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    Command:

    less

    
    
    

    SYNOPSIS

           less -?
           less --help
           less -V
           less --version
           less [-[+]aBcCdeEfFgGiIJKLmMnNqQrRsSuUVwWX~]
                [-b space] [-h lines] [-j line] [-k keyfile]
                [-{oO} logfile] [-p pattern] [-P prompt] [-t tag]
                [-T tagsfile] [-x tab,...] [-y lines] [-[z] lines]
                [-# shift] [+[+]cmd] [--] [filename]...
           (See  the  OPTIONS section for alternate option syntax with long option
           names.)
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

           Less is a program similar to more (1), but which allows backward  move-
           ment in the file as well as forward movement.  Also, less does not have
           to read the entire input file before  starting,  so  with  large  input
           files  it  starts  up  faster than text editors like vi (1).  Less uses
           termcap (or terminfo on some systems), so it can run on  a  variety  of
           terminals.   There is even limited support for hardcopy terminals.  (On
           a hardcopy terminal, lines which should be printed at the  top  of  the
           screen are prefixed with a caret.)
    
           Commands  are based on both more and vi.  Commands may be preceded by a
           decimal number, called N in the descriptions below.  The number is used
           by some commands, as indicated.
    
    
    

    COMMANDS

           In  the following descriptions, ^X means control-X.  ESC stands for the
           ESCAPE  key;  for  example  ESC-v  means  the  two  character  sequence
           "ESCAPE", then "v".
    
           h or H Help:  display  a  summary of these commands.  If you forget all
                  the other commands, remember this one.
    
           SPACE or ^V or f or ^F
                  Scroll forward N  lines,  default  one  window  (see  option  -z
                  below).   If  N  is  more  than  the screen size, only the final
                  screenful is displayed.  Warning: some systems use ^V as a  spe-
                  cial literalization character.
    
           z      Like  SPACE,  but  if  N is specified, it becomes the new window
                  size.
    
           ESC-SPACE
                  Like SPACE, but scrolls a full screenful,  even  if  it  reaches
                  end-of-file in the process.
    
           RETURN or ^N or e or ^E or j or ^J
                  Scroll  forward N lines, default 1.  The entire N lines are dis-
    
           y or ^Y or ^P or k or ^K
                  Scroll backward N lines, default 1.  The entire N lines are dis-
                  played, even if N is more than the screen size.   Warning:  some
                  systems use ^Y as a special job control character.
    
           u or ^U
                  Scroll  backward  N  lines, default one half of the screen size.
                  If N is specified, it becomes the new default for  subsequent  d
                  and u commands.
    
           ESC-) or RIGHTARROW
                  Scroll  horizontally right N characters, default half the screen
                  width (see the -# option).  If  a  number  N  is  specified,  it
                  becomes  the  default  for  future RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW com-
                  mands.  While the text is scrolled, it acts  as  though  the  -S
                  option (chop lines) were in effect.
    
           ESC-( or LEFTARROW
                  Scroll  horizontally  left N characters, default half the screen
                  width (see the -# option).  If  a  number  N  is  specified,  it
                  becomes  the  default  for  future RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW com-
                  mands.
    
           r or ^R or ^L
                  Repaint the screen.
    
           R      Repaint the screen, discarding any buffered  input.   Useful  if
                  the file is changing while it is being viewed.
    
           F      Scroll  forward, and keep trying to read when the end of file is
                  reached.  Normally this command would be used  when  already  at
                  the  end of the file.  It is a way to monitor the tail of a file
                  which is growing while it is being  viewed.   (The  behavior  is
                  similar to the "tail -f" command.)
    
           g or < or ESC-<
                  Go to line N in the file, default 1 (beginning of file).  (Warn-
                  ing: this may be slow if N is large.)
    
           G or > or ESC->
                  Go to line N in the file, default the end of the  file.   (Warn-
                  ing:  this  may  be slow if N is large, or if N is not specified
                  and standard input, rather than a file, is being read.)
    
           p or % Go to a position N percent into the file.  N should be between 0
                  and 100, and may contain a decimal point.
    
           P      Go to the line containing byte offset N in the file.
    
           {      If a left curly bracket appears in the top line displayed on the
                  screen, the { command  will  go  to  the  matching  right  curly
    
           )      Like }, but applies to parentheses rather than curly brackets.
    
           [      Like  {, but applies to square brackets rather than curly brack-
                  ets.
    
           ]      Like }, but applies to square brackets rather than curly  brack-
                  ets.
    
           ESC-^F Followed  by two characters, acts like {, but uses the two char-
                  acters as open and close brackets, respectively.   For  example,
                  "ESC  ^F < >" could be used to go forward to the > which matches
                  the < in the top displayed line.
    
           ESC-^B Followed by two characters, acts like }, but uses the two  char-
                  acters  as  open and close brackets, respectively.  For example,
                  "ESC ^B < >" could be used to go backward to the < which matches
                  the > in the bottom displayed line.
    
           m      Followed  by  any  lowercase  letter, marks the current position
                  with that letter.
    
           '      (Single quote.)  Followed by any lowercase  letter,  returns  to
                  the position which was previously marked with that letter.  Fol-
                  lowed by another single quote, returns to the position at  which
                  the last "large" movement command was executed.  Followed by a ^
                  or $, jumps to the beginning or end of  the  file  respectively.
                  Marks  are  preserved when a new file is examined, so the ' com-
                  mand can be used to switch between input files.
    
           ^X^X   Same as single quote.
    
           /pattern
                  Search forward in the file for the N-th line containing the pat-
                  tern.  N defaults to 1.  The pattern is a regular expression, as
                  recognized by the regular expression library  supplied  by  your
                  system.  The search starts at the second line displayed (but see
                  the -a and -j options, which change this).
    
                  Certain characters are special if entered at  the  beginning  of
                  the  pattern;  they modify the type of search rather than become
                  part of the pattern:
    
                  ^N or !
                         Search for lines which do NOT match the pattern.
    
                  ^E or *
                         Search multiple files.  That is, if  the  search  reaches
                         the  END of the current file without finding a match, the
                         search continues in the next file  in  the  command  line
                         list.
    
                  ^F or @
                  pattern.  The search starts at the line immediately  before  the
                  top line displayed.
    
