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           magic  [  -T   technology ] [ -d  device_type ] [ -g  graphics_port ] [
           -m  monitor_type ] [ -D ] [ file ]


           Magic is an interactive editor for VLSI layouts  that  runs  under  all
           variants  of  UNIX,  including Mac OS-X and Cygwin.  This man page is a
           reference manual;  if you are a first-time user,  you  should  use  the
           Magic  tutorials  to  get  acquainted  with  the system (see the online
           resources links below).
           Magic uses two windows: one for text and a separate window for display-
           ing  layouts.  Magic runs under the window system X11 (use under Cygwin
           requires the presence of an X11 server in  Windows;   the  server  that
           comes  packaged  with Cygwin works well).  The command line switch "-d"
           can be used to tell Magic  which  kind  of  display  you  are  running.
           Specifically,  this  is  useful  to  tell  magic to use OpenGL graphics
           instead of plain X11 ("-d OGL"),  or  to  use  24  bit  plane  graphics
           instead  of 8 bit planes ("-d 24BITS") if both are available on a video
           card with overlay support.
           Here are the options accepted by Magic:
           -T     The next argument is the name of a technology.  The tile  types,
                  display  information,  and  design rules for this technology are
                  read by Magic from a technology file when  it  starts  up.   The
                  technology defaults to ''scmos''.
           -d     The next argument is the type of workstation or graphics display
                  being used.  Magic supports these types:
                  NULL   A null device for running Magic without using a  graphics
                         display, such as a batch job.  Note that the special case
                         "-dnull" (lowercase, no space)  has  a  more  streamlined
                         startup specifically for batch processing.
                  X11    X-windows,  version  11.  The is the preferred interface.
                         Magic acts as a client to the X window server and  inter-
                         faces  to  all  graphics  terminals  supported  by  the X
                  OGL    OpenGL graphics running under X11.  This is the preferred
                         interface   on  systems  having  hardware-accelerated  3D
                         graphics video cards and drivers.
                         Addition information on  Magic's  X11  driver,  including
                         options  for  .Xdefaults  files,  may be found in ''Magic
                         Maintainer's Manual #4:  Using Magic Under X Windows''.
                  XWIND  Simply another name for the X11 driver.
           If no device is specified, Magic tries to guess which driver is  appro-


           Magics uses types of commands:  Key  macros  and  long  commands.   The
           first  form  consists  of  single-key  (or button) abbreviations called
           ''macros''; macros are invoked by pressing a single key or  mouse  but-
           ton.     Certain    macros    are    predefined   in   the   systemwide
           ${CAD_ROOT}/magic/sys/.magicrc file, but you can override them and  add
           your own macros using the macro command (described below under COMMANDS
           FOR ALL WINDOWS).  The special macro "." is reserved to  mean  "execute
           the last typed long command".
           You  can  enter  long  commands  in the terminal console at the console
           prompt, or from the layout window by typing a : or ; key, which are the
           two other reserved macros meaning "switch keyboard focus to the console
           window".  After typing the : or ; key, type the text  of  the  command,
           which will be written to the terminal window.  Multiple commands may be
           specified on one line by separating them with semicolons.
           Most commands deal with the window underneath the cursor, so if a  com-
           mand  doesn't do what you expect make sure that you are pointing to the
           correct place on the screen.  There are several different kinds of win-
           dows in Magic (layout, color, and netlist); each window has a different
           command set, described in a separate section below.


           Magic uses a three button mouse.  The buttons are interpreted in a  way
           that depends on the current tool, as indicated by the shape of the cur-
           sor (see the tool command).  The various  tools  are  described  below.
           The  initial  tool is box.  These interpretations apply only when mouse
           buttons are pressed in the interior of a layout window.
           Box Tool
                  This is the default tool, and is indicated by a  crosshair  cur-
                  sor.  It is used to position the box and to paint and erase:
                  left   This  button  is  used to move the box by one of its cor-
                         ners.  Normally, this button picks  up  the  box  by  its
                         lower-left  corner.   To  pick  the box up by a different
                         corner, click the right button while the left  button  is
                         down.   This  switches  the  pick-up  point to the corner
                         nearest the cursor.  When the button is released, the box
                         is  moved  to position the corner at the cursor location.
                         If the box has been set to snap to the window's grid (see
                         the  :snap  command), then the box corner is left aligned
                         with the grid that the user has  chosen  for  the  window
                         with the :grid command, even if that grid is not visible.
                  right  Change the size of the box by moving  one  corner.   Nor-
                         mally  this  button  moves  the upper-right corner of the
           Wiring Tool
                  The  wiring  tool, indicated by an arrow cursor, is used to pro-
                  vide an efficient interface to the wiring commands:
                  left   Same as the long command wire type.
                  right  Same as the long command wire leg.
                  middle (bottom)
                         Same as the long command wire switch.
           Netlist Tool
                  This tool is used to edit netlists interactively.  It  is  indi-
                  cated by a thick box cursor.
                  left   Select  the  net associated with the terminal nearest the
                  right  Find the terminal nearest the cursor, and toggle it  into
                         the current net (if it wasn't already in the current net)
                         or out of the current net (if it was  previously  in  the
                  middle (bottom)
                         Find  the  terminal  nearest the cursor, and join its net
                         with the current net.
           Rsim Tool
                  Used when running the IRSIM simulator under Magic.   A  pointing
                  hand is used as the cursor.
                  left   Moves the box just like the box tool.
                  right  Moves the box just like the box tool.
                  middle (bottom)
                         Displays the Rsim node values of the selected paint.


           These  commands  work  if  you are pointing to the interior of a layout
           window.  Commands are invoked by typing a colon ('':'')  or  semi-colon
           ('';''),  followed by a line containing a command name and zero or more
           parameters.  In addition, macros may be used to  invoke  commands  with
           single  keystrokes.  Useful default macros are set in the global .magi-
           crc file (in ${CAD_ROOT}/magic/sys, normally /usr/local/lib/magic/sys).
           You can list all current macros with the macro command, described under
           ''LONG COMMANDS FOR ALL WINDOWS''.  Unique abbreviations are acceptable
           for all keywords in commands.  The commands are:
           addpath searchpath
                  Add  more  directories  to  the end of Magic's cell search path.
                  See the documentation for the path command for an explanation of
                  of  arrayed cells are numbered left-to-right from xlo to xhi and
                  bottom-to-top from ylo to yhi.   It  is  legal  for  xlo  to  be
                  greater than xhi, and also for ylo to be greater than yhi.
           box [args]
                  Used  to  change  the  size  of the box or to find out its size.
                  There are several sorts of arguments that may be given  to  this
                  (No arguments.)
                         Show  the  box size and its location in the edit cell, or
                         root cell of its window if the edit cell  isn't  in  that
                  direction [distance]
                         Move  the  box  distance units in direction, which may be
                         one of left, right, up, or down.   Distance  defaults  to
                         the  width  of the box if direction is right or left, and
                         to the height of the box if direction is up or down.
                  width [size]
                  height [size]
                         Set the box to the width or height indicated.  If size is
                         not specified the width or height is reported.
                  x1 y1 x2 y2
                         Move  the  box to the coordinates specified (these are in
                         edit cell coordinates if the edit cell is in  the  window
                         under  the cursor;  otherwise these are in the root coor-
                         dinates of the window). x1 and y1 are the coordinates  of
                         the lower left corner of the box, while x2 and y2 are the
                         upper right corner.  The coordinates must  all  be  inte-
           calma [option] [args]
                  This  command  is  used  to read and write files in Calma GDS II
                  Stream format (version 3.0,  corresponding  to  GDS  II  Release
                  5.1).   This  format  is like CIF, in that it describes physical
                  mask layers instead of Magic layers.  In  fact,  the  technology
                  file  specifies  a  correspondence between CIF and Calma layers.
