' (tabulator) and '\n' (new-
                  line) are understood.
    
           ~a     Inserts the string contained in the sign variable (same  as  '~i
                  sign').   The  escape  sequences '\t' (tabulator) and '\n' (new-
                  line) are understood.
    
           ~bname . . .
                  Add the given names to the list of carbon copy recipients but do
                  not  make  the  names  visible  in  the Cc: line ('blind' carbon
                  copy).
    
           ~cname . . .
                  Add the given names to the list of carbon copy recipients.
    
           ~d     Read the file 'dead.letter' from the user's home directory  into
                  the message.
    
           ~e     Invoke  the  text editor on the message collected so far.  After
                  the editing session is finished, the user may continue appending
                  text to the message.
    
           ~fmessages
                  Read the named messages into the message being sent.  If no mes-
    
           ~H     Edit  the message header fields 'From:', 'Reply-To:', 'Sender:',
                  and 'Organization:' in the same manner as described for ~h.  The
                  default  values  for  these  fields  originate  from  the  from,
                  replyto, and ORGANIZATION variables.  If this tilde command  has
                  been  used,  changing the variables has no effect on the current
                  message anymore.
    
           ~ivariable
                  Insert the value of the  specified  variable  into  the  message
                  adding a newline character at the end.  If the variable is unset
                  or empty, the message remains unaltered.  The  escape  sequences
                  '\t' (tabulator) and '\n' (newline) are understood.
    
           ~mmessages
                  Read the named messages into the message being sent, indented by
                  a tab or by the value of indentprefix.  If no messages are spec-
                  ified,  read  the  current  message.   Message headers currently
                  being  ignored  (by  the  ignore  or  retain  command)  are  not
                  included.  For MIME multipart messages, only the first printable
                  part is included.
    
           ~Mmessages
                  Identical to ~m, except all message headers and all  MIME  parts
                  are included.
    
           ~p     Print  out the message collected so far, prefaced by the message
                  header fields and followed by the attachment list, if  any.   If
                  the  message  text  is  longer than the screen size, it is piped
                  through the pager.
    
           ~q     Abort the message being sent, copying the message to  'dead.let-
                  ter' in the user's home directory if save is set.
    
           ~rfilename
                  Read the named file into the message.
    
           ~sstring
                  Cause the named string to become the current subject field.
    
           ~tname . . .
                  Add the given names to the direct recipient list.
    
           ~v     Invoke an alternate editor (defined by the VISUAL option) on the
                  message collected so far.  Usually, the alternate editor will be
                  a  screen editor.  After the editor is quit, the user may resume
                  appending text to the end of the message.
    
           ~wfilename
                  Write the message onto the named file.  If the file exists,  the
                  message is appended to it.
    
           ~x     Same  as  ~q,  except  that  the  message  is  not  saved to the
    
           ~~string
                  Insert the string of text in the message prefaced by a single ~.
                  If the escape character has been changed, that character must be
                  doubled in order to send it at the beginning of a line.
    
       Variable options
           Options are controlled via set and unset commands,  see  their  entries
           for  a  syntax  description.   An option is also set if it is passed to
           mailx as part of the environment (this is not  restricted  to  specific
           variables  as  in the POSIX standard).  A value given in a startup file
           overrides a value imported from the environment.  Options may be either
           binary,  in  which  case it is only significant to see whether they are
           set or not; or string, in which case the actual value is of interest.
    
       Binary options
           The binary options include the following:
    
           allnet Causes only the  local  part  to  be  evaluated  when  comparing
                  addresses.
    
           append Causes  messages  saved in mbox to be appended to the end rather
                  than prepended.  This should always be set.
    
           ask or asksub
                  Causes mailx to prompt for the subject of each message sent.  If
                  the  user  responds with simply a newline, no subject field will
                  be sent.
    
           askatend
                  Causes the prompts for 'Cc:' and 'Bcc:' lists  to  appear  after
                  the message has been edited.
    
           askattach
                  If  set,  mailx asks for files to attach at the end of each mes-
                  sage.  Responding with a newline indicates  not  to  include  an
                  attachment.
    
           askcc  Causes the user to be prompted for additional carbon copy recip-
                  ients (at the end of each message if askatend  or  bsdcompat  is
                  set).   Responding with a newline indicates the user's satisfac-
                  tion with the current list.
    
           askbcc Causes the user to be prompted for additional blind carbon  copy
                  recipients  (at the end of each message if askatend or bsdcompat
                  is set).  Responding with a newline indicates the user's  satis-
                  faction with the current list.
    
           asksign
                  Causes the user to be prompted if the message is to be signed at
                  the end of each message.  The  smime-sign  variable  is  ignored
                  when this variable is set.
                  automatically when a folder is opened.
    
           bang   Enables the substitution of '!'  by the  contents  of  the  last
                  command line in shell escapes.
    
           bsdannounce
                  Causes  automatic  display of a header summary after executing a
                  folder command.
    
           bsdcompat
                  Sets some cosmetical features to traditional BSD style; has  the
                  same  affect  as setting 'askatend' and all other variables pre-
                  fixed with 'bsd', setting  prompt  to  '& ',  and  changing  the
                  default pager to more.
    
           bsdflags
                  Changes the letters printed in the first column of a header sum-
                  mary to traditional BSD style.
    
           bsdheadline
                  Changes the display of columns in a  header  summary  to  tradi-
                  tional BSD style.
    
           bsdmsgs
                  Changes some informational messages to traditional BSD style.
    
           bsdorder
                  Causes  the  'Subject:'  field  to  appear immediately after the
                  'To:' field in message headers and with the ~h tilde command.
    
           bsdset Changes the output format of the set command to traditional  BSD
                  style.
    
           chained-junk-tokens
                  Normally,  the  Bayesian  junk mail filter bases its classifica-
                  tions on single word tokens extracted from  messages.   If  this
                  option  is  set, adjacent words are combined to pairs, which are
                  then used as additional tokens.  This usually improves the accu-
                  racy  of  the  filter, but also increases the junk mail database
                  five- to tenfold.
    
           datefield
                  The date in a header summary is normally the date of the mailbox
                  'From '  line of the message.  If this variable is set, the date
                  as given in the 'Date:' header field is used, converted to local
                  time.
    
           debug  Prints  debugging  messages  and disables the actual delivery of
                  messages.  Unlike verbose, this option  is  intended  for  mailx
                  development only.
    
           disconnected
           disconnected-user@host
                  The  specified  account  is handled as described for the discon-
                  nected variable above, but other accounts are not affected.
    
           dot    The binary option dot causes mailx to interpret a  period  alone
                  on a line as the terminator of a message the user is sending.
    
           editheaders
                  When  a  message  is  edited while being composed, its header is
                  included in the editable  text.   'To:',  'Cc:',  'Bcc:',  'Sub-
                  ject:',  'From:',  'Reply-To:',  'Sender:',  and 'Organization:'
                  fields are accepted within the header, other fields are ignored.
    
           emptybox
                  If  set, an empty mailbox file is not removed.  This may improve
                  the interoperability with other mail user agents  when  using  a
                  common folder directory.
    
           emptystart
                  If  the  mailbox  is  empty,  mailx normally prints 'No mail for
                  user' and exits immediately.   If  this  option  is  set,  mailx
                  starts even with an empty mailbox.
    
           expandaddr
                  Causes mailx to expand message recipient addresses, as explained
                  in the section, Recipient address specifications.
    
           flipr  Exchanges the Respond with the respond commands and  vice-versa.
    
           forward-as-attachment
                  Original messages are normally sent as inline text with the for-
                  ward command, and only the first part of a multipart message  is
                  included.   With  this  option,  messages  are sent as MIME mes-
                  sage/rfc822 attachments, and all of their  parts  are  included.
                  The  fwdignore  and  fwdretain options are ignored when the for-
                  ward-as-attachment option is set.
    
