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    Command:

    lilo.conf

    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           This  file,  by  default  /etc/lilo.conf,  is  read  by the boot loader
           installer 'lilo' (see lilo(8)).
    
           It might look as follows:
    
                  # /etc/lilo.conf
                  #
                  #  global options:
                  boot=/dev/hda
                  prompt
                  timeout=150
                  lba32
                  compact
                  vga=normal
                  root=/dev/hda1
                  read-only
                  menu-title=" John's Computer "
                  #
                  ### bootable kernel images ###
                  image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.29-1-i386
                       label=try
                       initrd=/boot/initrd.img-2.6.29-1-i386
                  image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.4.33-1-i386
                       label=2.4.33
                  image=/tamu/vmlinuz
                       label=tamu
                       initrd=/tamu/initrd.img
                       root=/dev/hdb2
                       vga=ask
                  #
                  ### other operating systems ###
                  other=/dev/hda3
                       label=PCDOS
                       boot-as=0x80    # must be C:
                  other=/dev/hdb1
                       label=WinXP
                       boot-as=0x80    # must be C:
                  other=/dev/hdb5
                       label=oldDOS
                       loader=chain
                       table=/dev/hdb5
    
           This configuration file specifies that lilo uses the Master Boot Record
           on /dev/hda. (For a discussion of the various ways to use lilo, and the
           interaction with other operating systems, see user.pdf  from  the  lilo
           documentation.)
    
           When  booting, the boot loader will issue its boot: prompt and wait for
           you to enter the label of the kernel (and any options) which  you  wish
           to  boot.  At  any time you may hit [Tab] to see a list of kernel/other
           labels.  Alternately, if the menu boot loader is installed, a  menu  of
    
    
    

    GLOBAL OPTIONS

           There are many possible keywords. The description below is almost  lit-
           erally from user.pdf (just slightly abbreviated).
    
           backup=<backup-file>
                  Specifies  the location where a copy of any modified boot sector
                  will be saved in a file. 'backup=' may specify this location  in
                  one  of  three  ways:  a directory where the default backup file
                  'boot.NNNN' will be created; a file pathname template  to  which
                  the  '.NNNN'  suffix  will  be added; or the full file pathname,
                  which must include the correct '.NNNN' suffix.  All RAID instal-
                  lations  should use only the first two alternatives, as multiple
                  backups may be created.  The '.NNNN' suffix is  the  hexadecimal
                  representation  of  the  major  and  minor device numbers of the
                  device or partition.  If  this  option  is  not  specified,  the
                  default  name  of boot sector backups is '/boot/boot.NNNN'. If a
                  backup already exists, it will be preserved, rather  than  over-
                  written.  C.f., force-backup= below.
    
           bios-passes-dl=<option>
                  The  option  is indicated as yes, no, or unknown.  If not speci-
                  fied, a value of "unknown" is assumed, unless additional  infor-
                  mation  is  available to the boot installer. When "no" is speci-
                  fied, it indicates that the BIOS is known not to pass  the  cur-
                  rent  boot  device  code  to the boot loader in the DL register.
                  Its only function at this point is experimental, as certain RAID
                  installations  may  benefit  from  knowing that the BIOS is 100%
                  reliable.  Its use should be considered experimental.
    
                  This option may be specified on the command line with  the  '-Z'
                  switch: yes=1, no=0.
    
           bitmap=<bitmap-file>
                  Specifies   use  of  a  640x480x16  (VGA  BIOS)  or  640x480x256
                  (VGA/VESA BIOS) bitmap file as the background on  which  a  boot
                  menu  is displayed.  May not be used if 'message=' is specified.
                  Use of this option will select  a  bitmap-capable  boot  loader,
                  unless overridden with "install=" (see below).
    
                  When  a  bitmap  file is specified as a background screen during
                  the boot process, the color selection and  layout  of  the  text
                  which overlays the graphic image must be specified in one of two
                  ways.
    
