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           login [ name ]
           login -p
           login -h hostname
           login -f name


           login is used when signing onto a system.
           If an argument is not given, login prompts for the username.
           If  the  user  is not root, and if /etc/nologin exists, the contents of
           this file are printed to the screen, and the login is terminated.  This
           is  typically  used  to  prevent  logins when the system is being taken
           If  special  access  restrictions  are  specified  for  the   user   in
           /etc/usertty,  these  must be met, or the log in attempt will be denied
           and a syslog message will be generated. See  the  section  on  "Special
           Access Restrictions".
           If  the  user is root, then the login must be occurring on a tty listed
           in /etc/securetty.  Failures will be logged with the syslog facility.
           After  these  conditions  have  been  checked,  the  password  will  be
           requested  and  checked  (if a password is required for this username).
           Ten attempts are allowed before login dies, but after the first  three,
           the  response starts to get very slow.  Login failures are reported via
           the syslog facility.  This facility is also used to report any success-
           ful root logins.
           If  the  file  ~/.hushlogin  or  /etc/hushlogins exists, then a "quiet"
           login is performed (this disables the checking of mail and the printing
           of  the  last  login  time  and  message  of  the  day).  Otherwise, if
           /var/log/lastlog exists, the last login time is printed (and  the  cur-
           rent login is recorded).
           Note  that  if the /etc/hushlogins file exists then the last login mes-
           sage could be generated by PAM, for example by:
            session required noupdate showfailed
           setting in the /etc/pam.d/login file. The  PAM  library  provides  more
           detailed information about failed login attempts.
           Random  administrative  things,  such as setting the UID and GID of the
           tty are performed.  The TERM environment variable is preserved,  if  it
           exists  (other  environment variables are preserved if the -p option is
           used).  Then the HOME, PATH, SHELL, TERM, MAIL, and LOGNAME environment
           variables  are  set.  PATH defaults to /usr/local/bin:/bin:/usr/bin for
           normal                  users,                  and                  to
           /usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin  for root.
           -h     Used by other servers (i.e., telnetd(8)) to pass the name of the
                  remote host to login so that it may be placed in utmp and  wtmp.
                  Only the superuser may use this option.
                  Note  that the -h option has impact on the PAM service name. The
                  standard service name is "login", with the -h option the name is
                  "remote".  It's  necessary  to  create a proper PAM config files
                  (e.g.  /etc/pam.d/login and /etc/pam.d/remote ).