           fullnames
                  When replying to a message, mailx normally removes  the  comment
                  parts  of  email addresses, which by convention contain the full
                  names of the recipients.  If this variable is set,  such  strip-
                  ping is not performed, and comments are retained.
    
           header Causes  the  header  summary  to be written at startup and after
                  commands that affect the number of messages or the order of mes-
                  sages in the current folder; enabled by default.
    
           hold   This  option  is  used to hold messages in the system mailbox by
                  default.
    
           ignore Causes interrupt signals from the terminal  to  be  ignored  and
                  echoed as @'s.
    
           keep   This option causes mailx to truncate the user's  system  mailbox
                  instead  of deleting it when it is empty.  This should always be
                  set, since it prevents malicious users from creating  fake  mail
                  folders in a world-writable spool directory.
    
           keepsave
                  When a message is saved, it is usually discarded from the origi-
                  nating folder when mailx is quit.  Setting  this  option  causes
                  all saved message to be retained.
    
           markanswered
                  When  a  message  is  replied to and this variable is set, it is
                  marked as having been answered.   This  mark  has  no  technical
                  meaning in the mail system; it just causes messages to be marked
                  in the header summary, and makes them specially addressable.
    
           metoo  Usually, when a group is expanded that contains the sender,  the
                  sender  is  removed  from  the  expansion.   Setting this option
                  causes the sender to be included in the group.
    
           newmail
                  Checks for new mail in the current folder each time  the  prompt
                  is  printed.   For IMAP mailboxes, the server is then polled for
                  new mail, which may result in delayed operation if  the  connec-
                  tion to the server is slow.  A maildir folder must be re-scanned
                  to determine if new mail has arrived.
    
                  If this variable is set to the special  value  nopoll,  an  IMAP
                  server  is  not  actively  asked  for new mail, but new mail may
                  still be detected and announced with any other IMAP command that
                  is sent to the server.  A maildir folder is not scanned then.
    
                  In  any  case, the IMAP server may send notifications about mes-
                  sages that have been deleted on the server by another process or
                  client.   In this case, 'Expunged n messages' is printed regard-
                  less of this variable, and message numbers may have changed.
    
           noheader
                  Setting the option noheader is the same as giving the -N flag on
                  the command line.
    
           outfolder
                  Causes the filename given in the record variable and the sender-
                  based filenames for the Copy and Save commands to be interpreted
                  relative  to  the  directory given in the folder variable rather
                  than to the current directory unless it is an absolute pathname.
    
           page   If  set, each message the pipe command prints out is followed by
                  a formfeed character.
    
           piperaw
           pop3-use-starttls
                  Causes mailx to issue a STLS command to make an unencrypted POP3
                  session  SSL/TLS encrypted.  This functionality is not supported
                  by all servers, and is  not  used  if  the  session  is  already
                  encrypted by the POP3S method.
    
           pop3-use-starttls-user@host
                  Activates pop3-use-starttls for a specific account.
    
           print-all-chars
                  This  option  causes  all characters to be considered printable.
                  It is only effective if given in  a  startup  file.   With  this
                  option  set,  some  character  sequences in messages may put the
                  user's terminal in an undefined state when  printed;  it  should
                  only be used as a last resort if no working system locale can be
                  found.
    
           print-alternatives
                  When a MIME message part of type multipart/alternative  is  dis-
                  played and it contains a subpart of type text/plain, other parts
                  are normally discarded.  Setting this variable causes  all  sub-
                  parts  to  be  displayed, just as if the surrounding part was of
                  type multipart/mixed.
    
           quiet  Suppresses the printing of the version when first invoked.
    
           record-resent
                  If both this variable and  the  record  variable  are  set,  the
                  resend and Resend commands save messages to the record folder as
                  it is normally only done for newly composed messages.
    
           reply-in-same-charset
                  If this variable is set, mailx first tries to use the same char-
                  acter  set  of the original message for replies.  If this fails,
                  the sendcharsets variable is evaluated as usual.
    
           Replyall
                  Reverses the sense of reply and Reply commands.
    
           save   When the user aborts a message with two RUBOUT (interrupt  char-
                  acters)  mailx  copies the partial letter to the file 'dead.let-
                  ter' in the home directory.  This option is set by default.
    
           searchheaders
                  If this option is set, then a message-list specifier in the form
                  '/x:y'  will expand to all messages containing the substring 'y'
                  in the header field 'x'.  The string search is case insensitive.
    
           sendwait
                  When sending a message, wait until the mail transfer agent exits
                  before accepting further commands.  If the mail  transfer  agent
                  returns  a  non-zero  exit status, the exit status of mailx will
    
           skipemptybody
                  If an outgoing message does not contain any text in its first or
                  only  message  part, do not send it but discard it silently (see
                  also the -E option).
    
           smime-force-encryption
                  Causes mailx to refuse sending unencrypted messages.
    
           smime-sign
                  If this variable is set, outgoing  messages  are  S/MIME  signed
                  with the user's private key.  Signing a message enables a recip-
                  ient to verify that the sender used a  valid  certificate,  that
                  the  email  addresses in the certificate match those in the mes-
                  sage header, and that the message content has not been  altered.
                  It  does not change the message text, and people will be able to
                  read the message as usual.
    
           smime-no-default-ca
                  Do not load the  default  CA  locations  when  verifying  S/MIME
                  signed  messages.   Only  applicable  if S/MIME support is built
                  using OpenSSL.
    
           smtp-use-starttls
                  Causes mailx to issue a STARTTLS command to make an SMTP session
                  SSL/TLS  encrypted.   Not  all  servers  support  this  command;
                  because of common implementation defects, it cannot be automati-
                  cally determined whether a server supports it or not.
    
           ssl-no-default-ca
                  Do  not  load  the default CA locations to verify SSL/TLS server
                  certificates.  Only applicable if SSL/TLS support is built using
                  OpenSSL.
    
           ssl-v2-allow
                  Accept  SSLv2  connections.   These  are  normally  not  allowed
                  because this protocol version is insecure.
    
           stealthmua
                  Inhibits the generation of the 'Message-Id:'  and  'User-Agent:'
                  header  fields  that include obvious references to mailx.  There
                  are two pitfalls associated with this: First, the message id  of
                  outgoing  messages  is not known anymore.  Second, an expert may
                  still use the remaining information in the header to track  down
                  the originating mail user agent.
    
           verbose
                  Setting  the  option verbose is the same as using the -v flag on
                  the command line.  When mailx runs in verbose mode,  details  of
                  the actual message delivery and protocol conversations for IMAP,
                  POP3, and SMTP, as well as of other internal processes, are dis-
                  played on the user's terminal, This is sometimes useful to debug
                  problems.  Mailx prints all data that is sent to remote  servers
    
           attrlist
                  A sequence of characters to print in the 'attribute' column of a
                  header summary, each for one type of messages in  the  following
                  order:  new,  unread but old, new but read, read and old, saved,
                  preserved, mboxed, flagged, answered, draft, killed, start of  a
                  collapsed thread, collapsed, classified as junk.  The default is
                  'NUROSPMFATK+-J', or 'NU  *HMFATK+-J' if bsdflags or  the  SYSV3
                  environment variable are set.
    
           autobcc
                  Specifies  a  list of recipients to which a blind carbon copy of
                  each outgoing message will be sent automatically.
    
           autocc Specifies a list of recipients to which a carbon  copy  of  each
                  outgoing message will be sent automatically.
    
           autosort
                  Causes sorted mode (see the sort command) to be entered automat-
                  ically with the value of this option as sorting  method  when  a
                  folder is opened.
    
           cmd    The default value for the pipe command.
    
           crt    The  valued  option  crt is used as a threshold to determine how
                  long a message must be before PAGER is used to read it.  If  crt
                  is  set  without a value, then the height of the terminal screen
                  stored in the system is  used  to  compute  the  threshold  (see
                  stty(1)).
    