                  The current CIF output style (see cif ostyle) controls how Calma
                  stream  layers are generated from Magic layers.  If no arguments
                  are given, the calma command generates a Calma stream  file  for
                  the  layout in the window beneath the cursor in file.strm, where
                  file is the name of the root cell.  This stream  file  describes
                  the  entire  cell  hierarchy  in  the  window.   The name of the
                  library is the same as the name of the root  cell.   Option  and
                  args may be used to invoke one of several additional operations:
                  calma flatten
                         Ordinarily, Magic arrays are output using the Calma ARRAY
                         lower case to be converted to upper case on output.
                  calma noflatten
                         Undoes the effect of a prior :calma flatten command,  re-
                         enabling the output of Magic arrays using the Calma ARRAY
                  calma nolabels
                         Don't output labels when writing a Calma output file.
                  calma nolower
                         Convert lower to upper case when outputting labels.
                  calma read file
                         The file file.strm is read in Calma format and  converted
                         to  a  collection  of Magic cells.  The current CIF input
                         style determines how the Calma layers  are  converted  to
                         Magic  layers.   The new cells are marked for design-rule
                         checking.  Calma format doesn't identify the root of  the
                         collection  of  cells  read in, so none of the cells read
                         will appear on the display; use load to make  them  visi-
                         ble.   If the Calma file had been produced by Magic, then
                         the name of the root cell is the same as the library name
                         printed by the :calma read command.
                  calma write fileName
                         Writes  a  stream  file  just as if no arguments had been
                         entered, except that the output  is  written  into  file-
                         Name.strm  instead  of  using  the root cell name for the
                         file name.
                  This command will run just the channel decomposition part of the
                  Magic router, deriving channels for the area under the box.  The
                  channels will be displayed as outlined feedback areas  over  the
                  edit cell.
           cif [option] [args]
                  Read  or  write files in Caltech Intermediate Form (CIF).  If no
                  arguments are given, this command generates a CIF file  for  the
                  window beneath the cursor in file.cif, where file is the name of
                  the root cell.  The CIF file describes the entire cell hierarchy
                  in  the  window.   Option  and args may be used to invoke one of
                  several additional CIF operations:
                  cif arealabels [yes | no]
                         Enables/disables  the  cif  area-label   extension.    If
                         enabled,  area  labels  are written via the 95 cif exten-
                         sion.  If disabled, labels are collapsed to  points  when
                         writing  cif  and  the  94  cif construct is used.  Area-
                         labels are  disabled  by  default  (many  programs  don't
                         understand cif area-labels).
                         CIF output styles defined  in  the  technology  file  and
                         identifies  the  current style.  If style is provided, it
                         is made the current style.
                  cif read file
                         The file file.cif is read in CIF format and converted  to
                         a  collection  of  Magic  cells.  The current input style
                         determines how the CIF layers are converted to Magic lay-
                         ers.   The new cells are marked for design-rule checking.
                         Any information in the top-level CIF cell is copied  into
                         the  edit  cell.  Note: this command is not undo-able (it
                         would waste too much space and time to  save  information
                         for undoing).
                  cif see layer
                         In this command layer must be the CIF name for a layer in
                         the current output style.   Magic  will  display  on  the
                         screen  all  the  CIF for that layer that falls under the
                         box, using stippled feedback areas.  It's a bad  idea  to
                         look  at  CIF  over  a  large  area,  since  this command
                         requires the area under  the  box  to  be  flattened  and
                         therefore is slow.
                  cif statistics
                         Prints out statistics gathered by the CIF generator as it
                         operates.  This is probably not useful to  anyone  except
                         system maintainers.
                  cif write fileName
                         Writes  out CIF just as if no arguments had been entered,
                         except that the CIF is written into fileName.cif  instead
                         of  using the root cell name for the file name.  The cur-
                         rent output style controls how CIF layers  are  generated
                         from Magic layers.
                  cif flat fileName
                         Writes  out CIF as in the cif write command, but flattens
                         the design first (e.g. creates an internal  version  with
                         the  cell  hierarchy  removed).   This  is  useful if one
                         wishes to use the  and-not  feature  of  the  CIF  output
                         styles, but is having problems with interactions of over-
                         lapping cells.
           clockwise [degrees]
                  Rotate the selection by 90, 180 or 270 degrees.  After the rota-
                  tion, the lower-left corner of the selection's bounding box will
                  be in the same place as the lower-left corner  of  the  bounding
                  box before the rotation.  Degrees defaults to 90.  If the box is
                  in the same window as the selection, it is  rotated  too.   Only
                  material in the edit cell is affected.
           copy [direction [amount]]
           corner direction1 direction2 [layers]
                  This command is similar to fill, except  that  it  generates  L-
                  shaped  wires that travel across the box first in direction1 and
                  then in direction2.  For example, corner north  east  finds  all
                  paint  under the bottom edge of the box and extends it up to the
                  top of the box and then across to the right  side  of  the  box,
                  generating  neat  corners at the top of the box.  The box should
                  be at least as tall as it is wide for this command to work  cor-
                  rectly.   Direction1 and direction2 must be Manhattan directions
                  (see the section DIRECTIONS below) and  must  be  orthogonal  to
                  each  other.   If layers is specified then only those layers are
                  used;  otherwise all layers are considered.
           delete Delete all the information in the current selection that  is  in
                  the edit cell.  When cells are deleted, only the selected use(s)
                  of the cell is (are) deleted:  other uses  of  the  cell  remain
                  intact,  as  does  the  disk file containing the cell.  Selected
                  material outside the edit cell is not deleted.
           drc option [args]
                  This command is used to interact with the design  rule  checker.
                  Option  and args (if needed) are used to invoke a drc command in
                  one of the following ways:
                  drc catchup
                         Let the checker process all the areas that need  recheck-
                         ing.   This  command  will  not  return until design-rule
                         checking is complete  or  an  interrupt  is  typed.   The
                         checker  will run even if the background checker has been
                         disabled with drc off.
                  drc check
                         Mark the area under the box for rechecking in  all  cells
                         that  intersect the box.  The recheck will occur in back-
                         ground after the command completes.  This command is  not
                         normally  necessary,  since Magic automatically remembers
                         which areas need to be  rechecked.   It  should  only  be
                         needed if the design rules are changed.
                  drc count
                         Print  the  number  of errors in each cell under the box.
                         Cells with no errors are skipped.
                  drc find [nth]
                         Place the box over the nth error  area  in  the  selected
                         cell  or  edit  cell, and print out information about the
                         error just as if drc why had been typed.   If  nth  isn't
                         given  (or is less than 1), the command moves to the next
                         error area.  Successive invocations  of  drc  find  cycle
                         through  all  the  error  tiles in the cell.  If multiple
                         cells are selected, this command uses the  upper-leftmost
                         one.   If  no  cells  are selected, this command uses the
                         they result from commands.  The checker  is  run  in  the
                         background,  not  synchronously  with commands, so it may
                         get temporarily behind if massive changes are made.
                  drc printrules [file]
                         Print out the compiled rule set in file, or on  the  text
                         terminal  if  file  isn't  given.  For system maintenance
                  drc rulestats
                         Print out summary statistics about the compiled rule set.
                         This is primarily for use in writing technology files.
                  drc statistics
                         Print  out  statistics  kept  by the design-rule checker.
                         For each statistic, two values are  printed:   the  count
                         since  the  last time drc statistics was invoked, and the
                         total count in this editing  session.   This  command  is
                         intended primarily for system maintenance purposes.
                  drc why
                         Recheck  the  area  underneath  the box and print out the
                         reason for each  violation  found.   Since  this  command
                         causes  a  recheck,  the  box  should  normally be placed
                         around a small area (such as an error area).
           dump cellName [child refPointC] [parent refPointP]
                  Copy the contents of cell cellName into the edit  cell  so  that
                  refPointC  in  the child is positioned at point refPointP in the
                  edit cell.  The reference points can either be  the  name  of  a
                  label, in which case the lower-left corner of the label's box is
                  used as the reference point, or as a pair of numbers giving  the
                  (x, y)  coordinates  of a point explicitly.  If refPointC is not
                  specified, the lower-left corner of cellName cell is  used.   If
                  refPointP  is  not  specified,  the lower-left corner of the box
                  tool is used (the box must be in a window  on  the  edit  cell).
