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           ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...


           List  information  about  the FILEs (the current directory by default).
           Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort.
           Mandatory arguments to long options are  mandatory  for  short  options
           -a, --all
                  do not ignore entries starting with .
           -A, --almost-all
                  do not list implied . and ..
                  with -l, print the author of each file
           -b, --escape
                  print octal escapes for nongraphic characters
                  use SIZE-byte blocks.  See SIZE format below
           -B, --ignore-backups
                  do not list implied entries ending with ~
           -c     with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of
                  file status information) with -l: show ctime and  sort  by  name
                  otherwise: sort by ctime
           -C     list entries by columns
                  colorize  the  output.   WHEN  defaults  to  'always'  or can be
                  'never' or 'auto'.  More info below
           -d, --directory
                  list directory entries instead of contents, and do not  derefer-
                  ence symbolic links
           -D, --dired
                  generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode
           -f     do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color
           -F, --classify
                  append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries
                  likewise, except do not append '*'
                  disables grouping
           -G, --no-group
                  in a long listing, don't print group names
           -h, --human-readable
                  with -l, print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)
           --si   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024
           -H, --dereference-command-line
                  follow symbolic links listed on the command line
                  follow each command line symbolic link that points to  a  direc-
                  do  not  list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden
                  by -a or -A)
                  append indicator with style WORD to entry names: none (default),
                  slash (-p), file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)
           -i, --inode
                  print the index number of each file
           -I, --ignore=PATTERN
                  do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
           -k     like --block-size=1K
           -l     use a long listing format
           -L, --dereference
                  when showing file information for a symbolic link, show informa-
                  tion for the file the link references rather than for  the  link
           -m     fill width with a comma separated list of entries
           -n, --numeric-uid-gid
                  like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs
           -N, --literal
                  print  raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control characters spe-
           -o     like -l, but do not list group information
           -p, --indicator-style=slash
                  shell-always, c, escape
           -r, --reverse
                  reverse order while sorting
           -R, --recursive
                  list subdirectories recursively
           -s, --size
                  print the allocated size of each file, in blocks
           -S     sort by file size
                  sort by WORD instead of name: none -U, extension  -X,  size  -S,
                  time -t, version -v
                  with  -l,  show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime
                  -u, access -u, use -u, ctime -c, or  status  -c;  use  specified
                  time as sort key if --sort=time
                  with  -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso,
                  locale, +FORMAT.  FORMAT is interpreted like 'date';  if  FORMAT
                  is  FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to non-recent files
                  and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with 'posix-',
                  STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale
           -t     sort by modification time
           -T, --tabsize=COLS
                  assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8
           -u     with  -lt:  sort  by, and show, access time with -l: show access
                  time and sort by name otherwise: sort by access time
           -U     do not sort; list entries in directory order
           -v     natural sort of (version) numbers within text
           -w, --width=COLS
                  assume screen width instead of current value
           -x     list entries by lines instead of by columns
           -X     sort alphabetically by entry extension
           -1     list one file per line
           SELinux options:
                  output version information and exit
           SIZE may be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one  of  fol-
           lowing: KB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T,
           P, E, Z, Y.
           Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by  default  and
           with  --color=never.  With --color=auto, ls emits color codes only when
           standard output is connected to a terminal.  The LS_COLORS  environment
           variable can change the settings.  Use the dircolors command to set it.
       Exit status:
           0      if OK,
           1      if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),
           2      if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line  argument).


           Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.


           Report ls bugs to
           GNU coreutils home page: <>
           General help using GNU software: <>
           Report ls translation bugs to <>


           Copyright  (C)  2010  Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+: GNU
           GPL version 3 or later <>.
           This is free software: you are free  to  change  and  redistribute  it.
           There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.


           The  full  documentation  for ls is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If
           the info and ls programs are properly installed at your site, the  com-
                  info coreutils 'ls invocation'
           should give you access to the complete manual.

    GNU coreutils 8.4 June 2018 LS(1)


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