           DEAD   The  name  of the file to use for saving aborted messages.  This
                  defaults to 'dead.letter' in the user's home directory.
    
           EDITOR Pathname of the text editor to use in the edit  command  and  ~e
                  escape.  If not defined, then a default editor is used.
    
           encoding
                  The  default  MIME encoding to use in outgoing text messages and
                  message parts.  Valid values are 8bit or quoted-printable.   The
                  default  is 8bit.  In case the mail transfer system is not ESMTP
                  compliant, quoted-printable should be used instead.  If there is
                  no need to encode a message, 7bit transfer mode is used, without
                  regard to the value of this variable.   Binary  data  is  always
                  encoded in base64 mode.
    
           escape If defined, the first character of this option gives the charac-
                  ter to use in the place of ~ to denote escapes.
    
           folder The name of the directory to use for  storing  folders  of  mes-
                  sages.   All  folder  names  that  begin with '+' refer to files
                  below that directory.  If the directory name begins with a  '/',
                  mailx  considers  it  to be an absolute pathname; otherwise, the
                  folder directory is found relative to the user's home directory.
                      imaps://mylogin@imap.myisp.example/INBOX.
    
                  should be used (the last character  is  the  server's  hierarchy
                  delimiter).   Folder  names  prefixed  by '+' will then refer to
                  folders below 'INBOX', while folder names prefixed by '@'  refer
                  to  folders  below  the  hierarchy base.  See the imap namespace
                  command for a method to detect the appropriate prefix and delim-
                  iter.
    
           folder-hook
                  When a folder is opened and this variable is set, the macro cor-
                  responding to the value of this variable is executed.  The macro
                  is  also  invoked  when  new mail arrives, but message lists for
                  commands executed from the macro only include newly arrived mes-
                  sages then.
    
           folder-hook-fullname
                  When  a folder named fullname is opened, the macro corresponding
                  to the value of this variable is executed.  Unlike other  folder
                  specifications,  the  fully  expanded  name of a folder, without
                  metacharacters, is used to avoid ambiguities.  The macro  speci-
                  fied with folder-hook is not executed if this variable is effec-
                  tive for a folder (unless it is explicitly  invoked  within  the
                  called macro).
    
           from   The  address  (or  a  list of addresses) to put into the 'From:'
                  field of the message header.  If replying to  a  message,  these
                  addresses  are  handled  as if they were in the alternates list.
                  If the machine's hostname is not  valid  at  the  Internet  (for
                  example  at  a dialup machine), either this variable or hostname
                  have to be set to get correct Message-ID header fields.  If from
                  contains more than one address, the sender variable must also be
                  set.
    
           fwdheading
                  The string to print before the text of a message with  the  for-
                  ward command (unless the forward-as-attachment variable is set).
                  Defaults to ''-------- Original Message --------'' if unset.  If
                  it is set to the empty string, no heading is printed.
    
           headline
                  A format string to use for the header summary, similar to printf
                  formats.  A '%' character introduces a format specifier.  It may
                  be  followed  by  a  number  indicating the field width.  If the
                  field is a number, the width may be  negative,  which  indicates
                  that it is to be left-aligned.  Valid format specifiers are:
    
                      %a    Message attributes.
                      %c    The score of the message.
                      %d    The date when the message was received.
                      %e    The indenting level in threaded mode.
    
           hostname
                  Use this string  as  hostname  when  expanding  local  addresses
                  instead  of the value obtained from uname(2) and getaddrinfo(3).
    
           imap-auth
                  Sets the IMAP authentication method.  Valid values  are  'login'
                  for  the  usual  password-based  authentication  (the  default),
                  'cram-md5', which is a password-based authentication  that  does
                  not  send the password over the network in clear text, and 'gss-
                  api' for GSSAPI-based authentication.
    
           imap-auth-user@host
                  Sets the IMAP authentication method for a specific account.
    
           imap-cache
                  Enables caching of IMAP mailboxes.  The value of  this  variable
                  must point to a directory that is either existent or can be cre-
                  ated by mailx.  All contents of the  cache  can  be  deleted  by
                  mailx  at  any  time;  it  is not safe to make assumptions about
                  them.
    
           imap-keepalive
                  IMAP servers may close the connection after a period of inactiv-
                  ity;  the  standard requires this to be at least 30 minutes, but
                  practical experience may  vary.   Setting  this  variable  to  a
                  numeric  value  greater  than 0 causes a NOOP command to be sent
                  each value seconds if no other operation is performed.
    
           imap-list-depth
                  When retrieving the list of folders on an IMAP server, the fold-
                  ers  command stops after it has reached a certain depth to avoid
                  possible infinite loops.  The value of this  variable  sets  the
                  maximum depth allowed.  The default is 2.  If the folder separa-
                  tor on the current IMAP server is a slash '/', this variable has
                  no  effect, and the folders command does not descend to subfold-
                  ers.
    
           indentprefix
                  String used by the '~m' and '~M' tilde escapes and by the  quote
                  option  for indenting messages, in place of the normal tab char-
                  acter (^I).  Be sure to quote the value if it contains spaces or
                  tabs.
    
           junkdb The  location  of the junk mail database.  The string is treated
                  like a folder name, as described for the folder command.
    
                  The files in the junk mail database are normally stored in  com-
                  press(1) format for saving space.  If processing time is consid-
                  ered more important, uncompress(1) can be used to store them  in
                  plain  form.  Mailx will then work using the uncompressed files.
    
                  sequences '\t' (tabulator) and '\n' (newline) are understood.
    
           maximum-unencoded-line-length
                  Messages that contain lines longer than the value of this  vari-
                  able  are  encoded in quoted-printable even if they contain only
                  ASCII characters.  The maximum effective value is 950.   If  set
                  to  0,  all ASCII text messages are encoded in quoted-printable.
                  S/MIME signed messages are always  encoded  in  quoted-printable
                  regardless of the value of this variable.
    
           MBOX   The name of the mbox file.  It can be the name of a folder.  The
                  default is 'mbox' in the user's home directory.
    
           NAIL_EXTRA_RC
                  The name of an optional startup file to be read after ~/.mailrc.
                  This variable is ignored if it is imported from the environment;
                  it has an effect only if it is set in /etc/mail.rc or  ~/.mailrc
                  to    allow    bypassing    the   configuration   with   e.   g.
                  'MAILRC=/dev/null'.  Use this file for  commands  that  are  not
                  understood by other mailx implementations.
    
           newfolders
                  If  this  variable  has  the  value maildir, newly created local
                  folders will be in maildir format.
    
           nss-config-dir
                  A directory that contains the files certN.db  to  retrieve  cer-
                  tificates,  keyN.db  to  retrieve  private  keys, and secmod.db,
                  where N is a  digit.   These  are  usually  taken  from  Mozilla
                  installations,    so    an    appropriate    value    might   be
                  '~/.mozilla/firefox/default.clm'.  Mailx opens these files read-
                  only  and does not modify them.  However, if the files are modi-
                  fied by Mozilla while mailx is running, it  will  print  a  'Bad
                  database'  message.   It  may  be  necessary to create copies of
                  these files that are  exclusively  used  by  mailx  then.   Only
                  applicable  if S/MIME and SSL/TLS support is built using Network
                  Security Services (NSS).
    
           ORGANIZATION
                  The value to put into the 'Organization:' field of  the  message
                  header.
    