                  Certain characters are special as in the / command:
    
                  ^N or !
                         Search for lines which do NOT match the pattern.
    
                  ^E or *
                         Search  multiple  files.   That is, if the search reaches
                         the beginning of  the  current  file  without  finding  a
                         match,  the  search continues in the previous file in the
                         command line list.
    
                  ^F or @
                         Begin the search at the last line of the last file in the
                         command  line  list, regardless of what is currently dis-
                         played on the screen or the settings  of  the  -a  or  -j
                         options.
    
                  ^K     As in forward searches.
    
                  ^R     As in forward searches.
    
           ESC-/pattern
                  Same as "/*".
    
           ESC-?pattern
                  Same as "?*".
    
           n      Repeat  previous  search, for N-th line containing the last pat-
                  tern.  If the previous search was modified by ^N, the search  is
                  made  for the N-th line NOT containing the pattern.  If the pre-
                  vious search was modified by ^E, the  search  continues  in  the
                  next  (or  previous)  file if not satisfied in the current file.
                  If the previous search was modified by ^R, the  search  is  done
                  without  using  regular  expressions.  There is no effect if the
                  previous search was modified by ^F or ^K.
    
           N      Repeat previous search, but in the reverse direction.
    
           ESC-n  Repeat previous  search,  but  crossing  file  boundaries.   The
                  effect is as if the previous search were modified by *.
    
           ESC-N  Repeat  previous search, but in the reverse direction and cross-
                  ing file boundaries.
    
           ESC-u  Undo search highlighting.   Turn  off  highlighting  of  strings
                  matching the current search pattern.  If highlighting is already
                  off because of a previous ESC-u command, turn highlighting  back
                  on.   Any  search  command  will also turn highlighting back on.
                  (Highlighting can also be disabled by toggling the -G option; in
    
                  ^R     Don't  interpret  regular expression metacharacters; that
                         is, do a simple textual comparison.
    
           :e [filename]
                  Examine a new file.  If the filename is missing,  the  "current"
                  file  (see  the :n and :p commands below) from the list of files
                  in the command line is re-examined.  A percent sign (%)  in  the
                  filename  is  replaced by the name of the current file.  A pound
                  sign (#) is replaced by the  name  of  the  previously  examined
                  file.    However,  two  consecutive  percent  signs  are  simply
                  replaced with a single percent sign.  This allows you to enter a
                  filename  that  contains a percent sign in the name.  Similarly,
                  two consecutive pound signs are replaced  with  a  single  pound
                  sign.   The  filename  is inserted into the command line list of
                  files so that it can be seen by subsequent :n and  :p  commands.
                  If the filename consists of several files, they are all inserted
                  into the list of files and the first one is  examined.   If  the
                  filename contains one or more spaces, the entire filename should
                  be enclosed in double quotes (also see the -" option).
    
           ^X^V or E
                  Same as :e.  Warning: some systems use ^V as a special  literal-
                  ization  character.  On such systems, you may not be able to use
                  ^V.
    
           :n     Examine the next file (from the list of files given in the  com-
                  mand  line).   If a number N is specified, the N-th next file is
                  examined.
    
           :p     Examine the previous file in the command line list.  If a number
                  N is specified, the N-th previous file is examined.
    
           :x     Examine  the first file in the command line list.  If a number N
                  is specified, the N-th file in the list is examined.
    
           :d     Remove the current file from the list of files.
    
           t      Go to the next tag, if there were more than one matches for  the
                  current tag.  See the -t option for more details about tags.
    
           T      Go  to the previous tag, if there were more than one matches for
                  the current tag.
    
           = or ^G or :f
                  Prints some information about the file being  viewed,  including
                  its  name and the line number and byte offset of the bottom line
                  being displayed.  If possible, it also prints the length of  the
                  file,  the  number  of  lines in the file and the percent of the
                  file above the last displayed line.
    
           -      Followed by one of the command line option letters (see  OPTIONS
    
           -+     Followed by one of the command line  option  letters  this  will
                  reset  the  option  to  its  default setting and print a message
                  describing the new setting.  (The "-+X" command  does  the  same
                  thing  as  "-+X"  on  the command line.)  This does not work for
                  string-valued options.
    
           --+    Like the -+ command, but takes a long option name rather than  a
                  single option letter.
    
           -!     Followed  by  one  of the command line option letters, this will
                  reset the option to the "opposite" of its  default  setting  and
                  print  a message describing the new setting.  This does not work
                  for numeric or string-valued options.
    
           --!    Like the -! command, but takes a long option name rather than  a
                  single option letter.
    
           _      (Underscore.)   Followed  by one of the command line option let-
                  ters, this will print a message describing the  current  setting
                  of that option.  The setting of the option is not changed.
    
           __     (Double underscore.)  Like the _ (underscore) command, but takes
                  a long option name rather than a single option letter.  You must
                  press RETURN after typing the option name.
    
           +cmd   Causes  the specified cmd to be executed each time a new file is
                  examined.  For example, +G causes less to initially display each
                  file starting at the end rather than the beginning.
    
           V      Prints the version number of less being run.
    
           q or Q or :q or :Q or ZZ
                  Exits less.
    
           The  following four commands may or may not be valid, depending on your
           particular installation.
    
           v      Invokes an editor to edit the current file  being  viewed.   The
                  editor is taken from the environment variable VISUAL if defined,
                  or EDITOR if VISUAL is not defined, or defaults to "vi" if  nei-
                  ther  VISUAL  nor EDITOR is defined.  See also the discussion of
                  LESSEDIT under the section on PROMPTS below.
    
           ! shell-command
                  Invokes a shell to run the shell-command given.  A percent  sign
                  (%)  in the command is replaced by the name of the current file.
                  A pound sign (#) is replaced by the name of the previously exam-
                  ined  file.   "!!"  repeats the last shell command.  "!" with no
                  shell command simply invokes a  shell.   On  Unix  systems,  the
                  shell  is taken from the environment variable SHELL, or defaults
    
    
    

    OPTIONS

           Command  line options are described below.  Most options may be changed
           while less is running, via the "-" command.
    