                  After this command completes, the new information is selected.
           edit   Make  the  selected  cell the edit cell, and edit it in context.
                  The edit cell is normally  displayed  in  brighter  colors  than
                  other  cells (see the see command to change this).  If more than
                  one cell is selected, or if the selected cell is an  array,  the
                  cursor  position is used to select one of those cells as the new
                  edit cell.  Generally, Magic commands modify  only  the  current
                  edit cell.
           erase [layers]
                  For  the  area  enclosed  by the box, erase all paint in layers.
                  (See the ''LAYERS'' section for the syntax of layer lists).   If
                  layers  is omitted it defaults to *,labels.  See your technology
                  manual, or use the layers command, to find out about the  avail-
                  able layer names.
                  checks timestamps and re-extracts as needed to  bring  all  .ext
                  files  up-to-date  for  the  cell  in  the  window  beneath  the
                  crosshair, and all cells beneath it.  Magic displays any  errors
                  encountered  during  circuit  extraction using stippled feedback
                  areas over the area of the error, along with a message  describ-
                  ing  the type of error.  Option and args are used in the follow-
                  ing ways:
                  extract all
                         All cells in  the  window  beneath  the  cursor  are  re-
                         extracted  regardless  of whether they have changed since
                         last being extracted.
                  extract cell name
                         Extract only the currently  selected  cell,  placing  the
                         output  in  the  file  name.   If  more  than one cell is
                         selected, this command uses the upper-leftmost one.
                  extract do [ option ]
                  extract no option
                         Enable or  disable  various  options  governing  how  the
                         extractor  will  work.  Use :extract do with no arguments
                         to print a list of available options  and  their  current
                         settings.  When the adjust option is enabled, the extrac-
                         tor will compute compensating capacitance and  resistance
                         whenever  cells overlap or abut; if disabled, the extrac-
                         tor will not  compute  these  adjustments  but  will  run
                         faster.   If capacitance is enabled, node capacitances to
                         substrate (perimeter and area) are  computed;  otherwise,
                         all node capacitances are set to zero.  Similarly, resis-
                         tance governs whether or not node  resistances  are  com-
                         puted.   The  coupling  option  controls whether coupling
                         capacitances are  computed  or  not;  if  disabled,  flat
                         extraction  is  significantly  faster  than  if  coupling
                         capacitance computation is enabled.  Finally, the  length
                         option  determines whether or not pathlengths in the root
                         cell are computed (see extract length below).
                  extract help
                         Prints a  short  synopsis  of  all  the  extract  command
                  extract length [ option args ]
                         Provides  several options for controlling which point-to-
                         point path lengths are extracted explicitly.  The extrac-
                         tor  maintains  two  internal  tables, one of drivers, or
                         places where a signal is generated, and one of receivers,
                         or places where a signal is sent.  The components of each
                         table are hierarchical label names, defined by  means  of
                         the  two commands extract length driver name1 [name2 ...]
                         and  extract  length  receiver  name1  [name2  ...].   If
                         ents.  All of its parents must be  loaded  in  order  for
                         this  to  work  correctly.   If  more  than  one  cell is
                         selected, this command uses the upper-leftmost one.
                  extract showparents
                         Like extract parents, but only print the cells that would
                         be extracted; don't actually extract them.
                  extract style [style]
                         Select  the  style  to be used for extraction parameters.
                         If no style argument is provided, then Magic  prints  the
                         names  of  all extraction parameter styles defined in the
                         technology file and identifies  the  current  style.   If
                         style is provided, it is made the current style.
                  extract unique [#]
                         For  each cell in the window beneath the cursor, check to
                         insure that no label is attached to more than  one  node.
                         If  the  # keyword was not specified, whenever a label is
                         attached to more than one node, the labels in all but one
                         of the nodes are changed by appending a numeric suffix to
                         make them unique.  If the # keyword  is  specified,  only
                         names  that  end  in  a  ''#'' are made unique; any other
                         duplicate nodenames  that  don't  end  in  a  ''!''   are
                         reported  by  leaving a warning feedback area.  This com-
                         mand is provided for converting  old  designs  that  were
                         intended for extraction with Mextra, which would automat-
                         ically append unique suffixes to  node  names  when  they
                         appeared more than once.
                  extract warn [ [no] option | [no] all ]
                         The  extractor always reports fatal errors.  This command
                         controls the types of warnings that are reported.  Option
                         may  be  one  of the following: dup, to warn about two or
                         more unconnected nodes in the same  cell  that  have  the
                         same  name,  fets,  to  warn about transistors with fewer
                         than the minimum number of terminals, and labels, to warn
                         when  nodes  are not labeled in the area of cell overlap.
                         In addition, all may be used to refer  to  all  warnings.
                         If  a warning is preceded by no, it is disabled.  To dis-
                         able all warnings, use ''extract warn no all''.   To  see
                         which  warning  options  are  in  effect,  use  ''extract
           extresist [cell [threshold] ]
                  Postprocessor for improving on the resistance  calculation  per-
                  formed by the circuit extractor.  To use this command, you first
                  have to extract the design rooted at  cell  with  :extract cell,
                  and  then  flatten  the  design  using ext2sim(1), producing the
                  files cell.sim and cell.nodes.  Then run :extresist cell to pro-
                  duce  a  file,  cell.res.ext, containing differences between the
                  network described by the .ext  files  produced  the  first  time
                  feedback add text [style]
                         Used to create a feedback area manually at  the  location
                         of the box.  This is intended as a way for other programs
                         like Crystal to highlight things on a layout.   They  can
                         generate  a  command  file consisting of a feedback clear
                         command, and a sequence of box and feedback add commands.
                         Text  is associated with the feedback (it will be printed
                         by feedback why and feedback find).  Style tells  how  to
                         display  the feedback, and is one of dotted, medium, out-
                         line, pale, and solid (if unspecified, style defaults  to
                  feedback clear
                         Clears all existing feedback information from the screen.
                  feedback count
                         Prints out a count of  the  current  number  of  feedback
                  feedback find [nth]
                         Used  to  locate  a  particular feedback area.  If nth is
                         specified, the box is moved to the location  of  the  nth
                         feedback  area.   If nth isn't specified, then the box is
                         moved to the next sequential feedback area after the last
                         one  located  with  feedback  find.  In either event, the
                         explanation associated with the feedback area is printed.
                  feedback help
                         Prints  a  short  synopsis  of  all  the feedback command
                  feedback save file
                         This option will  save  information  about  all  existing
                         feedback  areas  in file.  The information is stored as a
                         collection of Magic commands, so that it can be recovered
                         with the command source file.
                  feedback why
                         Prints  out the explanations associated with all feedback
                         areas underneath the box.
           fill direction [layers]
                  Direction is a Manhattan direction (see the  section  DIRECTIONS
                  below).  The paint visible under one edge of the box is sampled.
                  Everywhere that the edge touches paint, the paint is extended in
                  the  given direction to the opposite side of the box.  For exam-
                  ple, if direction is north, then paint is sampled under the bot-
                  tom  edge of the box and extended to the top edge.  If layers is
                  specified, then only the given layers are considered;  if layers
                  isn't specified, then all layers are considered.
           findbox [zoom]
                  information).    Unlike  the  route  command,  this  command  is
                  intended to be used for routing types of circuits, such as gate-
                  arrays, whose routing channels can be determined in advance, and
                  which require the ability to  river-route  across  the  tops  of
                  cells.    The   channels   must   have   been  predefined  using
                  garoute channel commands prior to this  command  being  invoked.
                  Unlike  the  route  command, where the box indicates the routing
                  area, this command ignores the box entirely.  The new wires  are
                  placed  in  the edit cell.  The netlist used is that selected by
                  the route netlist command, or the current netlist  being  edited
                  in  a netlist window if no route netlist command has been given.