           PAGER  Pathname  of  the program to use in the more command or when crt
                  variable is set.  The default paginator pg(1) or, in BSD compat-
                  ibility mode, more(1) is used if this option is not defined.
    
           password-user@host
                  Set  the  password for user when connecting to host.  If no such
                  variable is defined for a host, the user will  be  asked  for  a
                  password  on  standard input.  Specifying passwords in a startup
                  file is generally a security risk, the file should  be  readable
                  by the invoking user only.
                  practical experience may  vary.   Setting  this  variable  to  a
                  numeric  value  greater  than 0 causes a NOOP command to be sent
                  each value seconds if no other operation is performed.
    
           prompt The string printed when a  command  is  accepted.   Defaults  to
                  '? ', or to '& ' if the bsdcompat variable is set.
    
           quote  If  set,  mailx starts a replying message with the original mes-
                  sage prefixed by the value of the variable  indentprefix.   Nor-
                  mally,  a  heading  consisting  of  'Fromheaderfield  wrote:' is
                  printed before  the  quotation.   If  the  string  noheading  is
                  assigned to the quote variable, this heading is omitted.  If the
                  string  headers  is  assigned,  the  headers  selected  by   the
                  ignore/retain  commands are printed above the message body, thus
                  quote acts like an automatic ~m command  then.   If  the  string
                  allheaders  is  assigned, all headers are printed above the mes-
                  sage body, and all MIME parts are included, thus quote acts like
                  an automatic ~M command then.
    
           record If  defined, gives the pathname of the folder used to record all
                  outgoing mail.  If not defined, then outgoing  mail  is  not  so
                  saved.   When  saving  to  this folder fails, the message is not
                  sent but saved to the 'dead.letter' file instead.
    
           replyto
                  A list of addresses to put into the  'Reply-To:'  field  of  the
                  message  header.   If  replying to a message, such addresses are
                  handled as if they were in the alternates list.
    
           screen When mailx initially prints the message headers,  it  determines
                  the  number  to  print  by looking at the speed of the terminal.
                  The faster the terminal, the more it prints.  This option  over-
                  rides  this  calculation  and specifies how many message headers
                  are printed.  This number is also used for scrolling with the  z
                  command.
    
           sendcharsets
                  A  comma-separated  list of character set names that can be used
                  in Internet mail.  When a message that contains  characters  not
                  representable  in  US-ASCII is prepared for sending, mailx tries
                  to convert its text to each of the given character sets in order
                  and uses the first appropriate one.  The default is 'utf-8'.
    
                  Character  sets  assigned  to this variable should be ordered in
                  ascending complexity.  That is, the list should start with  e.g.
                  'iso-8859-1'  for  compatibility  with older mail clients, might
                  contain some other language-specific character sets, and  should
                  end with 'utf-8' to handle messages that combine texts in multi-
                  ple languages.
    
           sender An address that is put into the 'Sender:' field of outgoing mes-
                  sages.   This  field needs not normally be present.  It is, how-
                  A default shell is used if this option is not defined.
    
           Sign   A string for use with the ~A command.
    
           sign   A string for use with the ~a command.
    
           signature
                  Must  correspond  to  the name of a readable file if set.
                  The file's content is then appended  to  each  singlepart
                  message  and to the first part of each multipart message.
                  Be warned that there is no possibility to edit the signa-
                  ture for an individual message.
    
           smime-ca-dir
                  Specifies  a directory with CA certificates for verifica-
                  tion of S/MIME signed messages.  The format is  the  same
                  as  described  in SSL_CTX_load_verify_locations(3).  Only
                  applicable if S/MIME support is built using OpenSSL.
    
           smime-ca-file
                  Specifies a file with CA certificates for verification of
                  S/MIME  signed  messages.   The  format  is  the  same as
                  described  in   SSL_CTX_load_verify_locations(3).    Only
                  applicable if S/MIME support is built using OpenSSL.
    
           smime-cipher-user@host
                  Specifies   a   cipher  to  use  when  generating  S/MIME
                  encrypted messages  for  user@host.   Valid  ciphers  are
                  rc2-40 (RC2 with 40 bits), rc2-64 (RC2 with 64 bits), des
                  (DES, 56 bits) and des-ede3 (3DES,  112/168  bits).   The
                  default  is 3DES.  It is not recommended to use the other
                  ciphers unless a recipient's client is actually unable to
                  handle  3DES  since they are comparatively weak; but even
                  so, the recipient should upgrade his software in  prefer-
                  ence.
    
           smime-crl-file
                  Specifies a file that contains a CRL in PEM format to use
                  when  verifying  S/MIME  messages.   Only  applicable  if
                  S/MIME support is built using OpenSSL.
    
           smime-crl-dir
                  Specifies  a  directory  that contains files with CRLs in
                  PEM format to use when verifying S/MIME  messages.   Only
                  applicable if S/MIME support is built using OpenSSL.
    
           smime-encrypt-user@host
                  If  this  variable  is  set,  messages  to  user@host are
                  encrypted before sending.  If  S/MIME  support  is  built
                  using  OpenSSL,  the value of the variable must be set to
                  the name of a file that contains  a  certificate  in  PEM
    
           smime-nickname-user@host
                  Specifies the nickname of a certificate to be  used  when
                  encrypting  messages  for user@host .  Only applicable if
                  S/MIME support is built using NSS.
    
           smime-sign-cert
                  Points to a file in PEM format that contains  the  user's
                  private  key  as  well as his certificate.  Both are used
                  with S/MIME for signing and  decrypting  messages.   Only
                  applicable if S/MIME support is built using OpenSSL.
    
           smime-sign-cert-user@host
                  Overrides  smime-sign-cert  for  the  specific addresses.
                  When signing messages and the value of the from  variable
                  is  set  to  user@host,  the specific file is used.  When
                  decrypting messages, their recipient fields (To: and Cc:)
                  are  searched  for addresses for which such a variable is
                  set.  Mailx always uses the first address  that  matches,
                  so  if  the  same message is sent to more than one of the
                  user's addresses using different encryption keys, decryp-
                  tion  might  fail.   Only applicable if S/MIME support is
                  built using OpenSSL.
    
           smime-sign-nickname
                  Specifies that the named certificate be used for  signing
                  mail.  If this variable is not set, but a single certifi-
                  cate matching the current from address is  found  in  the
                  database,  that one is used automatically.  Only applica-
                  ble if S/MIME support is built using NSS.
    
           smime-sign-nickname-user@host
                  Overrides smime-sign-nickname  for  a  specific  address.
                  Only applicable if S/MIME support is built using NSS.
    
           smtp   Normally,  mailx invokes sendmail(8) directly to transfer
                  messages.  If the smtp variable is set, a SMTP connection
                  to  the server specified by the value of this variable is
                  used instead.  If the SMTP server does not use the  stan-
                  dard port, a value of server:port can be given, with port
                  as a name or as a number.
    
                  There are two possible methods to get  SSL/TLS  encrypted
                  SMTP sessions: First, the STARTTLS command can be used to
                  encrypt a session after it has been initiated, but before
                  any    user-related    data    has    been    sent;   see
                  smtp-use-starttls above.   Second,  some  servers  accept
                  sessions that are encrypted from their beginning on. This
                  mode is configured by assigning smtps://server[:port]  to
                  the smtp variable.
    
                  The  SMTP transfer is executed in a child process; unless
                  addresses, depending on the from variable.
    
           smtp-auth-password
                  Sets the global password for SMTP AUTH.   Both  user  and
                  password  have  to be given for AUTH LOGIN and AUTH CRAM-
                  MD5.
    
           smtp-auth-password-user@host
                  Overrides  smtp-auth-password  for  specific  values   of
                  sender addresses, depending on the from variable.
    
           smtp-auth-user
                  Sets  the  global user name for SMTP AUTH.  Both user and
                  password have to be given for AUTH LOGIN and  AUTH  CRAM-
                  MD5.
    