           The file /etc/securetty lists the names  of  the  ttys  where  root  is
           allowed  to  log  in. One name of a tty device without the /dev/ prefix
           must be specified on each line.  If the file does not  exist,  root  is
           allowed to log in on any tty.
           On  most modern Linux systems PAM (Pluggable Authentication Modules) is
           used. On systems that do not use PAM, the file  /etc/usertty  specifies
           additional  access  restrictions for specific users.  If this file does
           not exist, no additional access restrictions are imposed. The file con-
           sists  of  a  sequence  of  sections.  There are three possible section
           types: CLASSES, GROUPS and USERS. A CLASSES section defines classes  of
           ttys  and  hostname patterns, A GROUPS section defines allowed ttys and
           hosts on a per group basis, and a USERS section  defines  allowed  ttys
           and hosts on a per user basis.
           Each  line  in  this file in may be no longer than 255 characters. Com-
           ments start with # character and extend to the end of the line.
       The CLASSES Section
           A CLASSES section begins with the word CLASSES at the start of  a  line
           in all upper case. Each following line until the start of a new section
           or the end of the file consists of a sequence  of  words  separated  by
           tabs or spaces. Each line defines a class of ttys and host patterns.
           The  word  at  the  beginning of a line becomes defined as a collective
           name for the ttys and host patterns specified at the rest of the  line.
           This collective name can be used in any subsequent GROUPS or USERS sec-
           tion. No such class name must occur as part  of  the  definition  of  a
           class in order to avoid problems with recursive classes.
           An example CLASSES section:
           myclass1       tty1 tty2
           myclass2       tty3
           This  defines  the  classes  myclass1 and myclass2 as the corresponding
           right hand sides.
           tions may involve the use of classes defined in previous  CLASSES  sec-
           An example GROUPS section.
           sys       tty1
           stud      myclass1 tty4
           This example specifies that members of group sys may log in on tty1 and
           from hosts in the domain. Users in group stud may log  in  from
           hosts/ttys specified in the class myclass1 or from tty4.
       The USERS Section
           A  USERS  section  starts  with the word USERS in all upper case at the
           start of a line, and each following line is a sequence of  words  sepa-
           rated  by  spaces  or  tabs. The first word on a line is a username and
           that user is allowed to log in on the ttys and from the hosts mentioned
           on  the  rest  of  the  line.  These specifications may involve classes
           defined in previous CLASSES sections.  If no section header  is  speci-
           fied  at  the top of the file, the first section defaults to be a USERS
           An example USERS section:
           zacho          tty1 @
           blue      tty3 myclass2
           This lets the user zacho login only on tty1  and  from  hosts  with  IP
           addreses  in  the range -, and user blue is
           allowed to log in from tty3 and whatever  is  specified  in  the  class
           There  may  be a line in a USERS section starting with a username of *.
           This is a default rule and it will be applied to any user not  matching
           any other line.
           If  both  a  USERS  line  and GROUPS line match a user then the user is
           allowed access from the union of all the ttys/hosts mentioned in  these
           The  tty  and  host pattern specifications used in the specification of
           classes, group and user access are called origins. An origin string may
           have one of these formats:
           o      The  name  of a tty device without the /dev/ prefix, for example
                  tty1 or ttyS0.
                  x.x.x.x is the IP address in the usual dotted quad decimal nota-
                  tion,  and  y.y.y.y is a bitmask in the same notation specifying
                  which bits in the address to compare with the IP address of  the
                  remote  host. For example @ means that
                  the user may rlogin/telnet from any host whose IP address is  in
                  the range -
           o      An  range  of  IPv6  addresses,  written @[n:n:n:n:n:n:n:n]/m is
                  interpreted as a [net]/prefixlen pair. An IPv6 host  address  is
                  matched  if prefixlen bits of net is equal to the prefixlen bits
                  of the  address.   For   example,  the  [net]/prefixlen  pattern
                  [3ffe:505:2:1::]/64   matches   every   address   in  the  range
                  3ffe:505:2:1:: through 3ffe:505:2:1:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff.
           Any of the above origins  may  be  prefixed  by  a  time  specification
           according to the syntax:
           timespec    ::= '[' <day-or-hour> [':' <day-or-hour>]* ']'
           day         ::= 'mon' | 'tue' | 'wed' | 'thu' | 'fri' | 'sat' | 'sun'
           hour        ::= '0' | '1' | ... | '23'
           hourspec    ::= <hour> | <hour> '-' <hour>
           day-or-hour ::= <day> | <hourspec>
           For  example,  the origin [mon:tue:wed:thu:fri:8-17]tty3 means that log
           in is allowed on mondays through fridays between 8:00 and  17:59  (5:59
           pm)  on  tty3.   This  also  shows  that an hour range a-b includes all
           moments between a:00 and b:59. A single hour specification (such as 10)
           means the time span between 10:00 and 10:59.
           Not specifying any time prefix for a tty or host means log in from that
           origin is allowed any time. If you give a time prefix be sure to  spec-
           ify  both  a  set  of days and one or more hours or hour ranges. A time
           specification may not include any white space.
           If  no  default  rule  is  given  then  users  not  matching  any  line
           /etc/usertty  are allowed to log in from anywhere as is standard behav-


           password sniffing. If one uses the command "login", then the  surround-
           ing  shell  gets  killed  by  vhangup() because it's no longer the true
           owner of the tty.  This can be avoided by using "exec login" in a  top-
           level shell or xterm.


           Derived  from  BSD  login 5.40 (5/9/89) by Michael Glad (
           for HP-UX
           Ported to Linux 0.12: Peter Orbaek (


           The login command is part of the util-linux-ng package and is available

    Util-linux 1.6 4 November 1996 LOGIN(1)


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