                  Options and args have the following effects:
                  garoute channel [type]
                  garoute channel xlo ylo xhi yhi [type]
                         Define a channel.  If xlo, ylo, xhi,  and  yhi  are  pro-
                         vided,  they  are  interpreted  as the coordinates of the
                         lower-left and upper-right of the bounding  box  for  the
                         channel  respectively.  Otherwise, the coordinates of the
                         box are used.  The boundary of each channel  is  adjusted
                         inward  to  lie  halfway between routing grid lines if it
                         does not lie there already; if the channel is adjusted, a
                         warning  message  is  printed.  The channel defined is an
                         ordinary routing channel if type is not  specified;  such
                         channels are identical to those used by the router of the
                         route command.  If type is given, it must be either h  or
                         v.   The  channel thereby created will be a river-routing
                         channel inside which only left-to-right routes are possi-
                         ble  (''h'')  or  top-to-bottom (''v'').  Unlike a normal
                         channel, a river-routing channel may contain terminals in
                         its interior.
                  garoute generate type [file]
                         Provides  a  primitive  form of channel decomposition for
                         regular structures such as  gate-array  or  standard-cell
                         layouts.   Generates a collection of garoute channel com-
                         mands, either to the standard output, or to file  if  the
                         latter is specified.  The type parameter must be either h
                         or v.  The entire area contained within the box is turned
                         into  routing  channels.   Each cell inside this area has
                         its bounding box computed  for  purposes  of  routing  by
                         looking  only  at  those layers considered to be ''obsta-
                         cles'' to routing (see ''Tutorial #7: Netlists and  Rout-
                         ing''  for  details).   The bounding box just computed is
                         then extended all the way to the sides of the area of the
                         box tool, vertically if type is h or horizontally if type
                         is v.  This extended area is then marked as belonging  to
                         a  river-routing  channel of type type; adjacent channels
                         of this type are merged into a single channel.  After all
                         cells are processed, the areas not marked as being river-
                         routing channels are output as normal channels.
                  garoute route [netlist]
                         Route  the  edit  cell.  If netlist is not specified, the
                         netlist used is the same as when garoute is given with no
                         options.  If netlist is given, then it is used instead.
                  garoute reset
                         Clear all channels defined by garoute channel in prepara-
                         tion for redefining a new set of channels.
                  garoute warn
                         The opposite of garoute nowarn,  this  command  instructs
                         the  router  to  leave  feedback if it is not possible to
                         route to all of the places where a terminal appears  when
                         a terminal has more than one location, even if not all of
                         those locations are actually selected for routing by  the
                         global router.
           getcell cellName [child refPointC] [parent refPointP]
                  This  command  adds a child cell instance to the edit cell.  The
                  instance refers to the cell cellName;  it is positioned so  that
                  refPointC  in  the child is at point refPointP in the edit cell.
                  The reference points can either be the name of a label, in which
                  case  the  lower-left  corner  of the label's box is used as the
                  reference point, or as a pair of numbers giving the (x, y) coor-
                  dinates  of  a point explicitly.  If refPointC is not specified,
                  the lower-left corner of cellName cell is used.  If refPointP is
                  not  specified,  the  lower-left  corner of the box tool is used
                  (the box must be in a window on the edit cell).  The new subcell
                  is  selected.   The  difference between this command and dump is
                  that dump copies the contents of the cell, while getcell  simply
                  makes  a  reference  to the original cell.  Cellname must not be
                  the edit cell or one of its ancestors.
           getnode [alias on | alias off]
           getnode [abort [str]]
                  Getnode prints out the node names (used by  the  extractor)  for
                  all  selected  paint.  If aliasing turned on, getnode prints all
                  the names it finds for a given node.  It  may  not  print  every
                  name  that exists, however.  When turned off, it just prints one
                  name.  The abort option allows the user to tell getnode that  it
                  is  not  important  to completely search nodes that have certain
                  names.  For example, getnode abort Vdd will tell getnode not  to
                  continue  searching  the  node  if it determines that one of its
                  names is Vdd.  A getnode abort, without a string argument,  will
                  erase  the  list  of names previously created by calling getnode
                  abort with string arguments.  Getnode can be safely  aborted  at
                  any  time  by  typing  the interrupt character, usually ^C.  See
                  Tutorial #11:  Using IRSIM and RSIM with Magic for more informa-
                  tion on this command.
           grid [xSpacing [ySpacing [xOrigin yOrigin]]]
                  changed  by another grid command.  When the grid is displayed, a
                  solid box is drawn to show the origin of the edit cell.
           identify instance_id
                  Set  the  instance  identifier  of  the  selected  cell  use  to
                  instance_id.   Instance_id  must  be  unique  among all instance
                  identifiers in the parent  of  the  selected  cell.   Initially,
                  Magic  guarantees  uniqueness of identifiers by giving each cell
                  an initial identifier consisting of  the  cell  definition  name
                  followed by an underscore and a small integer.
           iroute subcommand [args]
                  This  command  provides  an  interactive  interface to the Magic
                  maze-router.  Routing is done one connection at a  time.   Three
                  internal  hint layers, magnet, fence, and rotate, allow the user
                  to guide routing graphically.  Routes are chosen close  to  mag-
                  nets (if possible), routing does not cross fence boundaries, and
                  rotate areas reverse the preferred routing directions  for  each
                  layer.   The  maze-router  seeks  to  find  a  lowest-cost path.
                  Parameters specifying costs for horizontal and vertical  routing
                  on  each  layer,  cost for jogs and contacts, and cost (per unit
                  area) for distance between a path and  magnets,  help  determine
                  the nature of the routes.  Several search parameters permit tun-
                  ing to achieve acceptable routes in as short a time as possible.
                  Routing  can  always be interrupted with ^C.  The iroute subcom-
                  mands are as follows:
                  iroute Routes from cursor to inside box.
                  iroute contact [type] [parameter] [value1] ... [valuen]
                         An asterisk, *, can be used for type and parameter.  This
                         command  is  for setting and examining parameters related
                         to contacts.
                  iroute help [subcommand]
                         Summarizes irouter commands.  If a subcommand  is  given,
                         usage information for that subcommand is printed.
                  iroute layers [type] [parameter] [value1] ... [valuen]
                         An asterisk, *, can be used for type and parameter.  This
                         command is for setting and examining  parameters  related
                         to route layers.
                  iroute route [options]
                         Invokes the router.  Options are as follows:
                              -sLayers layers = layers route may start on
                              -sCursor = start route at cursor (DEFAULT)
                              -sLabel name = start route at label of given name
                              -sPoint x y = start route at given coordinates
                              -dLayers layers = layers route may end on
                              -dBox = route to box (DEFAULT)
                              -dLabel name = route to label of given name
                  iroute  spacings  [route-type] [type] [spacing] ... [typen spac-
                         Default  minimum  spacings between a route-type placed by
                         the router and other types are derived from the drc  sec-
                         tion  of  the technology file.  The defaults can be over-
                         ridden by this command.  The special type SUBCELL is used
                         to specify minimum spacing to unexpanded subcells.
                  iroute verbosity [level]
                         Controls the number of messages printed during routing:
                              0 = errors and warnings only,
                              1 = brief,
                              2 = lots of statistics.
                  iroute version
                         Prints irouter version information.
                  iroute wizard [wizardparameter] [value]
                         Used  to  examine and set miscellaneous parameters.  Most
                         of these are best left alone by the unadventurous user.
           label string [pos [layer]]
                  A label with text string is  positioned  at  the  box  location.