                  If this variable is set but neither smtp-auth-password or
                  a matching  smtp-auth-password-user@host  can  be  found,
                  mailx will as for a password on the user's terminal.
    
           smtp-auth-user-user@host
                  Overrides  smtp-auth-user  for  specific values of sender
                  addresses, depending on the from variable.
    
           ssl-ca-dir
                  Specifies a directory with CA certificates for  verifica-
                  tion     of    SSL/TLS    server    certificates.     See
                  SSL_CTX_load_verify_locations(3)  for  more  information.
                  Only   applicable  if  SSL/TLS  support  is  built  using
                  OpenSSL.
    
           ssl-ca-file
                  Specifies a file with CA certificates for verification of
                  SSL/TLS   server   certificates.   See  SSL_CTX_load_ver-
                  ify_locations(3) for more information.   Only  applicable
                  if SSL/TLS support is built using OpenSSL.
    
           ssl-cert
                  Sets  the  file  name  for  a  SSL/TLS client certificate
                  required by some servers.   Only  applicable  if  SSL/TLS
                  support is built using OpenSSL.
    
           ssl-cert-user@host
                  Sets  an  account-specific file name for a SSL/TLS client
                  certificate required by some servers.  Overrides ssl-cert
                  for  the  specified  account.  Only applicable if SSL/TLS
                  support is built using OpenSSL.
    
           ssl-cipher-list
                  Specifies a list of ciphers for SSL/TLS connections.  See
                  ciphers(1)  for  more  information.   Only  applicable if
                  SSL/TLS support is built using OpenSSL.
                  client certificate.  If unset, the name of  the  certifi-
                  cate  file  is  used.   The file is expected to be in PEM
                  format.  Only applicable  if  SSL/TLS  support  is  built
                  using OpenSSL.
    
           ssl-key-user@host
                  Sets an account-specific file name for the private key of
                  a SSL/TLS client certificate.  Overrides ssl-key for  the
                  specified account.  Only applicable if SSL/TLS support is
                  built using OpenSSL.
    
           ssl-method
                  Selects a SSL/TLS  protocol  version;  valid  values  are
                  'ssl2',  'ssl3',  and  'tls1'.   If  unset, the method is
                  selected automatically, if possible.
    
           ssl-method-user@host
                  Overrides ssl-method for a specific account.
    
           ssl-rand-egd
                  Gives the pathname  to  an  entropy  daemon  socket,  see
                  RAND_egd(3).
    
           ssl-rand-file
                  Gives  the  pathname  to  a  file  with entropy data, see
                  RAND_load_file(3).   If  the  file  is  a  regular   file
                  writable  by the invoking user, new data is written to it
                  after it has been loaded.   Only  applicable  if  SSL/TLS
                  support is built using OpenSSL.
    
           ssl-verify
                  Sets the action to be performed if an error occurs during
                  SSL/TLS server certificate validation.  Valid values  are
                  'strict'  (fail  and close connection immediately), 'ask'
                  (ask whether  to  continue  on  standard  input),  'warn'
                  (print  a warning and continue), 'ignore' (do not perform
                  validation).  The default is 'ask'.
    
           ssl-verify-user@host
                  Overrides ssl-verify for a specific account.
    
           toplines
                  If defined, gives the number of lines of a message to  be
                  printed  out  with  the  top command; normally, the first
                  five lines are printed.
    
           ttycharset
                  The character set of  the  terminal  mailx  operates  on.
                  There  is  normally  no  need  to set this variable since
                  mailx can determine this automatically by looking at  the
                  LC_CTYPE  locale  setting; if this succeeds, the value is
                  assigned at startup and will be displayed by the set com-
    
           MAILRC Is used as startup file  instead  of  ~/.mailrc  if  set.
                  When  mailx scripts are invoked on behalf of other users,
                  this variable should be set to '/dev/null' to avoid side-
                  effects from reading their configuration files.
    
           NAILRC If this variable is set and MAILRC is not set, it is read
                  as startup file.
    
           SYSV3  Changes the letters printed in  the  first  column  of  a
                  header summary.
    
           TMPDIR Used as directory for temporary files instead of /tmp, if
                  set.
    
    
    

    FILES

           ~/.mailrc
                  File giving initial commands.
    
           /etc/mail.rc
                  System wide initialization file.
    
           ~/.mime.types
                  Personal MIME types.
    
           /etc/mime.types
                  System wide MIME types.
    
    
    

    EXAMPLES

       Getting started
           The mailx command has two distinct usages, according to  whether
           one  wants  to send or receive mail.  Sending mail is simple: to
           send  a  message  to  a  user  whose  email  address  is,   say,
           <bill@host.example>, use the shell command:
    
               $ mailx bill@host.example
    
           then  type  your  message.   Mailx will prompt you for a message
           subject first; after that, lines typed by you form the  body  of
           the message.  When you reach the end of the message, type an EOT
           (control-d) at the beginning of a line, which will  cause  mailx
           to echo 'EOT' and return you to the shell.
    
           If,  while  you are composing the message you decide that you do
           not wish to send it after all, you can abort the letter  with  a
           RUBOUT.   Typing  a single RUBOUT causes mailx to print '(Inter-
           rupt -- one more to  kill  letter)'.   Typing  a  second  RUBOUT
           causes  mailx to save your partial letter on the file 'dead.let-
           ter' in your home directory and abort the letter.  Once you have
           sent  mail  to  someone,  there is no way to undo the act, so be
           careful.
    
    
               $ mailx
    
           Mailx will respond by typing its version  number  and  date  and
           then listing the messages you have waiting.  Then it will type a
           prompt and await your command.  The messages are  assigned  num-
           bers  starting  with 1--you refer to the messages with these num-
           bers.  Mailx keeps track of which messages are  new  (have  been
           sent  since you last read your mail) and read (have been read by
           you).  New messages have an N next to them in the header listing
           and old, but unread messages have a U next to them.  Mailx keeps
           track of new/old and read/unread messages by  putting  a  header
           field called Status into your messages.
    
           To  look  at a specific message, use the type command, which may
           be abbreviated to simply t .  For example, if you had  the  fol-
           lowing messages:
    
               O 1 drfoo@myhost.example Wed Sep  1 19:52  18/631 "Fees"
               O 2 sam@friends.example  Thu Sep  2 00:08  30/895
    
           you could examine the first message by giving the command:
    
               type 1
    
           which might cause to respond with, for example:
    
               Message  1:
               From drfoo@myhost.example Wed Sep  1 19:52:25 2004
               Subject: Fees
               Status: R
    
               Tuition fees are due next Wednesday.  Don't forget!
    
           Many mailx commands that operate on messages take a message num-
           ber as an argument like the type command.  For  these  commands,
           there  is  a  notion  of  a current message.  When you enter the
           mailx program, the current message is initially  the  first  (or
           the  first  recent)  one.   Thus, you can often omit the message
           number and use, for example,
    
               t
    
           to type the current message.  As a further  shorthand,  you  can
           type a message by simply giving its message number.  Hence,
    
               1
    
           would type the first message.
    
           Frequently, it is useful to read the messages in your mailbox in
           matter will tend to retain the same subject heading,  making  it
           easy to recognize.  If there are other header fields in the mes-
           sage, like 'Cc:', the information found will also be used.
    
           Sometimes you will receive a message that has been sent to  sev-
           eral  people  and  wish to reply only to the person who sent it.
           Reply with a capital R replies to a message, but sends a copy to
           the sender only.
    
