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           login [ -p ] [ -h hostname ] [ -H ] [ -f username | username ]


           login is used when signing onto a system.
           If an argument is not given, login prompts for the username.
           If  the  user  is not root, and if /etc/nologin exists, the contents of
           this file are printed to the screen, and the login is terminated.  This
           is  typically  used  to  prevent  logins when the system is being taken
           If  special  access  restrictions  are  specified  for  the   user   in
           /etc/usertty,  these  must be met, or the log in attempt will be denied
           and a syslog message will be generated. See  the  section  on  "Special
           Access Restrictions".
           If  the  user is root, then the login must be occurring on a tty listed
           in /etc/securetty.  Failures will be logged with the syslog facility.
           After  these  conditions  have  been  checked,  the  password  will  be
           requested  and  checked  (if a password is required for this username).
           Ten attempts are allowed before login dies, but after the first  three,
           the  response starts to get very slow.  Login failures are reported via
           the syslog facility.  This facility is also used to report any success-
           ful root logins.
           If  the  file  ~/.hushlogin  or  /etc/hushlogins exists, then a "quiet"
           login is performed (this disables the checking of mail and the printing
           of  the  last  login  time  and  message  of  the  day).  Otherwise, if
           /var/log/lastlog exists, the last login time is printed (and  the  cur-
           rent login is recorded).
           Note  that  if the /etc/hushlogins file exists then the last login mes-
           sage could be generated by PAM, for example by:
            session required noupdate showfailed
           setting in the /etc/pam.d/login file. The  PAM  library  provides  more
           detailed information about failed login attempts.
           Random  administrative  things,  such as setting the UID and GID of the
           tty are performed.  The TERM environment variable is preserved,  if  it
           exists  (other  environment variables are preserved if the -p option is
           used).  Then the HOME, PATH, SHELL, TERM, MAIL, and LOGNAME environment
           variables  are  set.  PATH defaults to /usr/local/bin:/bin:/usr/bin for
           normal                  users,                  and                  to
           /usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin  for root.
           Last, if this is not a "quiet" login, the message of the day is printed
           and  the  file with the user's name in /var/spool/mail will be checked,
           and a message printed if it has non-zero length.
                  remote host to login so that it may be placed in utmp and  wtmp.
                  Only the superuser may use this option.
                  Note  that the -h option has impact on the PAM service name. The
                  standard service name is "login", with the -h option the name is
                  "remote".  It's  necessary  to  create a proper PAM config files
                  (e.g.  /etc/pam.d/login and /etc/pam.d/remote ).
           -H     Used by other servers (i.e.,  telnetd(8))  to  tell  login  that
                  printing the hostname should be suppressed in the login: prompt.
                  See also LOGIN_PLAIN_PROMPT below if your server does not  allow
                  to configure login command line.


           login  reads  the  /etc/login.defs(5) configuration file.  This support
           has been backported to RHEL6 and it's limited to the options  described
           below.   Note  that  the  configuration  file could be distributed with
           another package (e.g. shadow-utils).  The following configuration items
           are relevant for login(1):
           LOGIN_PLAIN_PROMPT (boolean)
               Tell  login  that printing the hostname should be suppressed in the
               login: prompt.  This is alternative to the -H command line  option.
               The default value is no.