                  Labels  may  cover  points,  lines, or areas, and are associated
                  with specific layers.  Normally the box is collapsed to either a
                  point  or  to  a  line  (when labeling terminals on the edges of
                  cells).  Normally also, the area under the box is occupied by  a
                  single layer.  If no layer argument is specified, then the label
                  is attached to the layer under the box, or  space  if  no  layer
                  covers  the  entire  area of the box.  If layer is specified but
                  layer doesn't cover the entire area of the box, the  label  will
                  be  moved  to  another layer or space.  Labels attached to space
                  will be considered by CIF processing programs to be attached  to
                  all  layers overlapping the area of the label.  Pos is optional,
                  and specifies where the label text is to be  displayed  relative
                  to  the  box  (e.g.  ''north'').  If pos isn't given, Magic will
                  pick a position to ensure that the label text doesn't stick  out
                  past the edge of the cell.
           layers Prints  out  the names of all the layers defined for the current
           load [file]
                  Load the cell hierarchy  rooted  at  file.mag  into  the  window
                  underneath  the  cursor.   If no file is supplied, a new unnamed
                  cell is created.  The root cell of the  hierarchy  is  made  the
                  edit  cell  unless  there is already an edit cell in a different
           move [direction [amount]]
           move to x y
           path [searchpath]
                  This command tells Magic where to look  for  cells.   Searchpath
                  contains a list of directories separated by colons or spaces (if
                  spaces are used, then searchpath must be surrounded by  quotes).
                  When  looking for a cell, Magic will check each directory in the
                  path in order, until the cell is found.   If  the  cell  is  not
                  found  anywhere  in  the  path,  Magic  will  look in the system
                  library for it.  If the path command is invoked  with  no  argu-
                  ments, the current search path is printed.
           plot option [args]
                  Used  to generate hardcopy plots direct from Magic.  Options and
                  args are used in the following ways:
                  plot gremlin file [layers]
                         Generate a Gremlin-format description of everything under
                         the  box,  and  write the description in file.  If layers
                         isn't specified, paint, labels, and  unexpanded  subcells
                         are  all included in the Gremlin file just as they appear
                         on the screen.  If layers is  specified,  then  just  the
                         indicated  layers are output in the Gremlin file.  Layers
                         may include the special layers labels and  subcell.   The
                         Gremlin  file  is scaled to have a total size between 256
                         and 512 units; you should use the width and/or height Grn
                         commands  to  ensure that the printed version is the size
                         you want.  Use the mg stipples in Grn.  No  plot  parame-
                         ters are used in Gremlin plotting.
                  plot help
                         Print a short synopsis of all the plot command options.
                  plot parameters [name value]
                         If  plot  parameters  is invoked with no additional argu-
                         ments, the values for all  of  the  plot  parameters  are
                         printed.   If  name  and value are provided, then name is
                         the name of a plot parameter and value is a new value for
                         it.   Plot parameters are used to control various aspects
                         of plotting;  all of  them  have  ''reasonable''  initial
                         values.  Most of the parameters available now are used to
                         control Versatec-style plotting.  They are:
                                 The name of the font to use for cell instance ids
                                 in  Versatec plots.  This must be a file in Vfont
                                 The name of the font to use  for  cell  names  in
                                 Versatec  plots.   This  must  be a file in Vfont
                                 Indicates how many dots per inch there are on the
                                 Versatec printer.  This parameter  is  used  only
                                 for  computing  the  scale  factor  for plotting.
                                 Must be an integer greater than zero.
                                 The name of the font to use for  labels  in  Ver-
                                 satec  plots.   This must be a file in Vfont for-
                                 The name of the printer to which  to  spool  Ver-
                                 satec raster files.
                                 If  ''true''  (the  default)  then  the  name and
                                 instance-identifier of each unexpanded subcell is
                                 displayed  inside  its  bounding  box.   If  this
                                 parameter is ''false'' then only the bounding box
                                 of the cell is displayed.
                                 The  command used to spool Versatec raster files.
                                 This must be a text string containing two  ''%s''
                                 formatting  fields.   The  first  ''%s''  will be
                                 replaced with the printer name,  and  the  second
                                 one  will be replaced with the name of the raster
                                 How many raster lines of Versatec output to  gen-
                                 erate  in memory at one time.  The raster file is
                                 generated in swaths in order to keep  the  memory
                                 requirements  reasonable.   This parameter deter-
                                 mines the size of the  swaths.   It  must  be  an
                                 integer greater than zero, and should be a multi-
                                 ple of 16 in order to avoid misalignment of stip-
                                 ple patterns.
                          width  The number of pixels across the Versatec printer.
                                 Must be an integer greater than 0, and must be an
                                 even multiple of 32.
                  plot versatec [size [layers]]
                         Generate a raster file describing all the the information
                         underneath the box in a format suitable for  printing  on
                         Versatec black-and-white or color printers, and spool the
                         file for printing.  See the  plot  parameters  above  for
                         information about the parameters that are used to control
                         Versatec plotting. Size is used to  scale  the  plot:   a
                         scalefactor is chosen so that the area of the box is size
                  layers  that  lie in the plow's path are pushed ahead of it, and
                  they push other edges ahead of them to  maintain  design  rules,
                  connectivity,  and  transistor  and contact sizes.  Subcells are
                  moved in their entirety without being modified internally.   Any
                  mask  information overlapping a subcell moved by plowing is also
                  moved by the same amount.  Option and args are used in the  fol-
                  lowing ways:
                  plow boundary
                         The  box specifies the area that may be modified by plow-
                         ing.  This area is highlighted with a pale  stipple  out-
                         line.   Subsequent  plows  are  not allowed to modify any
                         area outside that specified by the box; if they  do,  the
                         distance  the  plow  moves is reduced by an amount suffi-
                         cient to insure that no  geometry  outside  the  boundary
                         gets affected.
                  plow help
                         Prints  a short synopsis of all the plow command options.
                  plow horizon n
                  plow horizon
                         The first form sets the plowing jog horizon to  n  units.
                         The  second form simply prints the value of the jog hori-
                         zon.  Every time plowing considers introducing a jog in a
                         piece  of  material,  it  looks up and down that piece of
                         material for a distance equal to the jog horizon.  If  it
                         finds  an  existing jog within this distance, it uses it.
                         Only if no jog is found within the jog horizon does plow-
                         ing  introduce  one  of  its  own.  A jog horizon of zero
                         means that plowing will always introduce new  jogs  where
                         needed.   A  jog  horizon of infinity (plow nojogs) means
                         that plowing will not introduce any new jogs of its  own.
                  plow jogs
                         Re-enable  jog  insertion with a horizon of 0.  This com-
                         mand is equivalent to plow horizon 0.
                  plow noboundary
                         Remove any boundary specified with a previous plow bound-
                         ary command.
                  plow nojogs
                         Sets  the jog horizon to infinity.  This means that plow-
                         ing will not introduce any jogs of its own; it will  only
                         use existing ones.
                  plow nostraighten
                         Don't straighten jogs automatically after each plow oper-
                         cell,  it  is  ignored  (note that this is different from
                         select and move).  If direction isn't given and the  cur-
                         sor  isn't  exactly left, right, up, or down from the box
                         corner, then Magic first rounds the cursor  position  off
                         to  a  position  that is one of those (whichever is clos-
                  plow straighten
                         Straighten jogs automatically after each plow  operation.
                         The  effect will be as though the straighten command were
                         invoked after each plow operation, with the  same  direc-
                         tion, and over the area changed by plowing.
           resist cell [tolerance]
                  This  command  is  similar  to  extresist  above,  but  used for
                  extracting resistance networks for individual nodes.   Only  the
                  node underneath the box is processed.  The network for this node
                  is output to the file cell.res.ext.   See  the  description  for
                  extresist for an explanation of tolerance.
           route option [args]
                  This command, with no option or arg, is used to generate routing
                  using the Magic router in the  edit  cell  to  make  connections
                  specified  in  the current netlist.  The box is used to indicate
                  the routing area:  no routing will be placed outside the area of
                  the  box.   The  new wires are placed in the edit cell.  Options
                  and args have the following effects:
                  route end [real]
                         Print the value of the channel end constant used  by  the
                         channel  router.  If a value is supplied, the channel end
                         constant is set to that value.  The channel end  constant
                         is  a  dimensionless  multiplier  used to compute how far
                         from the end of a channel to begin preparations  to  make
                         end connections.
                  route help
                         Print  a short synopsis of all the route command options.
                  route jog [int]
                         Print the value of the minimum jog  length  used  by  the
                         channel  router.  If a value is supplied, the minimum jog
                         length is set to that value.  The channel router makes no
                         vertical  jogs  shorter than the minimum jog length, mea-
                         sured in router grid units.  Higher values for this  con-
                         stant  may improve the quality of the routing by removing
                         unnecessary jogs; however,  prohibiting  short  jogs  may
                         make some channels unroutable.
                  route metal
                         Toggle  metal  maximization on or off.  The route command
                         routes the preferred  routing  layer  (termed  ''metal'')
                         is loaded.  This option is provided primarily as a conve-
                         nience so you need not open the netlist menu before rout-
                  route obstacle [real]
                         Print the obstacle constant used by the  channel  router.