           If you wish, while reading your mail, to send a message to some-
           one, but not as a reply to one of your messages,  you  can  send
           the message directly with the mail command, which takes as argu-
           ments the names of the recipients you  wish  to  send  to.   For
           example, to send a message to <frank@machine.example>, you would
           do:
    
               mail frank@machine.example
    
           To delete a message from the mail folder, you can use the delete
           command.  In addition to not saving deleted messages, mailx will
           not let you type them, either.  The effect is to make  the  mes-
           sage disappear altogether, along with its number.
    
           Many  features  of mailx can be tailored to your liking with the
           set command.  The  set  command  has  two  forms,  depending  on
           whether  you  are  setting  a  binary option or a valued option.
           Binary options are either on or off.   For  example,  the  askcc
           option informs mailx that each time you send a message, you want
           it to prompt you for a 'Cc:' header, to be included in the  mes-
           sage.  To set the askcc option, you would type
    
               set askcc
    
           Valued  options  are  values  which  mailx uses to adapt to your
           tastes.  For example, the record option  tells  mailx  where  to
           save messages sent by you, and is specified by
    
               set record=Sent
    
           for example.  Note that no spaces are allowed in set record=Sent
           .
    
           Mailx includes a simple facility for maintaining groups of  mes-
           sages together in folders.  To use the folder facility, you must
           tell mailx where you wish to keep your folders.  Each folder  of
           messages  will  be  a single file.  For convenience, all of your
           folders are kept in a single directory  of  your  choosing.   To
           tell  mailx  where  your  folder directory is, put a line of the
           form
    
               set folder=letters
    
           ically removed from your system mailbox.
    
           In order to make a copy of a message in a folder without causing
           that  message  to  be  removed from your system mailbox, use the
           copy command, which is identical in all other  respects  to  the
           save command.
    
           The  folder  command can be used to direct mailx to the contents
           of a different folder.  For example,
    
               folder +classwork
    
           directs mailx to read the contents of the classwork folder.  All
           of the commands that you can use on your system mailbox are also
           applicable to folders, including type, delete,  and  reply.   To
           inquire which folder you are currently editing, use simply:
    
               folder
    
           To list your current set of folders, use the folders command.
    
           Finally, the help command is available to print out a brief sum-
           mary of the most important mailx commands.
    
           While typing in a message to be sent to others, it is often use-
           ful to be able to invoke the text editor on the partial message,
           print the message, execute a shell command,  or  do  some  other
           auxiliary  function.   Mailx provides these capabilities through
           tilde escapes , which consist of a tilde (~) at the beginning of
           a line, followed by a single character which indicates the func-
           tion to be performed.  For example, to print  the  text  of  the
           message so far, use:
    
               ~p
    
           which  will  print a line of dashes, the recipients of your mes-
           sage, and the text of the message so far.  A list  of  the  most
           important tilde escapes is available with '~?'.
    
       IMAP or POP3 client setup
           First  you  need the following data from your ISP: the host name
           of the IMAP or POP3 server, user  name  and  password  for  this
           server, and a notice whether the server uses SSL/TLS encryption.
           Assuming the host name is 'server.myisp.example' and  your  user
           name for that server is 'mylogin', you can refer to this account
           using the folder command or -f command line option with
    
               imaps://mylogin@server.myisp.example
    
           (This string is not necessarily the same as your  Internet  mail
           address.)   You  can  replace  'imaps://'  with 'imap://' if the
           server does not support SSL/TLS.  (If SSL/TLS support  is  built
               set imap-use-starttls
               set pop3-use-starttls
    
           before you initiate the connection.
    
           As  you  probably  want messages to be deleted from this account
           after saving them, prefix it with '%:'.   The  shortcut  command
           can  be used to avoid typing that many characters every time you
           want to connect:
    
               shortcut myisp %:imaps://mylogin@server.myisp.example
    
           You might want to put this string into a startup file.   As  the
           shortcut command is specific to this implementation of mailx and
           will confuse other implementations, it should  not  be  used  in
           ~/.mailrc, instead, put
    
               set NAIL_EXTRA_RC=~/.nailrc
    
           in ~/.mailrc and create a file ~/.nailrc containing the shortcut
           command above.  You can  then  access  your  remote  mailbox  by
           invoking  'mailx  -f myisp' on the command line, or by executing
           'fi myisp' within mailx.
    
           If you want to use more than one IMAP mailbox on a server, or if
           you  want  to  use  the  IMAP  server  for mail storage too, the
           account command (which is also mailx-specific) is more appropri-
           ate  than  the  shortcut  command.  You can put the following in
           ~/.nailrc:
    
               account myisp {
                   set folder=imaps://mylogin@server.myisp.example
                   set record=+Sent MBOX=+mbox outfolder
               }
    
           and can then access incoming mail for this account  by  invoking
           'mailx -A myisp' on the command line, or by executing 'ac myisp'
           within mailx.  After that, a command like 'copy 1  +otherfolder'
           will  refer  to  otherfolder on the IMAP server.  In particular,
           'fi &' will change to the mbox folder, and 'fi +Sent' will  show
           your  recorded  sent mail, with both folders located on the IMAP
           server.
    
           Mailx will ask you for a password string each time  you  connect
           to  a  remote account.  If you can reasonably trust the security
           of your workstation, you can give this password in  the  startup
           file as
    
               set password-mylogin@server.myisp.example="SECRET"
    
           You  should  change  the  permissions  of this file to 0600, see
           chmod(1).
           for IMAP and POP3, respectively,  offer  authentication  methods
           that  avoid to send the password in clear text over the network,
           which is especially important if SSL/TLS cannot be used.  If the
           server  does not offer any of these authentication methods, con-
           ventional user/password based authentication must be  used.   It
           is  sometimes helpful to set the verbose option when authentica-
           tion problems occur.  Mailx will display all data  sent  to  the
           server  in  clear text on the screen with this option, including
           passwords.  You should thus take care that no unauthorized  per-
           son can look at your terminal when this option is set.
    
           If  you  regularly  use  the  same  workstation  to  access IMAP
           accounts, you can greatly enhance performance by enabling  local
           caching  of  IMAP messages.  For any message that has been fully
           or partially fetched from the server, a local copy is  made  and
           is  used  when  the  message  is accessed again, so most data is
           transferred over the network once  only.   To  enable  the  IMAP
           cache, select a local directory name and put
    
               set imap-cache=~/localdirectory
    
           in  the  startup  file.   All files within that directory can be
           overwritten or deleted by mailx at any time, so you  should  not
           use the directory to store other information.
    
           Once the cache contains some messages, it is not strictly neces-
           sary anymore to open a connection to the IMAP server  to  access
           them.   When  mailx  is  invoked with the -D option, or when the
           disconnected variable is set, only cached data is used  for  any
           folder  you  open.   Messages  that have not yet been completely
           cached are not available then, but all  other  messages  can  be
           handled  as  usual.   Changes  made to IMAP mailboxes in discon-
           nected mode are committed to the IMAP server  next  time  it  is
           used  in  online  mode.  Synchronizing the local status with the
           status on the server is thus partially within your  responsibil-
           ity;  if you forget to initiate a connection to the server again
           before you leave your location, changes made on one  workstation
           are  not  available on others.  Also if you alter IMAP mailboxes
           from a workstation while uncommitted changes are  still  pending
           on  another, the latter data may become invalid.  The same might
           also happen because of  internal  server  status  changes.   You
           should  thus carefully evaluate this feature in your environment
           before you rely on it.
    