           Most options may be given in one of two forms: either a  dash  followed
           by  a  single  letter, or two dashes followed by a long option name.  A
           long option name may be abbreviated as  long  as  the  abbreviation  is
           unambiguous.  For example, --quit-at-eof may be abbreviated --quit, but
           not --qui, since both --quit-at-eof and --quiet begin with --qui.  Some
           long  option names are in uppercase, such as --QUIT-AT-EOF, as distinct
           from --quit-at-eof.  Such option names need only have their first  let-
           ter  capitalized; the remainder of the name may be in either case.  For
           example, --Quit-at-eof is equivalent to --QUIT-AT-EOF.
    
           Options are also taken from the environment variable "LESS".  For exam-
           ple, to avoid typing "less -options ..." each time less is invoked, you
           might tell csh:
    
           setenv LESS "-options"
    
           or if you use sh:
    
           LESS="-options"; export LESS
    
           On MS-DOS, you don't need the quotes, but you should replace  any  per-
           cent signs in the options string by double percent signs.
    
           The  environment variable is parsed before the command line, so command
           line options override the LESS  environment  variable.   If  an  option
           appears  in  the LESS variable, it can be reset to its default value on
           the command line by beginning the command line option with "-+".
    
           For options like -P or -D which take a following string, a dollar  sign
           ($)  must be used to signal the end of the string.  For example, to set
           two -D options on MS-DOS, you must have a  dollar  sign  between  them,
           like this:
    
           LESS="-Dn9.1$-Ds4.1"
    
           -? or --help
                  This  option displays a summary of the commands accepted by less
                  (the same as the h  command).   (Depending  on  how  your  shell
                  interprets  the  question mark, it may be necessary to quote the
                  question mark, thus: "-\?".)
    
           -a or --search-skip-screen
                  Causes searches to start after the last line  displayed  on  the
                  screen,  thus  skipping  all  lines displayed on the screen.  By
                  default, searches start at the second line  on  the  screen  (or
                  the  pipe,  this  can cause a large amount of memory to be allo-
                  cated.  The -B option  disables  this  automatic  allocation  of
                  buffers  for  pipes,  so  that  only 64K (or the amount of space
                  specified by the -b option) is used for the pipe.  Warning:  use
                  of  -B  can  result  in  erroneous  display, since only the most
                  recently viewed part of the piped data is kept  in  memory;  any
                  earlier data is lost.
    
           -c or --clear-screen
                  Causes  full  screen  repaints  to  be painted from the top line
                  down.  By default, full screen repaints are  done  by  scrolling
                  from the bottom of the screen.
    
           -C or --CLEAR-SCREEN
                  Same as -c, for compatibility with older versions of less.
    
           -d or --dumb
                  The -d option suppresses the error message normally displayed if
                  the terminal is dumb; that is, lacks some important  capability,
                  such as the ability to clear the screen or scroll backward.  The
                  -d option does not otherwise change the behavior of  less  on  a
                  dumb terminal.
    
           -Dxcolor or --color=xcolor
                  [MS-DOS only] Sets the color of the text displayed.  x is a sin-
                  gle character which selects the type  of  text  whose  color  is
                  being  set: n=normal, s=standout, d=bold, u=underlined, k=blink.
                  color is a pair of numbers separated by  a  period.   The  first
                  number  selects  the foreground color and the second selects the
                  background color of the text.  A single number N is the same  as
                  N.M, where M is the normal background color.
    
           -e or --quit-at-eof
                  Causes  less  to  automatically  exit the second time it reaches
                  end-of-file.  By default, the only way to exit less is  via  the
                  "q" command.
    
           -E or --QUIT-AT-EOF
                  Causes less to automatically exit the first time it reaches end-
                  of-file.
    
           -f or --force
                  Forces non-regular files to be opened.  (A non-regular file is a
                  directory  or a device special file.)  Also suppresses the warn-
                  ing message when a binary file is opened.  By default, less will
                  refuse to open non-regular files.  Note that some operating sys-
                  tems will not allow directories to be read, even if -f is set.
    
           -F or --quit-if-one-screen
                  Causes less to automatically exit if the entire file can be dis-
                  played on the first screen.
                  times  desirable  if  the  long lines are not wrapped  correctly
                  when  reaching  the  bottom  of  the  terminal,  while scrolling
                  forward.
    
           -hn or --max-back-scroll=n
                  Specifies  a  maximum number of lines to scroll backward.  If it
                  is necessary to scroll backward more than n lines, the screen is
                  repainted in a forward direction instead.  (If the terminal does
                  not have the ability to scroll backward, -h0 is implied.)
    
           -i or --ignore-case
                  Causes searches to ignore case; that is, uppercase and lowercase
                  are  considered identical.  This option is ignored if any upper-
                  case letters appear in the search pattern; in other words, if  a
                  pattern  contains  uppercase  letters, then that search does not
                  ignore case.
    
           -I or --IGNORE-CASE
                  Like -i, but searches ignore case even if the  pattern  contains
                  uppercase letters.
    
           -jn or --jump-target=n
                  Specifies  a line on the screen where the "target" line is to be
                  positioned.  The target line is the line specified by  any  com-
                  mand  to  search for a pattern, jump to a line number, jump to a
                  file percentage or jump to a tag.  The screen line may be speci-
                  fied  by  a number: the top line on the screen is 1, the next is
                  2, and so on.  The number may be negative to specify a line rel-
                  ative to the bottom of the screen: the bottom line on the screen
                  is -1, the second to the bottom is -2, and so on.   Alternately,
                  the  screen line may be specified as a fraction of the height of
                  the screen, starting with a decimal point: .5 is in  the  middle
                  of  the screen, .3 is three tenths down from the first line, and
                  so on.  If the line is specified as a fraction, the actual  line
                  number  is  recalculated  if  the terminal window is resized, so
                  that the target line remains at the specified  fraction  of  the
                  screen  height.   If  any form of the -j option is used, forward
                  searches begin at the line immediately after  the  target  line,
                  and backward searches begin at the target line.  For example, if
                  "-j4" is used, the target line is the fourth line on the screen,
                  so forward searches begin at the fifth line on the screen.
    
           -J or --status-column
                  Displays  a  status  column at the left edge of the screen.  The
                  status column shows the lines that matched the  current  search.
                  The  status  column  is  also  used if the -w or -W option is in
                  effect.
    
           -kfilename or --lesskey-file=filename
                  Causes less to open and interpret the named file  as  a  lesskey
                  (1) file.  Multiple -k options may be specified.  If the LESSKEY
                  or LESSKEY_SYSTEM environment variable is set, or if  a  lesskey
                  file which is currently open.
    