                         If  a  value is supplied, set the channel router obstacle
                         constant to that  value.   The  obstacle  constant  is  a
                         dimensionless  multiplier  used  in  deciding  how far in
                         front of an obstacle the channel router should begin jog-
                         ging  nets  out of the way.  Larger values mean that nets
                         will jog out of the way earlier; however, if nets jog out
                         of the way too early routing area is wasted.
                  route origin [x y]
                         Print the x- and y-coordinates of the origin of the rout-
                         ing grid.  By  default,  the  routing  grid  starts  from
                         (0,0).   However,  by  supplying an x and y coordinate to
                         the route origin command, the origin can be  set  to  any
                         other value.  This command is primarily useful when rout-
                         ing a chip that has been designed  with  routing  on  the
                         same pitch as the router will use, but where the left and
                         bottom edges of the pre-existing routing  don't  line  up
                         with  the routing grid lines (for example, the pre-exist-
                         ing routing might have  been  centered  on  routing  grid
                         lines).  The alternative to specifying a different origin
                         for the routing grid would be to translate all the  mate-
                         rial in the cell to be routed so that the prewiring lined
                         up properly with routing grid lines.
                  route settings
                         Print the values of all router parameters.
                  route steady [int]
                         Print the value of the channel router's steady  net  con-
                         stant.   If  a value is supplied, set the steady net con-
                         stant to the value.  The steady net constant, measured in
                         router grid units, specifies how far beyond the next ter-
                         minal the channel router should look  for  a  conflicting
                         terminal before deciding that a net is rising or falling.
                         Larger values mean that the  net  rises  and  falls  less
                  route tech
                         Print  the  router technology information.  This includes
                         information such  as  the  names  of  the  preferred  and
                         alternate  routing  layers, their wire widths, the router
                         grid spacing, and the contact size.
                  route viamin
                         Minimize vias in (previously) routed netlist.  This  sub-
                         command  removes unnecessary layer changes in all nets in
                         wiring on the alternate routing layer into routing on the
                         preferred routing layer (''metal'')  at  the  expense  of
                         introducing  one or two vias.  The via constant specifies
                         the amount of converted wiring that makes  it  worthwhile
                         to add vias to the routing.
           rsim [options] [filename]
                  Runs  rsim under Magic.  See Tutorial #11:  Using IRSIM and RSIM
                  with Magic for more information on what options  and  files  are
                  required by rsim.  Normally, IRSIM requires a parameter file for
                  the technology and a .sim file describing the circuit.
                  The rsim command without any options can  be  used  to  interact
                  with  a previously-started rsim.  Type rsim and you will see the
                  rsim prompt.  To get back to magic, type q.
           save [name]
                  Save the edit cell on disk.  If the edit cell is  currently  the
                  ''(UNNAMED)''  cell,  name  must  be specified; in this case the
                  edit cell is renamed to name as well as being saved in the  file
                  name.mag.   Otherwise, name is optional.  If specified, the edit
                  cell is saved in the file name.mag; otherwise, it  is  saved  in
                  the file from which it was originally read.
           see option
                  This command is used to control which layers are to be displayed
                  in the window under the cursor.  It has several forms:
                  see no layers
                         Do not display the given layers in the window  under  the
                         cursor.   If  labels is given as a layer name, don't dis-
                         play labels in that window either.  If errors is given as
                         a layer, no design-rule violations will be displayed (the
                         checker will continue to  run,  though).   If  layers  is
                         given  as  "*",  all  mask  layers  will be disabled, but
                         errors and labels will still be shown.  See the  "LAYERS"
                         section at the end of this manual page for an explanation
                         of layer naming in Magic.
                  see layers
                         Reenable display of the  given  layers.   Note  that  "*"
                         expands  to  all  mask  layers,  but does not include the
                         label or error layers.  See the "LAYERS" section  at  the
                         end of this manual page for details.
                  see no Don't  display  any  mask layers or labels.  Only subcell
                         bounding boxes will be displayed.
                  see    Reenable display of all mask layers, labels, and  errors.
                  see allSame
                         Display all cells the same way.  This disables the facil-
                         identical  to select cell.  Otherwise, paint is selected.
                         The first time the command is invoked, a chunk  of  paint
                         is  selected: the largest rectangular area of material of
                         the same type visible underneath the cursor.  If the com-
                         mand  is  invoked  again  without  moving the cursor, the
                         selection is extended to include all material of the same
                         type,  regardless  of shape.  If the command is invoked a
                         third time, the selection is extended  again  to  include
                         all  material  that is visible and electrically connected
                         to the point underneath the cursor.
                  select more
                         This command is  identical  to  select  except  that  the
                         selection is not first cleared.  The result is to add the
                         newly-selected material to what is already in the  selec-
                  select less
                         This  chooses material just as select does, but the mate-
                         rial is removed from the selection, rather than added  to
                         it.  The result is to deselect the chosen material.
                  select [more | less] area layers
                         Select  material  by  area.  If layers are not specified,
                         then all paint, labels, and unexpanded  subcells  visible
                         underneath the box are selected.  If layers is specified,
                         then only those layers are selected.  If more  is  speci-
                         fied,  the new material is added to the current selection
                         rather than replacing it.  If less is specified, the  new
                         material is removed from the selection (deselected).
                  select [more | less] cell name
                         Select  a  subcell.   If  name  isn't given, this command
                         finds a subcell that is visible underneath the cursor and
                         selects  it.   If  the command is repeated without moving
                         the cursor then it will step  through  all  the  subcells
                         under  the  cursor.  If name is given, it is treated as a
                         hierarchical instance identifier starting from  the  root
                         of  the  window underneath the cursor.  The named cell is
                         selected.  If more is specified, the new subcell is added
                         to  the  current  selection  instead of replacing it.  If
                         less is specified, the new subcell is  removed  from  the
                         selection (deselected).
                  select clear
                         Clear  out  the selection.  This does not affect the lay-
                         out;  it merely deselects everything.
                  select help
                         Print a short synopsis of the selection commands.
                  select save cell
                  through the center of the selection's area.  If the  box  is  in
                  the  same  window as the selection, it is flipped too.  Selected
                  material not in the edit cell is not affected.
           simcmd cmd
                  Sends the command cmd to rsim for execution.  See Tutorial  #11:
                  Using IRSIM and RSIM with Magic for more information.
           snap [on]
           snap [off]
                  Control  whether  the  box  and  point  are  snapped to the grid
                  selected for the windows in which they appear (the grid was  set
                  by  the grid command), or to the standard 1x1 grid.  The default
                  is for snapping to be off, i.e., snapping to a 1x1  grid.   With
                  no arguments, snap prints whether snapping is enabled or not.
           startrsim [options] [filename]
                  Similar  to the rsim command, except it returns to Magic as soon
                  as rsim is started.  See Tutorial #11:   Using  IRSIM  and  RSIM
                  with Magic for more information.
           straighten direction
                  Straighten  jogs  in wires underneath the box by pulling them in
                  direction.  Jogs are only straightened if doing so will cause no
                  additional geometry to move.
           stretch [direction [amount]]
                  This  command is identical to move except that simple stretching
                  occurs as the selection is moved.  Each piece of  paint  in  the
                  selection  causes the area through which it's moved to be erased
                  in that layer.  Also, each piece of paint in the selection  that
                  touches  unselected  material  along  its back side causes extra
                  material to be painted to fill in the gap left by the move.   If
                  direction  isn't given and the cursor isn't exactly left, right,
                  up, or down from the box corner, then  Magic  first  rounds  the
                  cursor  position  off  to  a  position  that  is  one  of  those
                  (whichever is closest).
           tool [name | info]
                  Change the current tool.  The result is that the cursor shape is
                  different and the mouse buttons mean different things.  The com-
                  mand tool info prints out the meanings of the  buttons  for  the
                  current tool.  Tool name changes the current tool to name, where
                  name is one of box, wiring, or netlist.  If tool is invoked with
                  no  arguments, it picks a new tool in circular sequence:  multi-
                  ple invocations will cycle through all of the available tools.