           Many servers will close the connection after a short  period  of
           inactivity. Use one of
    
               set pop3-keepalive=30
               set imap-keepalive=240
    
           to  send a keepalive message each 30 seconds for POP3, or each 4
           minutes for IMAP.
           tificate chain within (and including)  the  'BEGIN  CERTIFICATE'
           and 'END CERTIFICATE' lines.  (Note that it is possible to fetch
           a forged certificate by this method.  You  can  only  completely
           rely  on  the authenticity of the CA certificate if you fetch it
           in a way that is trusted by other means, such as  by  personally
           receiving the certificate on storage media.)
    
       Creating a score file or message filter
           The scoring commands are best separated from other configuration
           for clarity, and are mostly mailx specific.  It is  thus  recom-
           mended  to put them in a separate file that is sourced from your
           NAIL_EXTRA_RC as follows:
    
               source ~/.scores
    
           The .scores file could then look as follows:
    
               define list {
                   score (subject "important discussion") +10
                   score (subject "annoying discussion") -10
                   score (from "nicefellow@goodnet") +15
                   score (from "badguy@poornet") -5
                   move (header x-spam-flag "+++++") +junk
               }
               set folder-hook-imap://user@host/public.list=list
    
           In this scheme, you would see any  mail  from  'nicefellow@good-
           net',  even  if  the surrounding discussion is annoying; but you
           normally would not see mail  from  'badguy@poornet',  unless  he
           participates  in  the  important  discussion.  Messages that are
           marked with five or more plus characters in their  'X-Spam-Flag'
           field  (inserted  by  some  server-side  filtering software) are
           moved to the folder 'junk' in the folder directory.
    
           Be aware that all criteria in () lead to substring  matches,  so
           you would also score messages from e.g. 'notsobadguy@poornetmak-
           ers' negative here.  It is possible to select addresses  exactly
           using "address" message specifications, but these cannot be exe-
           cuted remotely and will thus cause all headers to be  downloaded
           from IMAP servers while looking for matches.
    
           When  searching  messages on an IMAP server, best performance is
           usually achieved by sending as many criteria as possible in  one
           large  ()  specification, because each single such specification
           will result in a separate network operation.
    
       Activating the Bayesian filter
           The Bayesian junk mail filter works by examining the words  con-
           tained  in messages.  You decide yourself what a good and what a
           bad message is.  Thus the resulting filter is your very personal
           one;  once  it is correctly set up, it will filter only messages
           similar to those previously specified by you.
           accuracy.
    
           A  set of good messages and junk messages must now be available;
           it is also possible to use the incoming new  messages  for  this
           purpose,  although  it  will  of course take some time until the
           filter becomes useful then.  Do not underestimate the amount  of
           statistical  data  needed;  some  hundred messages are typically
           necessary to get satisfactory results, and  many  thousand  mes-
           sages for best operation.  You have to pass the good messages to
           the good command, and the junk messages to the junk command.  If
           you ever accidentally mark a good message as junk or vice-versa,
           call the ungood or unjunk command to correct this.
    
           Once a reasonable amount of statistics has been  collected,  new
           messages  can be classified automatically.  The classify command
           marks all messages that the filter considers to be junk, but  it
           does  not  perform  any action on them by default.  It is recom-
           mended that you move these messages into a separate folder  just
           for  the case that false positives occur, or to pass them to the
           junk command later  again  to  further  improve  the  junk  mail
           database.   To  automatically  move incoming junk messages every
           time the inbox is opened, put lines like the following into your
           .scores  file (or whatever name you gave to the file in the last
           example):
    
               define junkfilter {
                   classify (smaller 20000) :n
                   move :j +junk
               }
               set folder-hook-imap://user@host/INBOX=junkfilter
    
           If you set the verbose option before running the  classify  com-
           mand,  mailx  prints  the words it uses for calculating the junk
           status along with their  statistical  probabilities.   This  can
           help you to find out why some messages are not classified as you
           would like them to be.  To see the statistical probability of  a
           given word, use the probability command.
    
           If  a junk message was not recognized as such, use the junk com-
           mand to correct this.  Also if you encounter a false positive (a
           good  message  that  was wrongly classified as junk), pass it to
           the good command.
    
           Since the classify command must examine the entire text  of  all
           new  messages in the respective folder, this will also cause all
           of them to be downloaded from the IMAP server.  You should  thus
           restrict  the  size  of  messages  for  automatic filtering.  If
           server-based filtering is also available, you might try if  that
           works for you first.
    
       Reading HTML mail
           You  need either the w3m or lynx utility or another command-line
           as with
    
               set pipe-application/pdf="cat >/tmp/mailx$$.pdf; \
                      acroread /tmp/mailx$$.pdf; rm /tmp/mailx$$.pdf"
    
           Note  that  security  defects are discovered in PDF viewers from
           time to time.  Automatical command execution like this can  com-
           promise  your  system  security,  in  particular if you stay not
           always informed about such issues.
    
       Signed and encrypted messages with S/MIME
           S/MIME provides two central mechanisms: message signing and mes-
           sage  encryption.   A signed message contains some data in addi-
           tion to the regular text.  The data can be used to  verify  that
           the  message  was  sent  using  a  valid  certificate,  that the
           sender's address in the message header matches that in the  cer-
           tificate, and that the message text has not been altered.  Sign-
           ing a message does not change its regular text; it can  be  read
           regardless of whether the recipient's software is able to handle
           S/MIME.  It is thus usually possible to sign all  outgoing  mes-
           sages  if so desired.--Encryption, in contrast, makes the message
           text invisible for all people except those who  have  access  to
           the  secret  decryption key.  To encrypt a message, the specific
           recipient's public encryption key must be known.  It is thus not
           possible  to  send encrypted mail to people unless their key has
           been retrieved from either previous communication or public  key
           directories.   A  message  should  always be signed before it is
           encrypted.  Otherwise, it is still possible that  the  encrypted
           message text is altered.
    
           A central concept to S/MIME is that of the certification author-
           ity (CA).  A CA is a trusted institution  that  issues  certifi-
           cates.   For each of these certificates, it can be verified that
           it really originates from the CA, provided  that  the  CA's  own
           certificate  is  previously  known.  A set of CA certificates is
           usually delivered with OpenSSL and installed on your system.  If
           you trust the source of your OpenSSL software installation, this
           offers reasonable security for S/MIME on the Internet.  In  gen-
           eral, a certificate cannot be more secure than the method its CA
           certificate has been retrieved with, though.  Thus if you  down-
           load  a CA certificate from the Internet, you can only trust the
           messages you verify using that certificate as much as you  trust
           the download process.
    
           The  first  thing  you  need for participating in S/MIME message
           exchange is your personal certificate, including a private  key.
           The  certificate contains public information, in particular your
           name and your email address, and the public key that is used  by
           others  to  encrypt  messages for you, and to verify signed mes-
           sages they supposedly received from  you.   The  certificate  is
           included  in each signed message you send.  The private key must
           be kept secret.  It is used to decrypt messages that were previ-
           PEM pass phrase for protecting the private key.  Mailx will then
           ask  you  for  that pass phrase each time it signs or decrypts a
           message.  You can then use
    
               set smime-sign-cert-myname@myisp.example=cert.pem
    
           to make this private key and certificate known to mailx.
    
           If S/MIME support is built using NSS, the PKCS#12 file  must  be
           installed  using  Mozilla  (provided  that nss-config-dir is set
           appropriately, see above), and no further  action  is  necessary
           unless multiple user certificates for the same email address are
           installed.  In this case, the smime-sign-nickname  variable  has
           to be set appropriately.
    
           You can now sign outgoing messages.  Just use
    
               set smime-sign
    
           to do so.
    