           -m or --long-prompt
                  Causes  less  to  prompt verbosely (like more), with the percent
                  into the file.  By default, less prompts with a colon.
    
           -M or --LONG-PROMPT
                  Causes less to prompt even more verbosely than more.
    
           -n or --line-numbers
                  Suppresses line numbers.  The default (to use line numbers)  may
                  cause  less  to run more slowly in some cases, especially with a
                  very large input file.  Suppressing line  numbers  with  the  -n
                  option  will  avoid this problem.  Using line numbers means: the
                  line number will be displayed in the verbose prompt and in the =
                  command,  and the v command will pass the current line number to
                  the editor (see also  the  discussion  of  LESSEDIT  in  PROMPTS
                  below).
    
           -N or --LINE-NUMBERS
                  Causes  a  line  number to be displayed at the beginning of each
                  line in the display.
    
           -ofilename or --log-file=filename
                  Causes less to copy its input to the named file as it  is  being
                  viewed.  This applies only when the input file is a pipe, not an
                  ordinary file.  If the file already exists, less  will  ask  for
                  confirmation before overwriting it.
    
           -Ofilename or --LOG-FILE=filename
                  The -O option is like -o, but it will overwrite an existing file
                  without asking for confirmation.
    
                  If no log file has been specified, the -o and -O options can  be
                  used  from  within  less  to specify a log file.  Without a file
                  name, they will simply report the name of the log file.  The "s"
                  command is equivalent to specifying -o from within less.
    
           -ppattern or --pattern=pattern
                  The  -p  option  on the command line is equivalent to specifying
                  +/pattern; that is, it tells less to start at the  first  occur-
                  rence of pattern in the file.
    
           -Pprompt or --prompt=prompt
                  Provides  a  way  to  tailor the three prompt styles to your own
                  preference.  This option would normally be put in the LESS envi-
                  ronment variable, rather than being typed in with each less com-
                  mand.  Such an option must either be the last option in the LESS
                  variable,  or be terminated by a dollar sign.  -Ps followed by a
                  string changes the default (short) prompt to that  string.   -Pm
                  changes  the  medium  (-m)  prompt.   -PM  changes the long (-M)
                  prompt.  -Ph changes  the  prompt  for  the  help  screen.   -P=
                  Causes totally "quiet" operation: the  terminal  bell  is  never
                  rung.
    
           -r or --raw-control-chars
                  Causes "raw" control characters to be displayed.  The default is
                  to display control characters  using  the  caret  notation;  for
                  example, a control-A (octal 001) is displayed as "^A".  Warning:
                  when the -r option is used, less cannot keep track of the actual
                  appearance  of  the screen (since this depends on how the screen
                  responds to each type of control character).  Thus, various dis-
                  play  problems may result, such as long lines being split in the
                  wrong place.
    
           -R or --RAW-CONTROL-CHARS
                  Like -r, but only ANSI "color" escape sequences  are  output  in
                  "raw" form.  Unlike -r, the screen appearance is maintained cor-
                  rectly  in  most  cases.   ANSI  "color"  escape  sequences  are
                  sequences of the form:
    
                       ESC [ ... m
    
                  where  the  "..." is zero or more color specification characters
                  For the purpose of keeping  track  of  screen  appearance,  ANSI
                  color  escape sequences are assumed to not move the cursor.  You
                  can make less think that characters other than "m" can end  ANSI
                  color  escape  sequences  by  setting  the  environment variable
                  LESSANSIENDCHARS to the list of characters which can end a color
                  escape  sequence.   And  you can make less think that characters
                  other than the standard ones may appear between the ESC and  the
                  m  by  setting  the environment variable LESSANSIMIDCHARS to the
                  list of characters which can appear.
    
           -s or --squeeze-blank-lines
                  Causes consecutive blank lines to  be  squeezed  into  a  single
                  blank line.  This is useful when viewing nroff output.
    
           -S or --chop-long-lines
                  Causes  lines  longer than the screen width to be chopped rather
                  than folded.  That is, the portion of a long line that does  not
                  fit  in  the  screen width is not shown.  The default is to fold
                  long lines; that is, display the remainder on the next line.
    
           -ttag or --tag=tag
                  The -t option, followed immediately by a TAG, will edit the file
                  containing  that tag.  For this to work, tag information must be
                  available; for example, there may  be  a  file  in  the  current
                  directory called "tags", which was previously built by ctags (1)
                  or an equivalent command.  If the environment variable LESSGLOB-
                  ALTAGS  is set, it is taken to be the name of a command compati-
                  ble with global (1), and that command is executed  to  find  the
                  tag.  (See http://www.gnu.org/software/global/global.html).  The
                  -t option may also be specified from within less  (using  the  -
                  the -r option.
    
                  By default, if neither -u nor  -U  is  given,  backspaces  which
                  appear  adjacent  to  an  underscore  character are treated spe-
                  cially: the underlined text is displayed  using  the  terminal's
                  hardware  underlining capability.  Also, backspaces which appear
                  between two identical  characters  are  treated  specially:  the
                  overstruck  text  is printed using the terminal's hardware bold-
                  face capability.  Other backspaces are deleted, along  with  the
                  preceding character.  Carriage returns immediately followed by a
                  newline are deleted.  other  carriage  returns  are  handled  as
                  specified  by the -r option.  Text which is overstruck or under-
                  lined can be searched for if neither -u nor -U is in effect.
    
           -V or --version
                  Displays the version number of less.
    
           -w or --hilite-unread
                  Temporarily highlights the first  "new"  line  after  a  forward
                  movement of a full page.  The first "new" line is the line imme-
                  diately following the line  previously  at  the  bottom  of  the
                  screen.  Also highlights the target line after a g or p command.
                  The highlight is removed at the next command which causes  move-
                  ment.   The  entire line is highlighted, unless the -J option is
                  in effect, in which case only the status column is  highlighted.
    
           -W or --HILITE-UNREAD
                  Like -w, but temporarily highlights the first new line after any
                  forward movement command larger than one line.
    