                  One way is the use of header information  in  the  bitmap  image
                  (*.bmp)  file:  From  a text file with all the information about
                  'bmp-colors', 'bmp-table' and 'bmp-timer' options together  with
                  the  'bitmap'  option  are stored in the special LILO  header of
                  the bitmap image file by the lilo -E command. Another way  works
                  without  these  special  header information: All the information
                  is  assumed.   The list entries are separated by commas, with no
                  spaces.
    
           bmp-retain
                  Option applies to all 'image=' and 'other=' sections.  (See COM-
                  MON OPTIONS, below.)
    
           bmp-table=<x>,<y>,<ncol>,<nrow>,<xsep>,<spill>
                  Specifies  the  location  and layout of the menu table.  <x>,<y>
                  specify the starting x- and y-position of the upper left  corner
                  of  the  table  in  character  coordinates:  x  in [1..80], y in
                  [1..30]. <ncol> is the number of columns in the menu (1..5); and
                  <nrow>  is the number of rows (entries) in each column.  If more
                  than one column is specified, then <xsep> is the number of char-
                  acter  columns  between  the leftmost characters in each column:
                  (18..40), and <spill> is the number of  entries  in  one  column
                  which  must be filled before entries spill into the next column.
                  <spill> must be  .le.  <nrow>.  If  pixel  addressing  is  used,
                  instead of character addressing, then any of <x>, <y>, or <xsep>
                  may be specified with a 'p' suffix on the decimal value.
    
           bmp-timer=<x>,<y>,<fg>,<bg>,<sh>
                  Optional  specification  of  the  'timeout='  countdown   timer.
                  <x>,<y>  specifies  the  character  (or pixel) coordinate of the
                  location of the timer the same as 'bmp-table='  above;  and  the
                  color  triple  specifies the character color attributes the same
                  as 'bmp-colors=' above, with the exception that  the  background
                  color must be specified.  If used to override the timer specifi-
                  cation in a bitmap file, then the form  'bmp-timer  =  none'  is
                  acceptable.  This will disable the timer display entirely.
    
           boot=<boot-device>
                  Sets  the  name of the device (e.g. hard disk or partition) that
                  contains the boot sector and where the new boot sector should be
                  written  to.  Notice:  The boot-device should be the device with
                  the currently mounted root partition.
    
                  A raid installation is initiated by specifying a RAID1 device as
                  the boot device; e.g., "boot=/dev/md0".
    
                  On  newer  systems you need an unique ID for the boot device. If
                  the boot sector should write to a partition you can use its UUID
                  in the same manner is for the root options.
    
                  If  your boot device is a hard disk you need a special ID, which
                  is supported by udev. You find the right  ID  in  the  directory
                  /dev/disks/by-id, i. e.:
    
                      boot = /dev/disk/by-id/ata-SAMSUNG_SV1604N_S01FJ10X999999
    
           change-rules
                  Defines  boot-time changes to partition type numbers ('hiding').
                  default change-rules are removed ("reset"), and the change-rules
                  for three partition types are specified.  Without the reset, the
                  three  types  specified  would  have  been added to the existing
                  default change-rules.  Normally, the default  rules  are  suffi-
                  cient.  The strings which define the partition types are used in
                  a change section (see below), with  the  suffixes  "_normal"  or
                  "_hidden"  appended.   See section "Partition type change rules"
                  of user.pdf for more details.
    
           compact
                  Tries to merge read requests for adjacent sectors into a  single
                  read  request.  This drastically reduces load time and keeps the
                  map file smaller. Using 'compact' is especially recommended when
                  booting using a map file on a floppy disk.
    
           default=<name>
                  Uses the specified image as the default boot image. If 'default'
                  is omitted, the image appearing first in the configuration  file
                  is used. See also, vmdefault below.
    
           delay=<tsecs>
                  Specifies  the  number  of  tenths  of  a second the boot loader
                  should wait before automatically booting a locked command  line,
                  a  command line pre-stored by "lilo -R", or the default 'image='
                  or 'other='.  When 'delay' is non-zero,  the  boot  loader  will
                  wait  for  an interrupt for the specified interval. If an inter-
                  rupt is received, or is already waiting, the boot:  prompt  will
                  be be issued, and no automatic boot will take place. The setting
                  of CAPS LOCK or SCROLL LOCK, or any of the keys  ALT,  CTRL,  or
                  SHIFT, when held down, are taken as interrupts.
    