           The  file  /etc/securetty  lists  the  names  of the ttys where root is
           allowed to log in. One name of a tty device without  the  /dev/  prefix
           must  be  specified  on each line.  If the file does not exist, root is
           allowed to log in on any tty.
           On most modern Linux systems PAM (Pluggable Authentication Modules)  is
           used.  On  systems that do not use PAM, the file /etc/usertty specifies
           additional access restrictions for specific users.  If this  file  does
           not exist, no additional access restrictions are imposed. The file con-
           sists of a sequence of  sections.  There  are  three  possible  section
           types:  CLASSES, GROUPS and USERS. A CLASSES section defines classes of
           ttys and hostname patterns, A GROUPS section defines allowed  ttys  and
           hosts  on  a  per group basis, and a USERS section defines allowed ttys
           and hosts on a per user basis.
           Each line in this file in may be no longer than  255  characters.  Com-
           ments start with # character and extend to the end of the line.
       The CLASSES Section
           A  CLASSES  section begins with the word CLASSES at the start of a line
           in all upper case. Each following line until the start of a new section
           or  the  end  of  the file consists of a sequence of words separated by
           tabs or spaces. Each line defines a class of ttys and host patterns.
           The word at the beginning of a line becomes  defined  as  a  collective
       The GROUPS Section
           A  GROUPS  section  defines  allowed ttys and hosts on a per Unix group
           basis. If a user is a member of a Unix group according  to  /etc/passwd
           and  /etc/group  and  such  a group is mentioned in a GROUPS section in
           /etc/usertty then the user is granted access if the group is.
           A GROUPS section starts with the word GROUPS in all upper case  at  the
           start  of  a line, and each following line is a sequence of words sepa-
           rated by spaces or tabs. The first word on a line is the  name  of  the
           group  and  the  rest  of  the words on the line specifies the ttys and
           hosts where members of that group are allowed access. These  specifica-
           tions  may  involve the use of classes defined in previous CLASSES sec-
           An example GROUPS section.
           sys       tty1
           stud      myclass1 tty4
           This example specifies that members of group sys may log in on tty1 and
           from  hosts  in the domain. Users in group stud may log in from
           hosts/ttys specified in the class myclass1 or from tty4.
       The USERS Section
           A USERS section starts with the word USERS in all  upper  case  at  the
           start  of  a line, and each following line is a sequence of words sepa-
           rated by spaces or tabs. The first word on a line  is  a  username  and
           that user is allowed to log in on the ttys and from the hosts mentioned
           on the rest of the  line.  These  specifications  may  involve  classes
           defined  in  previous CLASSES sections.  If no section header is speci-
           fied at the top of the file, the first section defaults to be  a  USERS
           An example USERS section:
           zacho          tty1 @
           blue      tty3 myclass2
           This  lets  the  user  zacho  login only on tty1 and from hosts with IP
           addreses in the range -, and user  blue  is
           allowed  to  log  in  from  tty3 and whatever is specified in the class
           There may be a line in a USERS section starting with a username  of  *.
           This  is a default rule and it will be applied to any user not matching
           any other line.
           o      The  string @localhost, meaning that the user is allowed to tel-
                  net/rlogin from the local host  to  the  same  host.  This  also
                  allows  the  user  to  for  example  run  the  command: xterm -e
           o      A domain name suffix such as @.some.dom, meaning that  the  user
                  may rlogin/telnet from any host whose domain name has the suffix
           o      A  range  of  IPv4  addresses,  written  @x.x.x.x/y.y.y.y  where
                  x.x.x.x is the IP address in the usual dotted quad decimal nota-
                  tion, and y.y.y.y is a bitmask in the same  notation  specifying
                  which  bits in the address to compare with the IP address of the
                  remote host. For example @ means  that
                  the  user may rlogin/telnet from any host whose IP address is in
                  the range -
           o      An range of  IPv6  addresses,  written  @[n:n:n:n:n:n:n:n]/m  is
                  interpreted  as  a [net]/prefixlen pair. An IPv6 host address is
                  matched if prefixlen bits of net is equal to the prefixlen  bits
                  of  the  address.   For   example,  the  [net]/prefixlen pattern
                  [3ffe:505:2:1::]/64  matches  every   address   in   the   range
                  3ffe:505:2:1:: through 3ffe:505:2:1:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff.
           Any  of  the  above  origins  may  be  prefixed by a time specification
           according to the syntax:
           timespec    ::= '[' <day-or-hour> [':' <day-or-hour>]* ']'
           day         ::= 'mon' | 'tue' | 'wed' | 'thu' | 'fri' | 'sat' | 'sun'
           hour        ::= '0' | '1' | ... | '23'
           hourspec    ::= <hour> | <hour> '-' <hour>
           day-or-hour ::= <day> | <hourspec>
           For example, the origin [mon:tue:wed:thu:fri:8-17]tty3 means  that  log
           in  is  allowed on mondays through fridays between 8:00 and 17:59 (5:59
           pm) on tty3.  This also shows that  an  hour  range  a-b  includes  all
           moments between a:00 and b:59. A single hour specification (such as 10)
           means the time span between 10:00 and 10:59.
           Not specifying any time prefix for a tty or host means log in from that
           origin  is allowed any time. If you give a time prefix be sure to spec-
           ify both a set of days and one or more hours or  hour  ranges.  A  time
           specification may not include any white space.
           If  no  default  rule  is  given  then  users  not  matching  any  line
           /etc/usertty are allowed to log in from anywhere as is standard  behav-


           init(8),  getty(8),  mail(1),  passwd(1),  passwd(5), environ(7), shut-


           The undocumented BSD -r option is not supported.  This may be  required
           by some rlogind(8) programs.
           A  recursive  login,  as  used  to be possible in the good old days, no
           longer works; for most purposes su(1)  is  a  satisfactory  substitute.
           Indeed,  for  security  reasons,  login does a vhangup() system call to
           remove any possible listening processes on the tty. This  is  to  avoid
           password  sniffing. If one uses the command "login", then the surround-
           ing shell gets killed by vhangup() because  it's  no  longer  the  true
           owner  of the tty.  This can be avoided by using "exec login" in a top-
           level shell or xterm.


           Derived from BSD login 5.40 (5/9/89) by  Michael  Glad  (
           for HP-UX
           Ported to Linux 0.12: Peter Orbaek (


           The login command is part of the util-linux-ng package and is available

    Util-linux 1.6 4 November 1996 LOGIN(1)


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