                  Unexpand all cells that touch the box but don't completely  con-
                  tain it.
                  wire help
                         Print out a synopsis of the various wiring commands.
                  wire horizontal
                         Just  like wire leg except that the new segment is forced
                         to be horizontal.
                  wire leg
                         Paint a horizontal or vertical segment of wire  from  one
                         side  of  the  box  over to the cursor's x- or y-location
                         (respectively).  The direction (horizontal  or  vertical)
                         is  chosen so as to produce the longest possible segment.
                         The segment is painted in the current wiring material and
                         thickness.   The  new segment is selected, and the box is
                         placed at its tip.
                  wire switch [layer width]
                         Switch routing layers and place  a  contact  at  the  box
                         location.   The contact type is chosen to connect the old
                         and new routing materials.  The  box  is  placed  at  the
                         position of the contact, and the contact is selected.  If
                         layer and width are specified, they are used as  the  new
                         routing  material  and  width, respectively.  If they are
                         not specified, the new material and width are  chosen  to
                         correspond to the material underneath the cursor.
                  wire type [layer width]
                         Pick a material and width for wiring.  If layer and width
                         are not given, then they are  chosen  from  the  material
                         underneath  the  cursor,  a  square  chunk of material is
                         selected to indicate the layer and width that  were  cho-
                         sen, and the box is placed over this chunk.  If layer and
                         width are given, then this command does  not  modify  the
                         box position.
                  wire vertical
                         Just  like wire leg except that the new segment is forced
                         to be vertical.
           writeall [force]
                  This command steps through all the cells that have been modified
                  in  this  edit session and gives you a chance to write them out.
                  If the force option is specified,  then  ''autowrite''  mode  is
                  used:  all modified cells are automatically written without ask-
                  ing for permission.


           These commands are not used for layout, but are instead used for  over-
           all, housekeeping functions.  They are valid in all windows.
           logcommands [file [update]]]
                  If file is given, all further commands are logged to that  file.
                  If  no  arguments  are given, command logging is terminated.  If
                  the keyword update is present, commands are output to  the  file
                  to  cause  the  screen to be updated after each command when the
                  command file is read back in.
           macro [char [command]]
                  Command is associated with char such that  typing  char  on  the
                  keyboard  is equivalent to typing '':'' followed by command.  If
                  command is omitted, the current macro for char is  printed.   If
                  char  is  also omitted, then all current macros are printed.  If
                  command contains spaces, tabs, or semicolons  then  it  must  be
                  placed  in  quotes.   The  semicolon acts as a command separator
                  allowing multiple commands to be combined in a single macro.
           openwindow [cell]
                  Open a new, empty window at  the  cursor  position.   Placement,
                  sizing,  and  methods of manipulation are determined by the con-
                  ventions of the window system in use.   If  cell  is  specified,
                  then  that  cell  is displayed in the new window.  Otherwise the
                  area of the box will be displayed in the new window.
           pushbutton button action
                  Simulates a button push.  Button  should  be  left,  middle,  or
                  right.   Action is one of up, or down.  This command is normally
                  invoked only from command scripts produced  by  the  logcommands
           quit   Exit Magic and return to the shell.  If any cells, colormaps, or
                  netlists have changed since they were last saved  on  disk,  you
                  are given a chance to abort the command and continue in Magic.
           redo [n]
                  Redo  the  last  n  commands  that  were  undone using undo (see
                  below).  The number of commands to redo defaults to 1  if  n  is
                  not specified.
           redraw Redraw the graphics screen.
           scroll direction [amount]
                  The  window  under  the cursor is moved by amount screenfulls in
                  direction relative to the circuit.  If  amount  is  omitted,  it
                  defaults to 0.5.
           send type command
                  Send  a  command to the window client named by type.  The result
                  is just as if command had been typed in a window of  type  type.
                  See specialopen, below, for the allowable types of windows.
           setpoint [x y [windowID]]
                  line  whose last character is backslash is joined to the follow-
                  ing line.  The commands setpoint, pushbutton, echo,  sleep,  and
                  updatedisplay are useful in command files, and seldom used else-
           specialopen [x1 y1 x2 y2] type [args]
                  Open a window of type type.  If the optional x1 y1 x2 y2 coordi-
                  nates  are  given,  then the new window will have its lower left
                  corner at screen coordinates (x1, y1) and its upper right corner
                  at  screen  coordinates (x2, y2).  The args arguments are inter-
                  preted differently depending upon the type of the window.  These
                  types are known:
                  layout This  type  of  window  is used to edit a VLSI cell.  The
                         command takes a single argument which is used as the name
                         of a cell to be loaded.  The command
                                               open filename
                         is a shorthand for the command
                                       specialopen layout filename.
                  color  This  type  of  window allows the color map to be edited.
                         See the section COMMANDS FOR COLORMAP EDITING below.
                         This type of window presents a menu that can be  used  to
                         place  labels,  and  to generate and edit net-lists.  See
                         the section COMMANDS FOR NETLIST EDITING below.
                  Move the window pointed at so that it lies underneath  the  rest
                  of the windows.
           undo [count]
                  Undoes  the  last  count commands.  Almost all commands in Magic
                  are now undo-able.  The  only  holdouts  left  are  cell  expan-
                  sion/unexpansion,  and  window  modifications  (change  of size,
                  zooming, etc.).  If count is unspecified, it defaults to 1.
                  Update the display.  This command is normally invoked only  from
                  command  scripts.   Scripts  that  do  not  contain this command
                  update the screen only at the end of the script.
           view   Choose a view for the  window  underneath  the  cursor  so  that
                  everything in the window is visible.
           windscrollbars [on|off]
                  Set  the  flag  that  determines if new windows will have scroll
           windowpositions [file]
                  Write out the positions of the windows in a format suitable  for
           menu, see ''Magic Tutorial #7: Netlists and Routing''.  The  menu  but-
           tons  all correspond to commands that could be typed in netlist or lay-
           out windows.


           The commands described below work if you are pointing to  the  interior
           of the netlist menu.  They may also be invoked when you are pointing at
           another window by using the send netlist command.   Terminal  names  in
           all  of the commands below are hierarchical names consisting of zero or
           more cell use ids separated by slashes, followed  by  the  label  name,
           e.g.  toplatch/shiftcell_1/in.  When processing the terminal paths, the
           search always starts in the edit cell.
           add term1 term2
                  Add the terminal named term1  to  the  net  containing  terminal
                  term2.   If  term2 isn't in a net yet, make a new net containing
                  just term1 and term2.
                  Check the netlist to make sure that for every terminal named  in
                  the  list there is at least one label in the design.  Also check
                  to make sure that every net contains at least two distinct  ter-
                  minals,  or  one  terminal with several labels by the same name.
                  When errors are found, give the user an  opportunity  to  delete
                  offending  terminals and nets.  This command can also be invoked
                  by clicking the ''Cleanup'' menu button.
           cull   Examine the current netlist and the routing in  the  edit  cell,
                  and  remove those nets from the netlist that are already routed.
                  This command is often used after pre-routing nets  by  hand,  so
                  the router won't try to implement them again.
           dnet name name ...
                  For  each  name  given, delete the net containing that terminal.
                  If no name is given, delete the currently-selected net, just  as
                  happens when the ''No Net'' menu button is clicked.
           dterm name name ...
                  For each name given, delete that terminal from its net.
                  Pick  a piece of paint in the edit cell that lies under the box.