                  This action is modified by specifying 'prompt' (see below).
    
           disk=<device-name>
                  Defines  non-standard  parameters  for  the specified disk.  See
                  section "Disk geometry" of user.pdf for details.   For  versions
                  of LILO prior to 22.5, the 'bios=' parameter is quite useful for
                  specifying how the BIOS has assigned device codes to your disks.
                  For example,
    
                         disk=/dev/sda
                              bios=0x80
                         disk=/dev/hda
                              bios=0x81
                         disk=/dev/sdb
                              inaccessible
    
                  would  say  that  your  SCSI disk is the first BIOS disk (0x80),
                  that your (primary master) IDE disk  is  the  second  BIOS  disk
                  (0x81),  and  that  your second SCSI disk (perhaps a USB device)
                  receives no device code, and is therefore inaccessible  at  boot
                  time.
                  because  for hard disks the lba32 disk addressing option ignores
                  disk geometry.
    
                  Developers who have implemented a disk driver for  a  new  block
                  storage  device will have to indicate to LILO the maximum number
                  of partitions on the device.  This is in addition to making  all
                  of  the necessary entries for the device in the "/dev" directory
                  (with 'mknod').  The maximum number of partitions must be one of
                  63  (like  an  IDE  disk), 31 (uncommon), 15 (like SCSI disks --
                  most common value), or 7 (like one array controller). An example
                  specification would be:
    
                       disk=/dev/userd0
                            max-partitions=15
    
                  In  cases  where there is no kernel partition information avail-
                  able, such as on loopback devices, the 'disk=' specification may
                  include paritition start information; viz.,
    
                         disk=/dev/loop0
                              bios=0x80              # use this BIOS code
                              max-partitions=7       # declare partitionable
                              paritition=/dev/loop1
                                   start=63          # offset from sector 0
                              paritition=/dev/loop2
                                   start=102400      # offset from sector 0
    
           disktab=<disktab-file>
                  Specifies  the  name  of  the  disk  parameter  table.   The map
                  installer looks for /etc/disktab if 'disktab'  is  omitted.  The
                  use of disktabs is discouraged.
    
           el-torito-bootable-CD
                  Flag  second stage loader to terminate disk emulation when boot-
                  ing from an El Torito Bootable CD. This option is  used  by  the
                  mkrescue utility when the "--iso" switch is specified.
    
           fix-table
                  This  allows  lilo  to  adjust 3D addresses in partition tables.
                  Each partition entry contains a 3D (cylinder/head/sector) and  a
                  linear  address  of  the first and the last sector of the parti-
                  tion. If a partition is not track-aligned and if  certain  other
                  operating systems (e.g. PC/MS-DOS) are using the same disk, they
                  may change the 3D address. lilo can store its boot  sector  only
                  on  partitions  where  both  address  types correspond. lilo re-
                  adjusts incorrect 3D start addresses if 'fix-table' is set.
    
                  WARNING: This does not guarantee that  other  operating  systems
                  may  not attempt to reset the address later. It is also possible
                  that this change has other, unexpected side-effects. The correct
                  fix  is to re-partition the drive with a program that does align
                  install time, rather than boot-time.  With a newer BIOS, use  of
                  'lba32' is recommended.
    
           ignore-table
                  tells lilo to ignore corrupt partition tables.
    
           install=<user-interface>
                  Selects the user interface which will be seen at boot time.  One
                  of the following three options may be specified:  text, menu, or
                  bmp. The traditional LILO interface is 'text'; but 'menu' is now
                  the  default,  unless  the  configuration  file   contains   the
                  'bitmap='  specification.  The text interface is strictly a com-
                  mand-line interface as though the console were a dumb  terminal.
                  The  menu  interface is a text-based screen of the boot choices,
                  with the option to enter  additional  command  line  parameters.
                  And  the  bmp  interface  is  a menu presented against a graphic
                  screen, specified as a 640x480 BitMaP file of 16 or 256  colors.
                  (See the 'lilo -E' switch for editing options).
    
                  (Prior  to  LILO  version  22.3,  'install='  specified the user
                  interface as a file in the '/boot' directory.)
    
           large-memory
                  Normally any initial ramdisk (initrd) loaded with  a  kernel  is
                  loaded  as  high  in  memory  as possible, but never above 15Mb.
                  This is due to a BIOS limitation on  older  systems.   On  newer
                  systems,  this  option  enables using memory above 15Mb (up to a
                  kernel imposed limit, around 768Mb) for passing  the  initrd  to
                  the  kernel.   The presence of this option merely indicates that
                  your system does not have the old BIOS limitation.
    