           From  each signed message you send, the recipient can fetch your
           certificate and use it to  send  encrypted  mail  back  to  you.
           Accordingly  if  somebody sends you a signed message, you can do
           the same.  First use the verify command to check the validity of
           the  certificate.  After that, retrieve the certificate and tell
           mailx that it should use it for encryption:
    
               certsave filename
               set smime-encrypt-user@host=filename
    
           If S/MIME support is built using NSS, the saved certificate must
           be  installed  using  Mozilla.   The value of the smime-encrypt-
           user@host is ignored then, but if multiple certificates for  the
           recipient  are  available, the smime-nickname-user@host variable
           must be set.
    
           You should carefully consider if you prefer to  store  encrypted
           messages  in  decrypted form.  If you do, anybody who has access
           to your mail folders can read them, but if you do not, you might
           be unable to read them yourself later if you happen to lose your
           private key.  The decrypt command saves  messages  in  decrypted
           form,  while  the  save,  copy,  and  move  commands  leave them
           encrypted.
    
           Note that neither  S/MIME  signing  nor  encryption  applies  to
           message subjects or other header fields.  Thus they may not con-
           tain sensitive information for encrypted messages, and cannot be
           trusted  even  if  the  message content has been verified.  When
           sending signed messages, it is recommended to repeat any  impor-
           tant header information in the message text.
    
           If S/MIME and SSL/TLS support are  built  using  OpenSSL,  mailx
           accepts CRLs in PEM format only; CRLs in DER format must be con-
           verted, e.g. with the shell command
    
               $ openssl crl -inform DER -in crl.der -out crl.pem
    
           To tell mailx about the CRLs, a directory that contains all  CRL
           files  (and  no other files) must be created.  The smime-crl-dir
           or ssl-crl-dir variables, respectively,  must  then  be  set  to
           point to that directory.  After that, mailx requires a CRL to be
           present for each CA that is used to verify a certificate.
    
           If S/MIME and SSL/TLS support are built using NSS, CRLs  can  be
           imported  in  Mozilla applications (provided that nss-config-dir
           is set appropriately).
    
       Sending mail from scripts
           If you want to send mail from scripts, you must  be  aware  that
           mailx  reads  the  user's  configuration  files  by default.  So
           unless your script is only intended for your  own  personal  use
           (as  e.g.  a  cron job), you need to circumvent this by invoking
           mailx like
    
               MAILRC=/dev/null mailx -n
    
           You then need to create  a  configuration  for  mailx  for  your
           script.  This can be done by either pointing the MAILRC variable
           to a custom configuration file, or by passing the  configuration
           in  environment  variables.   Since  many  of  the configuration
           options are not valid shell variables, the env command is useful
           in this situation.  An invocation could thus look like
    
               env MAILRC=/dev/null from=scriptreply@domain smtp=host \
                     smtp-auth-user=login smtp-auth-password=secret \
                     smtp-auth=login mailx -n -s "subject" \
                     -a attachment_file recipient@domain <content_file
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           fmt(1),  newaliases(1), openssl(1), pg(1), more(1), vacation(1),
           ssl(3), aliases(5), locale(7), mailaddr(7), sendmail(8)
    
    
    

    NOTES

           Variables in the environment passed to mailx cannot be unset.
    
           The character set conversion relies on  the  iconv(3)  function.
           Its  functionality  differs  widely  between  the various system
           environments mailx runs on.  If the message 'Cannot convert from
           a  to  b'  appears,  either  some  characters within the message
           header or text are not appropriate for  the  currently  selected
           terminal  character  set,  or  the needed conversion is not sup-
           ported by the system.  In the first case, it is necessary to set
           an  appropriate  LC_CTYPE  locale (e.g. en_US) or the ttycharset
           or fix the tools that generate them.
    
           Limitations with IMAP mailboxes are: It is not possible to  edit
           messages,  but  it  is  possible to append them.  Thus to edit a
           message, create a local copy of it,  edit  it,  append  it,  and
           delete  the  original.  The line count for the header display is
           only appropriate if the entire message has been downloaded  from
           the  server.   The  marking of messages as 'new' is performed by
           the IMAP server; use of the exit command instead  of  quit  will
           not  cause  it to be reset, and if the autoinc/newmail variables
           are unset, messages that arrived during a session will not be in
           state  'new'  anymore  when the folder is opened again.  Also if
           commands queued in disconnected mode  are  committed,  the  IMAP
           server  will  delete  the  'new'  flag  for  all messages in the
           changed folder, and new messages will appear as unread  when  it
           is  selected  for viewing later.  The 'flagged', 'answered', and
           'draft' attributes are usually permanent, but some IMAP  servers
           are  known  to  drop them without notification.  Message numbers
           may change with IMAP every time before the prompt is printed  if
           mailx  is notified by the server that messages have been deleted
           by some other client or process.  In this case, 'Expunged n mes-
           sages' is printed, and message numbers may have changed.
    
           Limitations  with POP3 mailboxes are: It is not possible to edit
           messages, they can only be copied and deleted.  The  line  count
           for the header display is only appropriate if the entire message
           has been downloaded from the server.  The status field of a mes-
           sage  is  maintained  by  the  server  between connections; some
           servers do not update it at all, and with a  server  that  does,
           the  'exit'  command  will  not  cause  the message status to be
           reset.  The 'newmail' command and the 'newmail' variable have no
           effect.   It  is  not possible to rename or to remove POP3 mail-
           boxes.
    
           If a RUBOUT (interrupt) is typed while an IMAP or POP3 operation
           is  in  progress,  mailx  will  wait  until the operation can be
           safely aborted, and will then return to  the  command  loop  and
           print  the  prompt  again.   When a second RUBOUT is typed while
           mailx is waiting for the operation to  complete,  the  operation
           itself  will  be canceled.  In this case, data that has not been
           fetched yet will have to be fetched before the next command  can
           be  performed.   If  the canceled operation was using an SSL/TLS
           encrypted channel, an error  in  the  SSL  transport  will  very
           likely result, and the connection is no longer usable.
    
           As  mailx is a mail user agent, it provides only basic SMTP ser-
           vices.  If it fails to contact its upstream SMTP server, it will
           not  make  further  attempts  to transfer the message at a later
           time, and it does not leave other information about this  condi-
           tion  than  an error message on the terminal and a 'dead.letter'
           file.  This is usually not a  problem  if  the  SMTP  server  is
           located in the same local network as the computer on which mailx
           The junk mail filter follows the concepts developed by Paul Gra-
           ham   in  his  articles,  ''A  Plan  for  Spam'',  August  2002,
           <http://www.paulgraham.com/spam.html>,  and  ''Better   Bayesian
           Filtering'',                    January                    2003,
           <http://www.paulgraham.com/better.html>.  Chained tokens are due
           to  a  paper  by  Jonathan  A.  Zdziarski,  ''Advanced  Language
           Classification   using   Chained   Tokens'',   February    2004,
           <http://www.nuclearelephant.com/papers/chained.html>.
    
           A  mail  command appeared in Version 1 AT&T Unix.  Berkeley Mail
           was written in 1978 by Kurt Shoens.  This man  page  is  derived
           from  from  The Mail Reference Manual originally written by Kurt
           Shoens.  Heirloom Mailx enhancements are  maintained  and  docu-
           mented by Gunnar Ritter.
    
           Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic
           form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard  for  Informa-
           tion  Technology  -- Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open
           Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by  the
           Institute  of  Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The
           Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between this version
           and  the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original
           IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the  referee  document.  The
           original     Standard     can     be    obtained    online    at
           http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .   Redistribution  of
           this  material  is  permitted  so  long  as  this notice remains
           intact.
    
    
    

    Heirloom mailx 12.4 10/1/07 MAILX(1)

    
    
  • MORE RESOURCE


  • Linux

    The Distributions





    Linux

    The Software





    Linux

    The News



  • MARKETING






  • Toll Free

Toll Free Numbers

webmaster@linuxguruz.com
Copyright © 1999 - 2016 by LinuxGuruz