           -xn,... or --tabs=n,...
                  Sets tab stops.  If only one n is specified, tab stops  are  set
                  at  multiples  of n.  If multiple values separated by commas are
                  specified, tab stops are set at those positions, and  then  con-
                  tinue  with  the  same  spacing  as  the last two.  For example,
                  -x9,17 will set tabs at positions  9,  17,  25,  33,  etc.   The
                  default for n is 8.
    
           -X or --no-init
                  Disables sending the termcap initialization and deinitialization
                  strings to the terminal.  This is  sometimes  desirable  if  the
                  deinitialization  string does something unnecessary, like clear-
                  ing the screen.
    
           -yn or --max-forw-scroll=n
                  Specifies a maximum number of lines to scroll forward.  If it is
                  necessary  to  scroll  forward  more than n lines, the screen is
                  repainted instead.  The -c or -C option may be used  to  repaint
                  from  the top of the screen if desired.  By default, any forward
                  movement causes scrolling.
    
           -[z]n or --window=n
                  space should then be surrounded by that character rather than by
                  double quotes.  Followed by two  characters,  changes  the  open
                  quote  to the first character, and the close quote to the second
                  character.  Filenames containing a space should then be preceded
                  by  the  open  quote  character  and followed by the close quote
                  character.  Note  that  even  after  the  quote  characters  are
                  changed,  this  option  remains  -" (a dash followed by a double
                  quote).
    
           -~ or --tilde
                  Normally lines after end of file are displayed as a single tilde
                  (~).  This option causes lines after end of file to be displayed
                  as blank lines.
    
           -# or --shift
                  Specifies the default number of positions to scroll horizontally
                  in  the RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands.  If the number speci-
                  fied is zero, it sets the default number  of  positions  to  one
                  half of the screen width.  Alternately, the number may be speci-
                  fied as a fraction of the width of the screen, starting  with  a
                  decimal  point:  .5  is  half  of  the screen width, .3 is three
                  tenths of the screen width, and so on.  If the number is  speci-
                  fied  as  a  fraction,  the actual number of scroll positions is
                  recalculated if the terminal window  is  resized,  so  that  the
                  actual  scroll  remains  at the specified fraction of the screen
                  width.
    
           --no-keypad
                  Disables sending the keypad initialization and  deinitialization
                  strings to the terminal.  This is sometimes useful if the keypad
                  strings make the numeric keypad behave in an undesirable manner.
    
           --follow-name
                  Normally,  if  the  input  file is renamed while an F command is
                  executing, less will continue to display  the  contents  of  the
                  original  file  despite  its  name  change.  If --follow-name is
                  specified, during an F command less will periodically attempt to
                  reopen the file by name.  If the reopen succeeds and the file is
                  a different file from the original (which means that a new  file
                  has  been  created  with  the  same  name  as  the original (now
                  renamed) file), less will display the contents of that new file.
    
           --     A  command  line  argument of "--" marks the end of option argu-
                  ments.  Any arguments following this are  interpreted  as  file-
                  names.  This can be useful when viewing a file whose name begins
                  with a "-" or "+".
    
           +      If a command line option begins with +, the  remainder  of  that
                  option  is taken to be an initial command to less.  For example,
                  +G tells less to start at the end of the file  rather  than  the
                  beginning,  and  +/xyz tells it to start at the first occurrence
                  of "xyz" in the file.  As a special case,  +<number>  acts  like
    
           with  ESC do not work in some MS-DOS and Windows systems because ESC is
           the line erase character.)  Any of these special keys  may  be  entered
           literally  by  preceding  it with the "literal" character, either ^V or
           ^A.  A backslash itself may also be entered literally by  entering  two
           backslashes.
    
           LEFTARROW [ ESC-h ]
                  Move the cursor one space to the left.
    
           RIGHTARROW [ ESC-l ]
                  Move the cursor one space to the right.
    
           ^LEFTARROW [ ESC-b or ESC-LEFTARROW ]
                  (That  is, CONTROL and LEFTARROW simultaneously.)  Move the cur-
                  sor one word to the left.
    
           ^RIGHTARROW [ ESC-w or ESC-RIGHTARROW ]
                  (That is, CONTROL and RIGHTARROW simultaneously.)  Move the cur-
                  sor one word to the right.
    
           HOME [ ESC-0 ]
                  Move the cursor to the beginning of the line.
    
           END [ ESC-$ ]
                  Move the cursor to the end of the line.
    
           BACKSPACE
                  Delete  the  character  to the left of the cursor, or cancel the
                  command if the command line is empty.
    
           DELETE or [ ESC-x ]
                  Delete the character under the cursor.
    
           ^BACKSPACE [ ESC-BACKSPACE ]
                  (That is, CONTROL and  BACKSPACE  simultaneously.)   Delete  the
                  word to the left of the cursor.
    
           ^DELETE [ ESC-X or ESC-DELETE ]
                  (That  is,  CONTROL and DELETE simultaneously.)  Delete the word
                  under the cursor.
    
           UPARROW [ ESC-k ]
                  Retrieve the previous command line.
    
           DOWNARROW [ ESC-j ]
                  Retrieve the next command line.
    
           TAB    Complete the partial filename to the left of the cursor.  If  it
                  matches  more than one filename, the first match is entered into
                  the command line.  Repeated  TABs  will  cycle  thru  the  other
                  matching filenames.  If the completed filename is a directory, a
                  "/" is appended to the filename.  (On MS-DOS systems, a  "\"  is
                  acter in Unix to something other than ^U, that character is used
                  instead of ^U.
    
    
    

    KEY BINDINGS

           You  may define your own less commands by using the program lesskey (1)
           to create a lesskey file.  This file specifies a set  of  command  keys
           and  an  action  associated with each key.  You may also use lesskey to
           change the line-editing keys (see LINE EDITING), and to set environment
           variables.   If the environment variable LESSKEY is set, less uses that
           as the name of the lesskey file.  Otherwise, less looks in  a  standard
           place  for  the lesskey file: On Unix systems, less looks for a lesskey
           file called "$HOME/.less".  On MS-DOS and Windows systems,  less  looks
           for  a lesskey file called "$HOME/_less", and if it is not found there,
           then looks for a lesskey file called "_less" in any directory specified
           in  the  PATH  environment variable.  On OS/2 systems, less looks for a
           lesskey file called "$HOME/less.ini", and if  it  is  not  found,  then
           looks  for  a lesskey file called "less.ini" in any directory specified
           in the INIT environment variable, and if it not found there, then looks
           for  a lesskey file called "less.ini" in any directory specified in the
           PATH environment variable.   See  the  lesskey  manual  page  for  more
           details.
    