                  This switch (or its absence) is not passed to  the  kernel,  and
                  does  not  in any way affect the amount of physical memory which
                  it will use.  (See the kernel documentation for the kernel  com-
                  mand  line  parameter "mem=" for limiting the memory used by the
                  kernel.)
    
           lba32  Generate  32-bit  Logical  Block  Addresses  instead  of  cylin-
                  der/head/sector  addresses. If the BIOS supports packet address-
                  ing, then packet calls will be used to  access  the  disk.  This
                  allows  booting  from any partition on disks with more than 1024
                  cylinders.  If the BIOS does not support packet addressing, then
                  'lba32'  addresses are translated to cylinder/head/sector ('geo-
                  metric'), just as for 'linear'.  All floppy disk references  are
                  retained  in  C:H:S  form.  Use of 'lba32' is recommended on all
                  post-1998 systems.  Beginning with LILO version 22,  'lba32'  is
                  the default disk addressing scheme.
    
           linear Generate  24-bit  linear  sector  addresses  instead  of  cylin-
                  der/head/sector  (geometric)  addresses.  Linear  addresses  are
                  translated  at  run time to geometric addresses, and are limited
                  to cylinders <= 1023. When  using  'linear'  with  large  disks,
    
           map=<map-file>
                  Specifies the location of the map file. If 'map' is omitted, the
                  file /boot/map is used.
    
                  On  machines with a pre-1998 BIOS, the EDD bios extensions which
                  are required to support "lba32" disk sector addressing  may  not
                  be  present.  In this case, the boot-loader will fall back auto-
                  matically to "geometric" addressing; this fall  back  situation,
                  or  the specific use of "geometric" or "linear" addressing, will
                  require the map file to be located within the first 1024  cylin-
                  ders  of  the disk drive. This BIOS limitation is not present on
                  post-1998 systems, most of which support the newer EDD disk BIOS
                  calls.
    
           menu-title=<title-string>
                  Specifies  the  title  line  (up  to 37 characters) for the boot
                  menu. This title replaces the default  "LILO  Boot  Menu"  title
                  string.  If  menu  is  not  installed  as  the  boot loader (see
                  install= option), then this line has no effect.
    
           menu-scheme=<color-scheme>
                  The default color scheme of the boot menu may be  overridden  on
                  VGA  displays  using  this option. (The color scheme of MDA dis-
                  plays is fixed.)  The general  color-scheme  string  is  of  the
                  form:
    
                       <text>:<highlight>:<border>:<title>
    
                  where  each  entry  is two characters which specify a foreground
                  color and a background color. Only the first entry is  required.
                  The  default highlight is the reverse of the text color; and the
                  default border and title colors are the text color.  Colors  are
                  specified using the characters kbgcrmyw, for blacK, Blue, Green,
                  Cyan, Red, Magenta, Yellow, and White: upper  case  for  intense
                  (fg only), lower case for dim.  Legal color-scheme strings would
                  be
    
                      menu-scheme=Wm     intense white on magenta
                      menu-scheme=wr:bw:wr:Yr    the LILO default
                      menu-scheme=Yk:kw    bright yellow on black
    
                  If menu is not installed as the boot loader, then this line  has
                  no effect.
    
           message=<message-file>
                  specifies  a  file containing a message that is displayed before
                  the boot prompt. No message is displayed  while  waiting  for  a
                  shifting  key  after  printing  "LILO  ". In the message, the FF
                  character ([Ctrl L]) clears the local screen. This  is  undesir-
                  able  when  the  menu boot loader is installed.  The size of the
                  message file is limited to 65535 bytes. The map file has  to  be
                  rebuilt if the message file is changed or moved.  'message=' and
                  ence or absence of a newer USB keyboard.
    
           noraid Disables the automatic marking of disk volumes which are  compo-
                  nents  of  RAID arrays as inaccessible.  This allows the user to
                  edit the disk= / inaccessible declarations into  the  configura-
                  tion  file himself.  Without such declarations, duplicate Volume
                  IDs will be overwritten,  leading  to  confusing  situations  at
                  boot-time,  and  possible failure to boot.  The use of this key-
                  word is generally not necessary.
    
           nowarn Disables warnings about possible future dangers.
    
           optional
                  The per-image option  'optional'  (see  below)  applies  to  all
                  images.
    
           password=<password>
                  The  per-image  option 'password=...' (see below) applies to all
                  images. This option  may  prevent  unattended  booting,  if  the
                  default  image  is  'password='  protected  at the default level
                  'mandatory', which is a level higher than 'restricted'.
    