                  Starting from this, trace  out  all  the  electrically-connected
                  material  in  the  edit  cell.  Where this material touches sub-
                  cells, find any terminals in the subcells and  make  a  new  net
                  containing  those terminals.  Note:  this is a different command
                  from the extract command in layout windows.
           find pattern [layers]
                  Search the area beneath the box  for  labels  matching  pattern,
                  which may contain the regular-expression characters ''*'' ''?'',
                  time  it was written are discarded.  If netlist isn't given, the
                  current netlist is flushed.
           join term1 term2
                  Join together the nets containing  terminals  term1  and  term2.
                  The  result  is  a  single net containing all the terminals from
                  both the old nets.
           netlist [name]
                  Select a netlist to work on.  If name is provided, read
                  (if  it hasn't already been read before) and make it the current
                  netlist.  If name isn't provided, use the name of the edit  cell
           print [name]
                  Print the names of all the terminals in the net containing name.
                  If name isn't provided, print the terminals in the current  net.
                  This  command  has  the same effect as clicking on the ''Print''
                  menu button.
           ripup [netlist]
                  This command has two forms.  If netlist isn't typed as an  argu-
                  ment, then find a piece of paint in the edit cell under the box.
                  Trace out all paint in the edit cell that is  electrically  con-
                  nected  to the starting piece, and delete all of this paint.  If
                  netlist is typed, find all paint in the edit cell that is  elec-
                  trically  connected  to  any  of  the  terminals  in the current
                  netlist, and delete all of this paint.
           savenetlist [file]
                  Save the current netlist on disk.  If file is given,  write  the
                  netlist  in  Otherwise, write the netlist back to the
                  place from which it was read.
                  Find a piece of paint in any cell underneath the box.   Starting
                  from  this paint, trace out all paint in all cells that is elec-
                  trically connected to the  starting  piece  and  highlight  this
                  paint on the screen.  To make the highlights go away, invoke the
                  command with the box over empty space.   This  command  has  the
                  same effect as clicking on the ''Show'' menu button.
                  Find  the  labels  corresponding to each of the terminals in the
                  current netlist, and generate a feedback area over  each.   This
                  command  has  the  same effect as clicking on the ''Terms'' menu
           trace [name]
                  This command is similar to shownet except that instead of start-
                  ing  from a piece of paint under the box, it starts from each of
                  the terminals in the net containing name (or the current net  if


           Color windows display two sets of colored bars  and  a  swatch  of  the
           color  being edited.  The left set of color bars is labeled Red, Green,
           and Blue;  these correspond to the proportion of red, green,  and  blue
           in the color being edited.  The right set of bars is labeled Hue, Satu-
           ration, and Value;  these correspond to the same color but in  a  space
           whose  axes  are  hue (spectral color), saturation (spectral purity vs.
           dilution with white), and value (light vs. dark).
           The value of a color is changed by pointing inside the  region  spanned
           by  one of the color bars and clicking any mouse button.  The color bar
           will change so that it extends to the point selected by  the  crosshair
           when the button was pressed.  The color can also be changed by clicking
           a button over one of the ''pumps'' next to a color bar.  A  left-button
           click makes a 1% increment or decrement, and a right-button click makes
           a 5% change.
           The color being edited can be changed by pressing the left button  over
           the  current color box in the editing window, then moving the mouse and
           releasing the button over a point on the screen that contains the color
           to  be  edited.   A color value can be copied from an existing color to
           the current color by pressing the right mouse button over  the  current
           color  box, then releasing the button when the cursor is over the color
           whose value is to be copied into the current color.


           These commands work if you are pointing to the interior of  a  colormap
           window.  The commands are:
           color [number]
                  Load  number  as  the  color being edited in the window.  Number
                  must be an octal number between 0 and 377; it corresponds to the
                  entry  in  the  color map that is to be edited.  If no number is
                  given, this command prints out the value of the color  currently
                  being edited.
           load [techStyle displayStyle monitorType]
                  Load  a new color map.  If no arguments are specified, the color
                  map for the current technology style (e.g, mos),  display  style
                  (e.g,  7bit),  and monitor type (e.g, std) is re-loaded.  Other-
                  wise, the  color  map  is  read  from  the  file  techStyle.dis-
                  playStyle.monitorType.cmap  in  the  current directory or in the
                  system library directory.
           save [techStyle displayStyle monitorType]
                  Save the current color map.  If no arguments are specified, save
                  the  color  map  in  a file determined by the current technology
                  style, display style, and monitor  type  as  above.   Otherwise,
                  save  it  in the file techStyle.displayStyle.monitorType.cmap in
                  the current directory or in the system library directory.
           *      All mask layers.  Does not include special layers like the label
                  layer and the error layer (see below).
           $      All layers underneath the cursor.
           errors Design-rule violations (useful primarily in the see command).
           labels Label layer.
                  Subcell layer.
           Layer  masks  may  be  formed  by constructing comma-separated lists of
           individual layer names.  The individual layer names may be abbreviated,
           as  long  as  the  abbreviations  are unique.  For example, to indicate
           polysilicon and n-diffusion, use poly,ndiff or ndiff,poly.  The special
           character  -  causes  all  subsequent  layers to be subtracted from the
           layer mask.  For example, *-p means  ''all  layers  but  polysilicon''.
           The special character + reverses the effect of a previous -; all subse-
           quent layers are once again added to the layer mask.


           ext2sim(1),   ext2spice(1),   cmap(5),   dstyle(5),   ext(5),   sim(5),
           glyphs(5), magic(5), displays(5), net(5)
           Online documentation can be found at the following URLs:
           The  OpenCircuitDesign  website contains HTML versions of all the docu-
           mentation found in the Magic "doc" subdirectory,  including  tutorials,
           technology file manual; download, compile and install instructions, and
           command reference.


           ${CAD_ROOT}/magic/sys/.magicstartup file to create default macros
           ~/.magic            user-specific startup command file
           ${CAD_ROOT}/magic/nmos/*some standard nmos cells
           ${CAD_ROOT}/magic/scmos/*some standard scmos cells
           ${CAD_ROOT}/magic/sys/*.cmapcolormap files, see CMAP(5) man page
           ${CAD_ROOT}/magic/sys/*.dstyledisplay style files, see DSTYLE(5) man page
           ${CAD_ROOT}/magic/sys/*.glyphscursor and window bitmap files, see GLYPH(5) man page
           ${CAD_ROOT}/magic/sys/*.techtechnology files, see ''Maintainer's Manual
                               #2: The Technology File''
           ${CAD_ROOT}/displaysconfiguration file for Magic serial-line displays
           CAD_ROOT variable.  If the shell environment variable CAD_ROOT is  set,
           Magic   uses   that   location   instead   of  the  installed  location
           (/usr/local/lib, by default).  Normally one  would  change  the  search
           path (see below) rather than redirect the entire CAD_ROOT location.
           Don Stark (new contact scheme, X11 interface,  various  other  things),
           Mike Chow (Rsim interface).  The X11 driver is the work of several peo-
           ple, including Don Stark, Walter Scott, and Doug Pan.
           Developers:  Ongoing development (magic version 6.5  and  higher)  made
           possible by Stefanos Sidiropolous, Tim Edwards, Rajit Manohar, Philippe
           Pouliquen, Michael Godfrey, and others.
           Many other people have contributed to Magic, but it  is  impossible  to
           list them all here.  We appreciate their help!


           If  Magic  gets  stuck for some reason, first try typing Control-C into
           the terminal window (in the Tcl/Tk version, this is the original termi-
           nal,  not  the  Tk  console  window).  Most of Magic's lengthy database
           searches are interruptible.  If this doesn't work,  kill  the  process.
           The  Tcl/Tk  version automatically creates periodic backups that may be
           recovered with "magic -r".
           Report bugs to  Please be specific: tell  us
           exactly what you did to cause the problem, what you expected to happen,
           and what happened instead.  If possible send along small files that  we
           can  use  to reproduce the bug.  A list of known bugs and fixes is also
           available from the above address.  Tell us which version of  magic  you
           are running.

    4th Berkeley Distribution MAGIC(1)


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