           A  system-wide lesskey file may also be set up to provide key bindings.
           If a key is defined in both a local lesskey file and in the system-wide
           file,  key bindings in the local file take precedence over those in the
           system-wide file.  If the environment variable LESSKEY_SYSTEM  is  set,
           less uses that as the name of the system-wide lesskey file.  Otherwise,
           less looks in a standard place for the  system-wide  lesskey  file:  On
           Unix  systems,  the system-wide lesskey file is /usr/local/etc/sysless.
           (However, if less was built with a  different  sysconf  directory  than
           /usr/local/etc, that directory is where the sysless file is found.)  On
           MS-DOS and Windows systems, the system-wide lesskey  file  is  c:\_sys-
           less.  On OS/2 systems, the system-wide lesskey file is c:\sysless.ini.
    
    
    

    INPUT PREPROCESSOR

           You may define an "input preprocessor" for less.  Before less  opens  a
           file, it first gives your input preprocessor a chance to modify the way
           the contents of the file are displayed.  An input preprocessor is  sim-
           ply  an executable program (or shell script), which writes the contents
           of the file to a different file, called the replacement file.  The con-
           tents  of  the replacement file are then displayed in place of the con-
           tents of the original file.  However, it will appear to the user as  if
           the  original  file  is opened; that is, less will display the original
           filename as the name of the current file.
    
           An input preprocessor receives one command line argument, the  original
           filename,  as  entered  by  the user.  It should create the replacement
           file, and when finished, print the name of the replacement file to  its
           standard  output.  If the input preprocessor does not output a replace-
           ment filename, less uses the original file, as normal.  The input  pre-
           It  may  include  two  occurrences  of  the  string  "%s"; the first is
           replaced with the original name of the file and  the  second  with  the
           name of the replacement file, which was output by LESSOPEN.
    
           For  example, on many Unix systems, these two scripts will allow you to
           keep files in compressed format, but still let less view them directly:
    
           lessopen.sh:
                #! /bin/sh
                case "$1" in
                *.Z) uncompress -
                     if [ -s /tmp/less.$$ ]; then
                          echo /tmp/less.$$
                     else
                          rm -f /tmp/less.$$
                     fi
                     ;;
                esac
    
           lessclose.sh:
                #! /bin/sh
                rm $2
    
           To  use these scripts, put them both where they can be executed and set
           LESSOPEN="lessopen.sh %s",  and  LESSCLOSE="lessclose.sh %s %s".   More
           complex  LESSOPEN  and LESSCLOSE scripts may be written to accept other
           types of compressed files, and so on.
    
           It is also possible to set up an input preprocessor to  pipe  the  file
           data  directly to less, rather than putting the data into a replacement
           file.  This avoids the need to decompress the entire file before start-
           ing to view it.  An input preprocessor that works this way is called an
           input pipe.  An input pipe, instead of writing the name of  a  replace-
           ment  file  on  its  standard output, writes the entire contents of the
           replacement file on its standard output.  If the input  pipe  does  not
           write  any characters on its standard output, then there is no replace-
           ment file and less uses the original file, as normal.  To use an  input
           pipe,  make  the first character in the LESSOPEN environment variable a
           vertical bar (|) to signify that the input  preprocessor  is  an  input
           pipe.
    
           For  example, on many Unix systems, this script will work like the pre-
           vious example scripts:
    
           lesspipe.sh:
                #! /bin/sh
                case "$1" in
                *.Z) uncompress -c $1  2>/dev/null
                     ;;
                esac
    
           To  use  this  script,  put  it  where  it  can  be  executed  and  set
           is not considered to be part of the input pipe command.
    
    
    

    NATIONAL CHARACTER SETS

           There are three types of characters in the input file:
    
           normal characters
                  can be displayed directly to the screen.
    
           control characters
                  should  not  be displayed directly, but are expected to be found
                  in ordinary text files (such as backspace and tab).
    
           binary characters
                  should not be displayed directly and  are  not  expected  to  be
                  found in text files.
    
           A "character set" is simply a description of which characters are to be
           considered normal, control, and binary.   The  LESSCHARSET  environment
           variable  may  be  used to select a character set.  Possible values for
           LESSCHARSET are:
    
           ascii  BS, TAB, NL, CR, and formfeed are control characters, all  chars
                  with  values  between  32 and 126 are normal, and all others are
                  binary.
    
           iso8859
                  Selects an ISO 8859 character set.  This is the same  as  ASCII,
                  except  characters  between  160  and  255 are treated as normal
                  characters.
    
           latin1 Same as iso8859.
    
           latin9 Same as iso8859.
    
           dos    Selects a character set appropriate for MS-DOS.
    
           ebcdic Selects an EBCDIC character set.
    
           IBM-1047
                  Selects an EBCDIC character set used by  OS/390  Unix  Services.
                  This  is the EBCDIC analogue of latin1.  You get similar results
                  by setting either LESSCHARSET=IBM-1047 or LC_CTYPE=en_US in your
                  environment.
    
           koi8-r Selects a Russian character set.
    
           next   Selects a character set appropriate for NeXT computers.
    
           utf-8  Selects  the  UTF-8  encoding  of  the  ISO 10646 character set.
                  UTF-8 is special in that it supports  multi-byte  characters  in
                  the  input  file.   It  is  the only character set that supports
    
           binary, and 8 is normal.  All characters after the last are taken to be
           the same as the last, so characters 9  through  255  would  be  normal.
           (This  is an example, and does not necessarily represent any real char-
           acter set.)
    
           This table shows the value of LESSCHARDEF which is equivalent  to  each
           of the possible values for LESSCHARSET:
    
                ascii     8bcccbcc18b95.b
                dos       8bcccbcc12bc5b95.b.
                ebcdic    5bc6bcc7bcc41b.9b7.9b5.b..8b6.10b6.b9.7b
                          9.8b8.17b3.3b9.7b9.8b8.6b10.b.b.b.
                IBM-1047  4cbcbc3b9cbccbccbb4c6bcc5b3cbbc4bc4bccbc
                          191.b
                iso8859   8bcccbcc18b95.33b.
                koi8-r    8bcccbcc18b95.b128.
                latin1    8bcccbcc18b95.33b.
                next      8bcccbcc18b95.bb125.bb
    
           If  neither  LESSCHARSET nor LESSCHARDEF is set, but any of the strings
           "UTF-8", "UTF8", "utf-8" or "utf8" is found in the LC_ALL,  LC_TYPE  or
           LANG environment variables, then the default character set is utf-8.
    