           prompt Automatic booting (see 'delay' above) will not take place unless
                  a  locked  or  pre-stored  ("lilo  -R") command line is present.
                  Instead, the boot loader will issue the boot:  prompt  and  wait
                  for  user  input  before  proceeding (see timeout below).  Unat-
                  tended default image reboots are impossible if 'prompt'  is  set
                  and 'timeout' is not, or the default image is password protected
                  at a higher level than 'restricted'.
    
           raid-extra-boot=<option>
                  This option only  has  meaning  for  RAID1  installations.   The
                  <option>  may  be  specified  as none, auto, mbr, mbr-only, or a
                  comma-separated list  of  devices;  e.g.,  "/dev/hda,/dev/hdc6".
                  Starting  with  LILO  version  22.0, the boot record is normally
                  written to the first sector of the RAID1 partition.  On PARALLEL
                  raid sets, no other boot records are needed.  The default action
                  is auto, meaning, automatically generate auxiliary boot  records
                  as  needed  on SKEWED raid sets.  none means suppress generation
                  of all auxiliary boot records.  mbr-only  suppresses  generation
                  of  a  boot  record on the raid device, and forces compatibility
                  with versions of LILO earlier than version 22.0 by writing  boot
                  records  to  all  Master  Boot Records (MBRs) of all disks which
                  have partitions in the raid set. mbr is like mbr-only except the
                  boot  record on the RAID partition is not suppressed.  Use of an
                  explicit list of  devices,  forces  writing  of  auxiliary  boot
                  records  only  on  those  devices enumerated, in addition to the
                  boot record on the RAID1 device.  Since  the  version  22  RAID1
                  codes will never automatically write a boot record on the MBR of
                  device 0x80, if such a boot record is desired, this is  one  way
                  to have it written. Use of mbr is the other way to force writing
                  to the MBR of device 0x80.
    
                      <port>[,<bps>[<parity>[<bits>]]]
    
                  <port>:  the number of the serial  port,  zero-based.  0  corre-
                  sponds to COM1 alias /dev/ttyS0, etc. All four ports can be used
                  (if present).
    
                  <bps>:  the baud rate of the serial  port.  The  following  baud
                  rates  are  supported:  110, 150, 300, 600, 1200, 2400(default),
                  4800,  9600,  plus  the  extended  rates   19200,   38400,   and
                  57600(56000).  115200 is allowed, but may not work with all COMx
                  port hardware.
    
                  <parity>:  the parity used on the serial line. The  boot  loader
                  ignores  input  parity  and  strips  the  8th bit. The following
                  (upper or lower case) characters are used to describe  the  par-
                  ity:   "n"  for  no  parity, "e" for even parity and "o" for odd
                  parity.
    
                  <bits>:  the number of bits in a character. Only 7  and  8  bits
                  are  supported. Default is 8 if parity is "none", 7 if parity is
                  "even" or "odd".
    
                  If 'serial' is set, the value of 'delay' is automatically raised
                  to 20.
    
                  Example:  "serial=0,2400n8"  initializes  COM1  with the default
                  parameters.
    
           single-key
                  This option specifies that boot images or  'other's  are  to  be
                  selected  and  launched  with  a single keystroke.  Selection is
                  based upon the first character  of  each  name,  which  must  be
                  unique.   This option should not be used with the menu or bitmap
                  user interface ("install=").
    
           static-BIOS-codes
                  Causes the operation of the boot installer and  boot  loader  to
                  bypass the use of Volume-ID information, and to revert to a mode
                  of operation of versions of LILO from 22.4 backward.  With  Vol-
                  ume-ID  booting  (22.5  and  later), the BIOS codes of disks are
                  determined at boot time, not install time;  hence  they  may  be
                  switched  around,  either by adding or removing disk(s) from the
                  hardware configuration, or by using a BIOS menu  to  select  the
                  boot device.
    