           If  that  string  is  not found, but your system supports the setlocale
           interface, less will use setlocale  to  determine  the  character  set.
           setlocale  is  controlled  by  setting the LANG or LC_CTYPE environment
           variables.
    
           Finally, if the setlocale interface is also not available, the  default
           character set is latin1.
    
           Control  and  binary  characters  are  displayed  in  standout (reverse
           video).  Each such character is displayed in caret notation if possible
           (e.g.  ^A for control-A).  Caret notation is used only if inverting the
           0100 bit results in a normal printable character.  Otherwise, the char-
           acter  is displayed as a hex number in angle brackets.  This format can
           be changed by setting the LESSBINFMT environment variable.   LESSBINFMT
           may begin with a "*" and one character to select the display attribute:
           "*k" is blinking, "*d" is bold, "*u" is underlined, "*s"  is  standout,
           and  "*n"  is  normal.  If LESSBINFMT does not begin with a "*", normal
           attribute is assumed.  The remainder of LESSBINFMT is  a  string  which
           may  include one printf-style escape sequence (a % followed by x, X, o,
           d, etc.).  For example, if LESSBINFMT is  "*u[%x]",  binary  characters
           are  displayed  in  underlined hexadecimal surrounded by brackets.  The
           default if no LESSBINFMT is  specified  is  "*s<%02X>".   Warning:  the
           result  of  expanding the character via LESSBINFMT must be less than 31
           characters.
    
           When the character set is utf-8, the LESSUTFBINFMT environment variable
           acts similarly to LESSBINFMT but it applies to Unicode code points that
           were successfully decoded but are unsuitable for display  (e.g.,  unas-
           signed  code  points).   Its  default  value is "<U+%04lX>".  Note that
           nary user need not understand the details of constructing  personalized
           prompt strings.
    
           A  percent sign followed by a single character is expanded according to
           what the following character is:
    
           %bX    Replaced by the byte offset into the current input file.  The  b
                  is followed by a single character (shown as X above) which spec-
                  ifies the line whose byte offset is to be used.  If the  charac-
                  ter  is a "t", the byte offset of the top line in the display is
                  used, an "m" means use the middle line, a "b" means use the bot-
                  tom  line,  a "B" means use the line just after the bottom line,
                  and a "j" means use the "target" line, as specified  by  the  -j
                  option.
    
           %B     Replaced by the size of the current input file.
    
           %c     Replaced by the column number of the text appearing in the first
                  column of the screen.
    
           %dX    Replaced by the page number of a line in the  input  file.   The
                  line to be used is determined by the X, as with the %b option.
    
           %D     Replaced  by  the  number of pages in the input file, or equiva-
                  lently, the page number of the last line in the input file.
    
           %E     Replaced by the name of the editor (from the VISUAL  environment
                  variable,  or  the  EDITOR environment variable if VISUAL is not
                  defined).  See the discussion of the LESSEDIT feature below.
    
           %f     Replaced by the name of the current input file.
    
           %i     Replaced by the index of the current file in the list  of  input
                  files.
    
           %lX    Replaced  by  the  line number of a line in the input file.  The
                  line to be used is determined by the X, as with the %b option.
    
           %L     Replaced by the line number of the last line in the input  file.
    
           %m     Replaced by the total number of input files.
    
           %pX    Replaced  by  the  percent into the current input file, based on
                  byte offsets.  The line used is determined by the X as with  the
                  %b option.
    
           %PX    Replaced  by  the  percent into the current input file, based on
                  line numbers.  The line used is determined by the X as with  the
                  %b option.
    
           %s     Same as %B.
    
           A  colon appearing between the question mark and the period can be used
           to establish an "ELSE": any characters between the colon and the period
           are  included  in  the string if and only if the IF condition is false.
           Condition characters (which follow a question mark) may be:
    
           ?a     True if any characters have been included in the prompt so  far.
    
           ?bX    True if the byte offset of the specified line is known.
    
           ?B     True if the size of current input file is known.
    
           ?c     True if the text is horizontally shifted (%c is not zero).
    
           ?dX    True if the page number of the specified line is known.
    
           ?e     True if at end-of-file.
    
           ?f     True  if  there is an input filename (that is, if input is not a
                  pipe).
    
           ?lX    True if the line number of the specified line is known.
    
           ?L     True if the line number of the last line in the file is known.
    
           ?m     True if there is more than one input file.
    
           ?n     True if this is the first prompt in a new input file.
    
           ?pX    True if the percent into the current input file, based  on  byte
                  offsets, of the specified line is known.
    
           ?PX    True  if  the percent into the current input file, based on line
                  numbers, of the specified line is known.
    
           ?s     Same as "?B".
    
           ?x     True if there is a next input file  (that  is,  if  the  current
                  input file is not the last one).
    
           Any  characters  other  than  the  special  ones (question mark, colon,
           period, percent, and backslash) become literally part  of  the  prompt.
           Any  of  the special characters may be included in the prompt literally
           by preceding it with a backslash.
    
           Some examples:
    
           ?f%f:Standard input.
    
           This prompt prints the filename, if known; otherwise the string  "Stan-
           dard input".
    
           ?f%f .?ltLine %lt:?pt%pt\%:?btByte %bt:-...
           ence, here are the defaults for  the  other  two  prompts  (-m  and  -M
           respectively).   Each  is  broken  into  two lines here for readability
           only.
    
           ?n?f%f .?m(file %i of %m) ..?e(END) ?x- Next\: %x.:
                ?pB%pB\%:byte %bB?s/%s...%t
    
           ?f%f .?n?m(file %i of %m) ..?ltlines %lt-%lb?L/%L. :
                byte %bB?s/%s. .?e(END) ?x- Next\: %x.:?pB%pB\%..%t
    
           And here is the default message produced by the = command:
    
           ?f%f .?m(file %i of %m) .?ltlines %lt-%lb?L/%L. .
                byte %bB?s/%s. ?e(END) :?pB%pB\%..%t
    
           The prompt expansion features are also used for another purpose: if  an
           environment  variable LESSEDIT is defined, it is used as the command to
           be executed when the v command is  invoked.   The  LESSEDIT  string  is
           expanded  in the same way as the prompt strings.  The default value for
           LESSEDIT is:
    
                %E ?lm+%lm. %f
    
           Note that this expands to the editor name, followed by a + and the line
           number,  followed by the file name.  If your editor does not accept the
           "+linenumber" syntax, or has other differences  in  invocation  syntax,
           the LESSEDIT variable can be changed to modify this default.
    
    
    

    SECURITY

           When  the  environment  variable LESSSECURE is set to 1, less runs in a
           "secure" mode.  This means these features are disabled:
    
                  !      the shell command
    
                  |      the pipe command
    
                  :e     the examine command.
    
                  v      the editing command
    
                  s  -o  log files
    
                  -k     use of lesskey files
    
                  -t     use of tags files
    
                         metacharacters in filenames, such as *
    
                         filename completion (TAB, ^L)
    
           Less can also be compiled to be permanently in "secure" mode.
           If the -m option is set, the short prompt is used.
    
           The  -n  option acts like the -z option.  The normal behavior of the -n
           option is unavailable in this mode.
    
           The parameter to the -p option is taken to be  a  less  command  rather
           than a search pattern.
    
           The  LESS  environment  variable  is  ignored, and the MORE environment
           variable is used in its place.
    
    
    

    ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

           Environment variables may be specified either in the system environment
           as  usual,  or  in  a  lesskey  (1) file.  If environment variables are
           defined in more than one place, variables defined in  a  local  lesskey
           file  take precedence over variables defined in the system environment,
           which take precedence over variables defined in the system-wide lesskey
           file.
    
           COLUMNS
                  Sets the number of columns on the screen.  Takes precedence over
                  the number of columns specified by the TERM variable.   (But  if
                  you  have  a  windowing  system  which  supports  TIOCGWINSZ  or
                  WIOCGETD, the window system's idea  of  the  screen  size  takes
                  precedence over the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables.)
    
           EDITOR The name of the editor (used for the v command).
    
           HOME   Name  of  the user's home directory (used to find a lesskey file
                  on Unix and OS/2 systems).
    
           HOMEDRIVE, HOMEPATH
                  Concatenation of the HOMEDRIVE and  HOMEPATH  environment  vari-
                  ables is the name of the user's home directory if the HOME vari-
                  able is not set (only in the Windows version).
    
           INIT   Name of the user's init directory (used to find a  lesskey  file
                  on OS/2 systems).
    
           LANG   Language for determining the character set.
    
           LC_CTYPE
                  Language for determining the character set.
    
           LESS   Options which are passed to less automatically.
    
           LESSANSIENDCHARS
                  Characters  which may end an ANSI color escape sequence (default
                  "m").
    
           LESSANSIMIDCHARS
                  Command line to invoke the (optional) input-postprocessor.
    
           LESSECHO
                  Name of the lessecho program (default "lessecho").  The lessecho
                  program  is needed to expand metacharacters, such as * and ?, in
                  filenames on Unix systems.
    
           LESSEDIT
                  Editor prototype string (used for the v command).   See  discus-
                  sion under PROMPTS.
    
           LESSGLOBALTAGS
                  Name  of  the command used by the -t option to find global tags.
                  Normally should be set to "global" if your system has the global
                  (1) command.  If not set, global tags are not used.
    
           LESSHISTFILE
                  Name  of  the  history file used to remember search commands and
                  shell commands between invocations of less.  If set  to  "-"  or
                  "/dev/null",  a  history  file  is  not  used.   The  default is
                  "$HOME/.lesshst" on Unix systems, "$HOME/_lesshst"  on  DOS  and
                  Windows  systems,  or "$HOME/lesshst.ini" or "$INIT/lesshst.ini"
                  on OS/2 systems.
    
           LESSHISTSIZE
                  The maximum number of commands to save in the history file.  The
                  default is 100.
    
           LESSKEY
                  Name of the default lesskey(1) file.
    
           LESSKEY_SYSTEM
                  Name of the default system-wide lesskey(1) file.
    
           LESSMETACHARS
                  List  of characters which are considered "metacharacters" by the
                  shell.
    
           LESSMETAESCAPE
                  Prefix which less will add before each metacharacter in  a  com-
                  mand  sent  to the shell.  If LESSMETAESCAPE is an empty string,
                  commands containing metacharacters will not  be  passed  to  the
                  shell.
    
           LESSOPEN
                  Command line to invoke the (optional) input-preprocessor.
    
           LESSSECURE
                  Runs less in "secure" mode.  See discussion under SECURITY.
    
           LESSSEPARATOR
                  String  to  be  appended to a directory name in filename comple-
    
           PATH   User's search path (used to find a lesskey file  on  MS-DOS  and
                  OS/2 systems).
    
           SHELL  The  shell  used  to execute the ! command, as well as to expand
                  filenames.
    
           TERM   The type of terminal on which less is being run.
    
           VISUAL The name of the editor (used for the v command).
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

           lesskey(1)
    
    
    

    COPYRIGHT

           Copyright (C) 1984-2009  Mark Nudelman
    
           less is part of the GNU project and is free software.  You  can  redis-
           tribute  it and/or modify it under the terms of either (1) the GNU Gen-
           eral Public License as published by the Free  Software  Foundation;  or
           (2) the Less License.  See the file README in the less distribution for
           more details regarding redistribution.  You should have received a copy
           of  the  GNU General Public License along with the source for less; see
           the file COPYING.  If not, write to the Free  Software  Foundation,  59
           Temple  Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA.  You should also
           have received a copy of the Less License; see the file LICENSE.
    
           less is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
           WARRANTY;  without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FIT-
           NESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License  for
           more details.
    
    
    

    AUTHOR

           Mark Nudelman <markn@greenwoodsoftware.com>
           See http://www.greenwoodsoftware.com/less/bugs.html for the latest list
           of known bugs in less.
           Send bug reports or comments to the above address or to
           bug-less@gnu.org.
           For more information, see the less homepage at
           http://www.greenwoodsoftware.com/less.
    
                               Version 436: 07 Jul 2009                    LESS(1)
    
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