                  With  the  use  of this option, BIOS codes of disks MUST be cor-
                  rectly specified at install time; either  guessed  correctly  by
                  LILO  (which  often fails on mixed IDE/SCSI systems), or explic-
                  itly specified with 'disk=/dev/XXX bios=0xYY'  statements.   The
                  use  of  this  option  precludes  any  activity which may switch
                  around the BIOS codes assigned to particular  disk  devices,  as
    
           timeout=<tsecs>
                  sets a timeout (in tenths of a second) for keyboard input at the
                  boot: prompt.  "timeout" only has meaning if  "prompt"  is  men-
                  tioned.   If  no  key  is  pressed  for  the specified time, the
                  default image is automatically booted. The  default  timeout  is
                  infinite.
    
           unattended
                  (22.6) Alters the operation of the "timeout" parameter in a man-
                  ner which is useful on  noisy  serial  lines.   Each  typed  (or
                  noise) character restarts the "timeout" timer and a timeout will
                  always boot the default descriptor,  even  if  noise  characters
                  have appeared on the input line.
    
           verbose=<number>
                  Turns  on  lots  of progress reporting. Higher numbers give more
                  verbose output. If  -v  is additionally specified  on  the  lilo
                  command  line,  the  level is increased accordingly. The maximum
                  verbosity level is 5.
    
           vmdefault=<name>
                  The named boot image is used as the default boot if  booting  in
                  "virtual" mode with a virtual monitor, such as VMware(tm).  Thus
                  a real mode boot and a virtual mode boot can  be  made  to  have
                  different default boot images.
    
           Additionally,  the  kernel  configuration  parameters  append, ramdisk,
           read-only, read-write, root and vga can be set in  the  global  options
           section. They are used as defaults if they aren't specified in the con-
           figuration sections of the respective kernel images.
    
    
    

    PER-IMAGE SECTION

           A per-image section starts with either a line
    
               image=<pathname>
    
           to indicate a file or device containing the boot image of a Linux  ker-
           nel, or a line
    
               other=<device>
    
           to indicate an arbitrary system to boot.
    
           In  the  former case, if an image line specifies booting from a device,
           then one has to indicate the range of sectors to be mapped using
    
               range=<start>-<end>
               range=<start>+<nsec>
                  appearing  in  the  global section of the configuration file and
                  addappend= will be used to add local parameter(s) to an individ-
                  ual  image.   The  addappend  option  may  be used only once per
                  "image=" section.
    
                  If the string is a very long line, this line can be  divided  in
                  more lines using "\" as last character of a line, e.g.
    
                      addappend="noapic acpi=off pci=usepirqmask \
                              pnpbios=off pnpacpi=off noisapnp"
    
           append=<string>
                  Appends  the  options  specified to the parameter line passed to
                  the kernel.  This is typically used to specify hardware  parame-
                  ters  that  can't be entirely auto-detected or for which probing
                  may be dangerous. Multiple kernel parameters are separated by  a
                  blank  space,  and the string must be enclosed in double quotes.
                  A local append= appearing withing an  image=  section  overrides
                  any  global  append= appearing in the global section of the con-
                  figuration file.  The append option may be used  only  once  per
                  "image="  section. To concatenate parameter strings, use "addap-
                  pend=". Example:
    
                       append="mem=96M hd=576,64,32 console=ttyS1,9600"
    
                  If the string is a very long line, this line can be  divided  in
                  more lines using "\" as last character of a line. See example of
                  addappend option.
    
           initrd=<name>
                  Specifies the initial ramdisk image to be loaded with  the  ker-
                  nel.   The  image will contain modules needed at boot time, such
                  as network and scsi drivers. See man pages for mkinitrd(8).
    
           literal=<string>
                  Like 'append', but removes all other options  (e.g.  setting  of
                  the  root  device). 'literal' overrides all 'append' and 'addap-
                  pend' options.  Because vital options can  be  removed  uninten-
                  tionally with 'literal', this option cannot be set in the global
                  options section.
    
           ramdisk=<size>
                  This specifies the size (e.g.,  "4096k")  of  the  optional  RAM
                  disk.  A value of zero indicates that no RAM disk should be cre-
                  ated. If this variable is omitted, the RAM disk size  configured
                  into the boot image is used.
    
           read-only
                  This specifies that the root file system should be mounted read-
                  only.  It may be specified as a global option.   Typically,  the
                  system  startup  procedure  re-mounts the root file system read-
                  write later (e.g. after fsck'ing it).
    
                  The root filesystem may also be specified by a LABEL=  or  UUID=
                  directive,  as  in  '/etc/fstab'.  In this case, the argument to
                  root= must be enclosed in quotation marks,  to  avoid  a  syntax
                  error on the second equal sign, e.g.:
    
                       root="LABEL=MyDisk"
                       root="UUID=5472fd8e-9089-4256-bcaa-ceab4f01a439"
    
                  Note:   The  command  line  root= parameter passed to the kernel
                  will be: 'root=LABEL=MyDisk'; i.e., without the quotation marks.
                  If  the  root=  parameter  is  passed  from  the boot time boot:
                  prompt, no quotes are used.  The quotes are only there  to  sat-
                  isfy the requirements of the boot-installer parser, which treats
                  an equal sign as an operator.  The kernel command line parser is
                  very much simpler, and must not see any quotation marks.  Simply
                  stated, only use the quotation marks within /etc/lilo.conf.
    
           vga=<mode>
                  This specifies the VGA text mode that should  be  selected  when
                  booting.  It may be specified as a global option.  The following
                  values are recognized (case is ignored):
    
                  normal: select normal 80x25 text mode.
    
                  extended (or ext): select 80x50 text mode.
    
                  ask: stop and ask for user input (at boot time).
    
                  <number>: use the corresponding text mode (can specify the  num-
                  ber  in  decimal  or  in hex with the usual '0x' convention).  A
                  list of available modes can be obtained by booting with  vga=ask
                  and pressing [Enter].
    
                  If  this  variable is omitted, the VGA mode setting contained in
                  the kernel image is used. (And that is set at compile time using
                  the  SVGA_MODE variable in the kernel Makefile, and can later be
                  changed with the rdev(8) program.)
    
    
    

    ALTERNATE SYSTEM (other=)

           Used to load systems other than Linux. The 'other = <device>' specifies
           the  boot  sector  of an alternate system contained on a device or disk
           partition; e.g., DOS on, say, '/dev/hda2', or a floppy  on  '/dev/fd0'.
           In the case of booting another system there are these options:
    
           loader=<chain-loader>
                  This  specifies  the  chain  loader that should be used.  It may
                  also be specified as a global option.  By default chain is used.
                  This  chain loader passes partition and drive information in the
                  boot sector it loads only to DOS on FAT12 or FAT16,  Windows  on
                  FAT16 or FAT32. (see also table=<letter> below).
    
           change This keyword starts a section which describes how primary parti-
                  tion IDs are changed, and how primary partitions  are  activated
                  and  deactivated.  If change is omitted, change rules are gener-
                  ated as though the automatic keyword were specified. The keyword
                  change  alone,  without any rules following, will suppress auto-
                  matic change-rules.  For example,
    
                     other=/dev/hda2
                        label=dos
                        table=/dev/hda
                        change
                          automatic
                          partition=/dev/hda1
                             set=DOS12_hidden
                             deactivate
                          partition=/dev/hda2
                             set=DOS16_big_normal
                             activate
    
                  specifies that when primary partition /dev/hda2 is booted, auto-
                  matic change-rules will be in effect; plus, partition 1, a DOS12
                  partition, will be set hidden, and  deactivated.   In  addition,
                  partition 2, will be set normal, and activated.  Activation sets
                  the boot-flag in the partition table.  The automatic keyword may
                  conflict  with default change rules, so the set= lines above may
                  be redundant.
    
           boot-as=<bios>
                  This option (LILO version 22.5.1) indicates the BIOS device code
                  which  must  be assigned to the specified drive in order for the
                  "other=" operating system to boot.  If the chain loader  detects
                  that  another BIOS device code is assigned to this disk, then it
                  will dynamically swap the assigned device code with  the  speci-
                  fied device code.
    
                  This option is easier to specify than "map-drive=" and more gen-
                  eral than "master-boot" in that any device code  may  be  speci-
                  fied.   Unlike  "map-drive=",  the determination whether to swap
                  device codes is made at boot time, not install  time.   This  is
                  advantageous  on  systems where the BIOS presents a boot menu of
                  devices, and will  map  disks  to  devices  in  different  ways,
                  depending upon the BIOS boot selection.
    
                  This  option  may be specified as a global option, in which case
                  it applies to all "other=" sections  unless  overridden  with  a
                  specific "master-boot" option.  If one of "boot-as=" or "master-
                  boot" is specified as a global option, it is better  to  specify
                  "master-boot"  as  the  global  option, as it will not interfere
                  with floppy disk BIOS device codes; "boot-as=" is then used as a
                  local option to override "master-boot" as necessary.
    
                  powerful  than  "boot-as=",  in  that  the  device code which is
                  assigned, 0 or 0x80, is determined dynamically.
    
                  This option may be specified as a global option, in  which  case
                  it  applies  to  all  "other=" sections unless overridden with a
                  specific "boot-as=" option.
    
           map-drive=<num>
                  Maps BIOS calls for the specified drive to the device code spec-
                  ified  on the next line as to=<num>.  This mapping is useful for
                  booting operating systems, such as DOS,  from  the  second  hard
                  drive.  The following, swaps the C: and D: drives,
    
                     map-drive=0x80
                        to=0x81
                     map-drive=0x81
                        to=0x80
    
                  This  option  is largely rendered obsolete by "boot-as=", intro-
                  duced with LILO version 22.5.
    
           unsafe Do not access the boot sector at map creation  time.  This  dis-
                  ables  some sanity checks, including a partition table check. If
                  the boot sector is on a fixed-format floppy disk  device,  using
                  UNSAFE  avoids  the  need  to put a readable disk into the drive
                  when running the map installer. If the boot sector is on a  hard
                  drive,  the BIOS device code of the drive will have to be speci-
                  fied explicitly with "disk=/dev/XXXX bios=0x8X inaccessible"  in
                  the  configuration  file.   'unsafe'  and  'table'  (explicit or
                  implicit) are mutually incompatible.
    
    
    

    COMMON DESCRIPTOR OPTIONS (image= & other=)

           In both the image= and other= cases, the following options apply.
    
           bypass No password is required to boot this  image.  Used  to  indicate
                  that  the  global  password  does  not apply to this 'image=' or
                  'other='.  See 'password=' below.
    
           label=<name>
                  The boot loader uses the main file name (without  its  path)  of
                  each  image  specification  to identify that image.  A different
                  name can be used by setting the variable 'label'.
    
           alias=<name>
                  A second name for the same entry can be used  by  specifying  an
                  alias.
    
           bmp-retain
                  The  bitmap  graphic  (install=bmp)  is retained when control is
                  passed to the loaded kernel image, or other=  bootloader;  i.e.,
                  the  screen  is not blanked to alphanumeric mode before starting
    
           lock   (See above.)
    
           optional
                  Omit  the image if it is not available at map creation time.  It
                  may be specified as a global option.  This is useful to  specify
                  test kernels that are not always present.
    
           password=<password>
                  Protect   the   'image='   or   'other='  with  a  password  (or
                  passphrase).  It may be  specified  as  a  global  option.   The
                  interpretation  of  the  'password='  setting is modified by the
                  words 'mandatory', 'restricted', and 'bypass' (see below).
                  The password may be specified in the config-file  (less  secure)
                  or  entered at the time the boot loader is installed. To request
                  interactive entry of the password, it should be specified: pass-
                  word="".  Passwords entered interactively are not required to be
                  entered again if the boot installer is re-run. They are  cached,
                  in  hashed form, in a companion file to the config-file, default
                  name: /etc/lilo.conf.crc. If the config-file is updated, a warn-
                  ing  message  will  be  issued  telling you to re-run lilo -p to
                  force re-creation of the password cache file.
    
           mandatory
                  A password is required to boot this image. This is the  default.
                  May  be used on a single 'image=' or 'other=' to override a dif-
                  ferent global setting.
    
           nokbdisable
                  (22.7.2) The specified descriptor is not bootable if the  IBM-PC
                  keyboard  is  not present.  This option is really only useful if
                  the "serial=" boot terminal is in use.  With no keyboard (and no
                  serial  terminal)  attached,  selecting  a boot descriptor other
                  than the default is impossible.  See nokbdefault above.
    
           restricted
                  A password is only required to boot the image if kernel  parame-
                  ters  are specified on the command line (e.g. 'single').  May be
                  used on a single 'image=' or 'other=' to  override  a  different
                  global setting.
    
           vmwarn If booting under a virtual monitor such as VMware(tm), the image
                  with this label will cause a cautionary warning to be issued  at
                  boot time, and user intervention will be required to continue or
                  to abort the boot process.
    
           vmdisable
                  If booting under a virtual monitor, the image  with  this  label
                  will  not  be  displayed  as  a  boot option.  The image is only
                  bootable in real mode.  See vmdefault above.
    
    
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